Found 842 results
Authors: Da Silva L. A., Sibeck D., Alves L. R., Souza V. M., Jauer P. R., et al.
Title: Contribution of ULF wave activity to the global recovery of the outer radiation belt during the passage of a high-speed solar wind stream observed in September 2014
Abstract: Energy coupling between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere can affect the electron population in the outer radiation belt. However, the precise role of different internal and external mechanisms that leads to changes of the relativistic electron population is not entirely known. This paper describes how Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) wave activity during the passage of Alfvénic solar wind streams contributes to the global recovery of the relativistic electron population in the outer radiation belt. To investigate the contribution of the ULF waves, we searched the Van Allen Probes data for a period in which we can clearly distinguish the enhancement of electron fluxes from the background. We found that the global recovery that started on September 22, 2014, which coincides with the co. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026184 Available at:
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Authors: Omura Yoshiharu, Hsieh Yi‐Kai, Foster John C., Erickson Philip J., Kletzing Craig A., et al.
Title: Cyclotron Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons Through Landau Resonance With Obliquely Propagating Whistler‐Mode Chorus Emissions
Abstract: Efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons at Landau resonance with obliquely propagating whistler‐mode chorus emissions is confirmed by theory, simulation, and observation. The acceleration is due to the perpendicular component of the wave electric field. We first review theoretical analysis of nonlinear motion of resonant electrons interacting with obliquely propagating whistler‐mode chorus. We have derived formulae of inhomogeneity factors for Landau and cyclotron resonances to analyze nonlinear wave trapping of energetic electrons by an obliquely propagating chorus element. We performed test particle simulations to confirm that nonlinear wave trapping by both Landau and cyclotron resonances can take place for a wide range of energies. For an element of large amplitude chorus . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026374 Available at:
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Authors: Shprits Yuri Y, Horne Richard B, Kellerman Adam C., and Drozdov Alexander Y.
Title: The dynamics of Van Allen belts revisited
Abstract: N/A
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Nature Physics Pages: 102 - 103 DOI: 10.1038/nphys4350 Available at:
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Authors: Smirnov A. G., Kronberg E. A., Latallerie F., Daly P. W., Aseev N. A., et al.
Title: Electron intensity measurements by the Cluster/RAPID/IES instrument in Earth's radiation belts and ring current
Abstract: The Cluster mission, launched in 2000, has produced a large database of electron flux intensity measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere by the Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detector (RAPID)/ Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) instrument. However, due to background contamination of the data with high‐energy electrons (<400 keV) and inner‐zone protons (230‐630 keV) in the radiation belts and ring current, the data have been rarely used for inner‐magnetospheric science. The current paper presents two algorithms for background correction. The first algorithm is based on the empirical contamination percentages by both protons and electrons. The second algorithm uses simultaneous proton observations. The efficiencies of these algorithms are demonstrated by comparison of the . . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2018SW001989 Available at:
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Authors: Miyoshi Y, Matsuda S., Kurita S., Nomura K., Keika K, et al.
Title: EMIC waves converted from equatorial noise due to M/Q=2 ions in the plasmasphere: Observations from Van Allen Probes and Arase
Abstract: Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are observed inside and outside the plasmapause. EN emissions are referred to as magnetosonic mode waves. Using data from Van Allen Probes and Arase, we found conversion from EN emissions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the plasmasphere and in the topside ionosphere. A low frequency part of EN emissions becomes EMIC waves through branch splitting of EN emissions, and the mode conversion from EN to EMIC waves occurs around the frequency of M/Q=2 (deuteron and/or alpha particles) cyclotron frequency. These processes result in plasmaspheric EMIC waves. We investigated the ion composition ratio by characteristic frequencies of EN emissions and EMIC waves and obtained ion composition ratios. We found that the maximum composition ratio of M/Q=2 io. . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083024 Available at:
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Authors: Yu Xiongdong, Yuan Zhigang, Huang Shiyong, Yao Fei, Qiao Zheng, et al.
Title: Excitation of extremely low-frequency chorus emissions: The role of background plasma density
Abstract: Low‐frequency chorus emissions have recently attracted much attention due to the suggestion that they may play important roles in the dynamics of the Van Allen Belts. However, the mechanism (s) generating these low‐frequency chorus emissions have not been well understood. . In this letter, we report an interesting case in which background plasma density lowered the lower cutoff frequency of chorus emissions from above 0.1 f ce (typical ordinary chorus) to 0.02 f ce (extremely low‐frequency chorus). Those extremely low‐frequency chorus waves were observed in a rather dense plasma, where the number density N e was found to be several times larger than has been associated with observations of ordinary chorus waves. For suprathermal electrons whose free energy is supplied by anisotropi. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Earth and Planetary Physics Pages: 1 - 7 DOI: 10.26464/epp2019001 Available at:
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Authors: Stephens G. K., Sitnov M I, Korth H., Tsyganenko N A, Ohtani S, et al.
Title: Global Empirical Picture of Magnetospheric Substorms Inferred From Multimission Magnetometer Data
Abstract: Magnetospheric substorms represent key explosive processes in the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind, and their understanding and modeling are critical for space weather forecasting. During substorms, the magnetic field on the nightside is first stretched in the antisunward direction and then it rapidly contracts earthward bringing hot plasmas from the distant space regions into the inner magnetosphere, where they contribute to geomagnetic storms and Joule dissipation in the polar ionosphere, causing impressive splashes of aurora. Here we show for the first time that mining millions of spaceborne magnetometer data records from multiple missions allows one to reconstruct the global 3‐D picture of these stretching and dipolarization processes. Stretching results i. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025843 Available at:
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Authors: Chen Yaru, Zhou Qinghua, He Yihua, Yang Chang, Liu Si, et al.
Title: Global occurrences of electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves associated with radiation belt electron distributions
Abstract: Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves can yield diffuse aurora primarily at higher L‐shells by driving efficient precipitation loss of plasma sheet electrons. Here using the Van Allen Probes high resolution data, we examine in detail the global occurrences of ECH waves during the period from October 1, 2012 to June 30, 2017 and find that there are totally 419 events of enhanced ECH waves. The statistical results demonstrate that ECH waves can be present over a broad region of L=4‐6 and 00‐24 MLT, with a higher occurrence in the region of L=5‐6 and 06‐19 MLT. The electron phase space density exhibits a distinct ring distribution (∂f/∂v⊥ >0) with the peak energy around a few keV. Both ECH wave events and the electron ring distributions are closely related and . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082668 Available at:
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Authors: Yu Yiqun, ätter Lutz, Jordanova Vania K., Zheng Yihua, Engel Miles, et al.
Title: Initial Results From the GEM Challenge on the Spacecraft Surface Charging Environment
Abstract: Spacecraft surface charging during geomagnetically disturbed times is one of the most important causes of satellite anomalies. Predicting the surface charging environment is one prevalent task of the geospace environment models. Therefore, the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Focus Group “Inner Magnetosphere Cross‐energy/Population Interactions” initiated a community‐wide challenge study to assess the capability of several inner magnetosphere ring current models in determining surface charging environment for the Van Allen Probes orbits during the 17 March 2013 storm event. The integrated electron flux between 10 and 50 keV is used as the metrics. Various skill scores are applied to quantitatively measure the modeling performance against observations. Results indicate that no mo. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2018SW002031 Available at:
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Authors: Qin Murong, Hudson Mary, Kress Brian, Selesnick Richard, Engel Miles, et al.
Title: Investigation of Solar Proton Access into the inner magnetosphere on 11 September 2017
Abstract: In this study, access of solar energetic protons to the inner magnetosphere on 11 September 2017 is investigated by computing the reverse particle trajectories with the Dartmouth geomagnetic cutoff code [Kress et al., 2010]. The maximum and minimum cutoff rigidity at each point along the orbit of Van Allen Probe A is numerically computed by extending the code to calculate cutoff rigidity for particles coming from arbitrary direction. Pulse‐height analyzed (PHA) data has the advantage of providing individual particle energies and effectively excluding background high energy proton contamination. This technique is adopted to study the cutoff locations for solar protons with different energy. The results demonstrate that cutoff latitude is lower for solar protons with higher energy, consist. . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026380 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll J.‐F., Farges T., Lay E. H., and Cunningham G. S.
Title: Local and Statistical Maps of Lightning‐Generated Wave Power Density Estimated at the Van Allen Probes Footprints From the World‐Wide Lightning Location Network Database
Abstract: We propose a new method that uses the World‐Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) to estimate both the local and the drift lightning power density at the Van Allen Probes footprints during 4.3 years (~2 × 108 strokes.). The ratio of the drift power density to the local power density defines a time‐resolved WWLLN‐based model of lightning‐generated wave (LGW) power density ratio, RWWLLN. RWWLLNis computed every ~34 s. This ratio multiplied by the time‐resolved LGW intensity measured by the Probes allows direct computation of pitch angle diffusion coefficients used in radiation belt codes. Statistical analysis shows the median power density ratio is urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl58808:grl58808-math-0001 over the Americas. Elsewhere, urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl58808:grl58808-ma. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 4122 - 4133 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081146 Available at:
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Authors: He Zhaoguo, Chen Lunjin, Liu Xu, Zhu Hui, Liu Si, et al.
Title: Local Generation of High-Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss Observed by Van Allen Probes
Abstract: The generation of a high‐frequency plasmaspheric hiss (HFPH) wave observed by Van Allen Probes is studied in this letter for the first time. The wave has a moderate power spectral density (∼10−6 nT2/Hz), with a frequency range extended from 2 to 10 kHz. The correlated observations of waves and particles indicate that HFPH is associated with the enhancement of electron flux during the substorm on 6 January 2014. Calculations of the wave linear growth rate driven by the fitted electron phase space density show that the electron distribution after the substorm onset is efficient for the HFPH generation. The energy of the contributing electrons is about 1–2 keV, which is consistent with the observation. These results support that the observed HFPH is likely to be generated locally insi. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1141 - 1148 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081578 Available at:
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Authors: Gkioulidou Matina, Ohtani S, Ukhorskiy A Y, Mitchell D G, Takahashi K., et al.
Title: Low-Energy (+ Ion Outflow Directly Into the Inner Magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes Observations
Abstract: The heavy ion component of the low‐energy (eV to hundreds of eV) ion population in the inner magnetosphere, also known as the O+ torus, is a crucial population for various aspects of magnetospheric dynamics. Yet even though its existence has been known since the 1980s, its formation remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study of a low‐energy (Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 405 - 419 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025862 Available at:
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Authors: Ozeke L. G., Mann I. R., Claudepierre S G, Henderson M., Morley S. K., et al.
Title: The March 2015 Superstorm Revisited: Phase Space Density Profiles and Fast ULF Wave Diffusive Transport
Abstract: We present the temporal evolution of electron Phase Space Density (PSD) in the outer radiation belt during the intense March 2015 geomagnetic storm. Comparing observed PSD profiles as a function of L* at fixed first, M, and second, K, adiabatic invariants with those produced by simulations is critical for determining the physical processes responsible for the outer radiation belt dynamics. Here we show that the bulk of the accelerated and enhanced outer radiation belt population consists of electrons with K < 0.17 G1/2Re. For these electrons, the observed PSD versus L* profiles during the recovery phase of the storm have a positive radial gradient. We compare the observed temporal evolution of the PSD profiles during the recovery phase with those produced by radial diffusion simulations dr. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026326 Available at:
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Authors: Zhu Hui, Chen Lunjin, Liu Xu, and Shprits Yuri Y
Title: Modulation of Locally Generated Equatorial Noise by ULF Wave
Abstract: In this paper we report a rare and fortunate event of fast magnetosonic (MS, also called equatorial noise) waves modulated by compressional ultralow frequency (ULF) waves measured by Van Allen Probes. The characteristics of MS waves, ULF waves, proton distribution, and their potential correlations are analyzed. The results show that ULF waves can modulate the energetic ring proton distribution and in turn modulate the MS generation. Furthermore, the variation of MS intensities is attributed to not only ULF wave activities but also the variation of background parameters, for example, number density. The results confirm the opinion that MS waves are generated by proton ring distribution and propose a new modulation phenomenon.
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026199 Available at:
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Authors: Stepanova M., Antonova E.E., Moya P.S., Pinto V.A., and Valdivia J.A.
Title: Multisatellite Analysis of Plasma Pressure in the Inner Magnetosphere During the 1 June 2013 Geomagnetic Storm
Abstract: Using data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program 16–18, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15–19, and METOP 1–2 satellites, we reconstructed for the first time a two‐dimensional statistical distribution of plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere during the 1 June 2013 geomagnetic storm with time resolution of 6 hr. Simultaneously, we used the data from Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions missions to obtain the in situ plasma pressure in the equatorial plane. This allowed us to corroborate that the dipole mapping works reasonably well during the storm time and that variations of plasma pressure are consistent at low and high altitudes; namely, we observed a drastic increase in plasma pressure a few hours before the storm on. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025965 Available at:
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Authors: Soto-Chavez A. R., Lanzerotti L J, Manweiler J W, Gerrard A., Cohen R., et al.
Title: Observational evidence of the drift-mirror plasma instability in Earth's inner magnetosphere
Abstract: We report on evidence for the generation of an ultra-low frequency plasma wave by the drift-mirror plasma instability in the dynamic plasma environment of Earth's inner magnetosphere. The plasma measurements are obtained from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment onboard NASA's Van Allen Probes Satellites. We show that the measured wave-particle interactions are driven by the drift-mirror instability. Theoretical analysis of the data demonstrates that the drift-mirror mode plasma instability condition is well satisfied. We also demonstrate, for the first time, that the measured wave growth rate agrees well with the predicted linear theory growth rate. Hence, the in-situ space plasma observations and theoretical analysis demonstrate that local generation of ultra-low fr. . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas Pages: 042110 DOI: 10.1063/1.5083629 Available at:
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Authors: Chen Yue, Reeves Geoffrey D, Fu Xiangrong, and Henderson Michael
Title: PreMevE: New Predictive Model for Megaelectron-volt Electrons inside Earth's Outer Radiation Belt
Abstract: This work designs a new model called PreMevE to predict storm‐time distributions of relativistic electrons within Earth's outer radiation belt. This model takes advantage of the cross‐energy, ‐L‐shell, and –pitch‐angle coherence associated with wave‐electron resonant interactions, ingests observations from belt boundaries—mainly by NOAA POES in low‐Earth‐orbits (LEOs), and provides high‐fidelity nowcast (multiple‐hour prediction) and forecast (> ~1 day) of MeV electron fluxes over L‐shells between 2.8‐7 through linear prediction filters. PreMevE can not only reliably anticipate incoming enhancements of MeV electrons during storms with at least 1‐day forewarning time, but also accurately specify the evolving event‐specific electron spatial distributions after. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2018SW002095 Available at:
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Authors: Shi Run, Li Wen, Ma Qianli, Green Alex, Kletzing Craig A., et al.
Title: Properties of Whistler Mode Waves in Earth's Plasmasphere and Plumes
Abstract: Whistler mode wave properties inside the plasmasphere and plumes are systematically investigated using 5‐year data from Van Allen Probes. The occurrence and intensity of whistler mode waves in the plasmasphere and plumes exhibit dependences on magnetic local time, L, and AE. Based on the dependence of the wave normal angle and Poynting flux direction on L shell and normalized wave frequency to electron cyclotron frequency (fce), whistler mode waves are categorized into four types. Type I: ~0.5 fce with oblique wave normal angles mostly in plumes; Type II: 0.01–0.5 fce with small wave normal angles in the outer plasmasphere or inside plumes; Type III: <0.01 fce with oblique wave normal angles mostly within the plasmasphere or plumes; Type IV: 0.05–0.5 fce with oblique wave normal angl. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026041 Available at:
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Authors: Yoon Peter H., Hwang Junga, Kim Hyangpyo, and Seough Jungjoon
Title: Quasi Thermal Noise Spectroscopy for Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Quasi thermal fluctuations in the Langmuir/upper‐hybrid frequency range are pervasively observed in space plasmas including the radiation belt and the ring current region of inner magnetosphere as well as the solar wind. The quasi thermal noise spectroscopy may be employed in order to determine the electron density and temperature as well as to diagnose the properties of energetic electrons when direct measurements are not available. However, when employing the technique, one must carefully take the spacecraft orientation into account. The present paper takes the upper‐hybrid and multiple harmonic—or (n + 1/2)fce—emissions measured by the Van Allen Probes as an example in order to illustrate how the spacecraft antenna geometrical factor can be incorporated into the theoretical . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026460 Available at:
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Authors: Aseev N.A., and Shprits Y.Y.
Title: Reanalysis of ring current electron phase space densities using Van Allen Probe observations, convection model, and log‐normal Kalman filter
Abstract: Models of ring current electron dynamics unavoidably contain uncertainties in boundary conditions, electric and magnetic fields, electron scattering rates, and plasmapause location. Model errors can accumulate with time and result in significant deviations of model predictions from observations. Data assimilation offers useful tools which can combine physics‐based models and measurements to improve model predictions. In this study, we systematically analyze performance of the Kalman filter applied to a log‐transformed convection model of ring current electrons and Van Allen Probe data. We consider long‐term dynamics of μ = 2.3 MeV/G and K = 0.3 G1/2RE electrons from 1 February 2013 to 16 June 2013. By using synthetic data, we show that the Kalman filter is capable of correcting erro. . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2018SW002110 Available at:
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Authors: Yue Chao, Jun Chae‐Woo, Bortnik Jacob, An Xin, Ma Qianli, et al.
Title: The Relationship Between EMIC Wave Properties and Proton Distributions Based on Van Allen Probes Observations
Abstract: Plasma kinetic theory predicts that sufficiently anisotropic proton distribution will excite electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which in turn relax the proton distribution to a marginally stable state creating an upper bound on the relaxed proton anisotropy. Here, using EMIC wave observations and coincident plasma measurements made by Van Allen Probes in the inner magnetosphere, we show that the proton distributions are well constrained by this instability to a marginally stable state. Near the threshold, the probability of EMIC wave occurrence is highest, having left‐handed polarization and observed near the magnetic equator with relatively small wave normal angles, indicating that these waves are locally generated. In addition, EMIC waves are distributed in two magnetic local . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082633 Available at:
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Authors: Mann I. R., Ozeke L. G., Morley S. K., Murphy K. R., Claudepierre S G, et al.
Title: Reply to 'The dynamics of Van Allen belts revisited'
Abstract: N/A
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Nature Physics Pages: 103 - 104 DOI: 10.1038/nphys4351 Available at:
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Authors: Turner D. L., Kilpua E. K. J., Hietala H., Claudepierre S G, O'Brien T P, et al.
Title: The Response of Earth's Electron Radiation Belts to Geomagnetic Storms: Statistics From the Van Allen Probes Era Including Effects From Different Storm Drivers
Abstract: A statistical study was conducted of Earth's radiation belt electron response to geomagnetic storms using NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. Data for electrons with energies ranging from 30 keV to 6.3 MeV were included and examined as a function of L‐shell, energy, and epoch time during 110 storms with SYM‐H ≤−50 nT during September 2012 to September 2017 (inclusive). The radiation belt response revealed clear energy and L‐shell dependencies, with tens of keV electrons enhanced at all L‐shells (2.5 ≤ L ≤ 6) in all storms during the storm commencement and main phase and then quickly decaying away during the early recovery phase, low hundreds of keV electrons enhanced at lower L‐shells (~3 ≤ L ≤ ~4) in upward of 90% of all storms and then decaying gradually during the rec. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026066 Available at:
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Authors: Claudepierre S G, O'Brien T P, Looper M D, Blake J B, Fennell J. F., et al.
Title: A Revised Look at Relativistic Electrons in the Earth's Inner Radiation Zone and Slot Region
Abstract: We describe a new, more accurate procedure for estimating and removing inner zone background contamination from Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) radiation belt measurements. This new procedure is based on the underlying assumption that the primary source of background contamination in the electron measurements at L shells less than three, energetic inner belt protons, is relatively stable. Since a magnetic spectrometer can readily distinguish between foreground electrons and background signals, we are able to exploit the proton stability to construct a model of the background contamination in each MagEIS detector by only considering times when the measurements are known to be background dominated. We demonstrate, for relativistic electron measurements in the inn. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026349 Available at:
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Authors: Cao Xing, Ni Binbin, Summers Danny, Shprits Yuri Y, Gu Xudong, et al.
Title: Sensitivity of EMIC Wave-Driven Scattering Loss of Ring Current Protons to Wave Normal Angle Distribution
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves have long been recognized to play a crucial role in the dynamic loss of ring current protons. While the field‐aligned propagation approximation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves was widely used to quantify the scattering loss of ring current protons, in this study, we find that the wave normal distribution strongly affects the pitch angle scattering efficiency of protons. Increase of peak normal angle or angular width can considerably reduce the scattering rates of ≤10 keV protons. For >10 keV protons, the field‐aligned propagation approximation results in a pronounced underestimate of the scattering of intermediate equatorial pitch angle protons and overestimates the scattering of high equatorial pitch angle protons by orders of magnitude. Ou. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 590 - 598 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081550 Available at:
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Authors: Lejosne Solène, and Mozer F S
Title: Shorting Factor In‐Flight Calibration for the Van Allen Probes DC Electric Field Measurements in the Earth's Plasmasphere
Abstract: Satellite‐based direct electric field measurements deliver crucial information for space science studies. Yet they require meticulous design and calibration. In‐flight calibration of double‐probe instruments is usually presented in the most common case of tenuous plasmas, where the presence of an electrostatic structure surrounding the charged spacecraft alters the geophysical electric field measurements. To account for this effect and the uncertainty in the boom length, the measured electric field is multiplied by a parameter called the shorting factor (sf). In the plasmasphere, the Debye length is very small in comparison with spacecraft dimension, and there is no shorting of the electric field measurements (sf = 1). However, the electric field induced by spacecraft motion greatly . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Earth and Space Science Pages: 646 - 654 DOI: 10.1029/2018EA000550 Available at:
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Authors: Eshetu W. W., Lyon J G, Hudson M K, and Wiltberger M. J.
Title: Simulations of Electron Energization and Injection by BBFs Using High-Resolution LFM MHD Fields
Abstract: We study electron injection and energization by bursty bulk flows (BBFs), by tracing electron trajectories using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) field output from the Lyon‐Fedder‐Mobarry (LFM) code. The LFM MHD simulations were performed using idealized solar wind conditions to produce BBFs. We show that BBFs can inject energetic electrons of few to 100 keV from the magnetotatail beyond −24 RE to inward of geosynchronous, while accelerating them in the process. We also show the dependence of energization and injection on the initial relative position of the electrons to the magnetic field structure of the BBF, the initial pitch angle, and the initial energy. In addition, we have shown that the process can be nonadiabatic with violation of the first adiabatic invariant (μ). Further, we d. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025789 Available at:
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Authors: Yuan Zhigang, Yu Xiongdong, Ouyang Zhihai, Yao Fei, Huang Shiyong, et al.
Title: Simultaneous trapping of EMIC and MS waves by background plasmas
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and fast magnetosonic waves are found to be simultaneously modulated by background plasma density: both kinds of waves were observed in high plasma density regions but vanished in low density regions. Theoretical analysis based on Snell's law and linear growth theory have been utilized to investigate the physical mechanisms driving such modulation. It is suggested that the modulation of fast magnetosonic waves might be due to trapping by plasma density structures, which results from a conservation of the parameter Q during their propagation. Here Q = nrsinψ, with n the refractive index, r the radial distance, and ψ the wave azimuthal angle. As for electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, the modulation might be owed to the ion composition difference betwee. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026149 Available at:
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Authors: Thaller S. A., Wygant J R, Cattell C. A., Breneman A. W., Tyler E., et al.
Title: Solar rotation period driven modulations of plasmaspheric density and convective electric field in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: This paper presents the first analysis of Van Allen Probes measurements of the cold plasma density and electric field in the inner magnetosphere to show that intervals of strong modulation at the solar rotation period occur in the locations of the outer plasmasphere and plasmapause (~0.7 RE peak‐to‐peak), in the large‐scale electric field (~0.24 mV/m peak‐to‐peak), and in the cold plasma density (~250 cm‐3 – ~70 cm‐3 peak‐to‐peak). Solar rotation modulation of the inner magnetosphere is more apparent in the declining phase of the solar cycle than near solar maximum. The periodicities in these parameters are compared to solar EUV irradiance, solar wind dawn‐dusk electric field, and Kp. The variations in the plasmapause location at the solar rotation period anti‐corre. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026365 Available at:
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Authors: Tyler E., Breneman A., Cattell C., Wygant J, Thaller S., et al.
Title: Statistical occurrence and distribution of high amplitude whistler-mode waves in the outer radiation belt
Abstract: We present the first statistical analysis with continuous data coverage and non‐averaged amplitudes of the prevalence and distribution of high‐amplitude (> 5 mV/m) whistler‐mode waves in the outer radiation belt using 5 years of Van Allen Probes data. These waves are most common above L=3.5 and between MLT of 0‐7 where they are present 1‐4% of the time. During high geomagnetic activity, high‐amplitude whistler‐mode wave occurrence rises above 30% in some regions. During these active times the plasmasphere erodes to lower L and high‐amplitude waves are observed at all L outside of it, with the highest occurrence at low L (3.5‐4) in the pre‐dawn sector. These results have important implications for modeling radiation belt particle interactions with chorus, as large‐amp. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082292 Available at:
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Authors: Jun C.-W., Yue C., Bortnik J, Lyons L R, Nishimura Y., et al.
Title: A Statistical Study of EMIC Waves Associated With and Without Energetic Particle Injection From the Magnetotail
Abstract: To understand the relationship between generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and energetic particle injections, we performed a statistical study of EMIC waves associated with and without injections based on the Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES; GOES‐13 and GOES‐15) observations. Using 47 months of observations, we identified wave events seen by the Van Allen Probes relative to the plasmapause and to energetic particle injections seen by GOES‐13 and GOES‐15 on the nightside. We separated the events into four categories: EMIC waves with (without) injections inside (outside) the plasmasphere. We found that He+ EMIC waves have higher occurrence rate inside the plasmasphere, while H+ EMIC waves . . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 433 - 450 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025886 Available at:
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Authors: Mitani K., Seki K., Keika K, Gkioulidou M., Lanzerotti L J, et al.
Title: Statistical Study of Selective Oxygen Increase in High‐Energy Ring Current Ions During Magnetic Storms
Abstract: Ion transport from the plasma sheet to the ring current is the main cause of the development of the ring current. Energetic (>150 keV) ring current ions are known to be transported diffusively in several days. A recent study suggested that energetic oxygen ions are transported closer to the Earth than protons due to the diffusive transport caused by a combination of the drift and drift‐bounce resonances with Pc 3–5 ultralow frequency waves during the 24 April 2013 magnetic storm. To understand the occurrence conditions of such selective oxygen increase (SOI), we investigate the phase space densities (PSDs) between protons and oxygen ions with the first adiabatic invariants (μ) of 0.1–2.0 keV/nT measured by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment instrument on the . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026168 Available at:
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Authors: Wang Hui, He Yangfan, ühr Hermann, Kistler Lynn, Saikin Anthony, et al.
Title: Storm Time EMIC Waves Observed by Swarm and Van Allen Probe Satellites
Abstract: The temporal and spatial evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves during the magnetic storm of 21–29 June 2015 was investigated using high‐resolution magnetic field observations from Swarm constellation in the ionosphere and Van Allen Probes in the magnetosphere. Magnetospheric EMIC waves had a maximum occurrence frequency in the afternoon sector and shifted equatorward during the expansion phase and poleward during the recovery phase. However, ionospheric waves in subauroral regions occurred more frequently in the nighttime than during the day and exhibited less obvious latitudinal movements. During the main phase, dayside EMIC waves occurred in both the ionosphere and magnetosphere in response to the dramatic increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure. Waves were abse. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 293 - 312 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026299 Available at:
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Authors: Hartley D. P., Kletzing C A, Chen L, Horne R B, and ík O.
Title: Van Allen Probes observations of chorus wave vector orientations: Implications for the chorus-to-hiss mechanism
Abstract: Using observations from the Van Allen Probes EMFISIS instrument, coupled with ray tracing simulations, we determine the fraction of chorus wave power with the conditions required to access the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. It is found that only an extremely small fraction of chorus occurs with the required wave vector orientation, carrying only a small fraction of the total chorus wave power. The exception is on the edge of plasmaspheric plumes, where strong azimuthal density gradients are present. In these cases, up to 94% of chorus wave power exists with the conditions required to access the plasmasphere. As such, we conclude that strong azimuthal density gradients are actually a requirement if a significant fraction of chorus wave power is to enter the plasmasphere an. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082111 Available at:
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Authors: Zhao H., Baker D N, Li X, Jaynes A. N., and Kanekal S G
Title: The Acceleration of Ultrarelativistic Electrons During a Small to Moderate Storm of 21 April 2017
Abstract: The ultrarelativistic electrons (E > ~3 MeV) in the outer radiation belt received limited attention in the past due to sparse measurements. Nowadays, the Van Allen Probes measurements of ultrarelativistic electrons with high energy resolution provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the dynamics of this population. In this study, using data from the Van Allen Probes, we report significant flux enhancements of ultrarelativistic electrons with energies up to 7.7 MeV during a small to moderate geomagnetic storm. The underlying physical mechanisms are investigated by analyzing and simulating the evolution of electron phase space density. The results suggest that during this storm, the acceleration mechanism for ultrarelativistic electrons in the outer belt is energy‐dependent: local acc. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078582 Available at:
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Authors: Malaspina David M., Ukhorskiy Aleksandr, Chu Xiangning, and Wygant John
Title: A census of plasma waves and structures associated with an injection front in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Now that observations have conclusively established that the inner magnetosphere is abundantly populated with kinetic electric field structures and nonlinear waves, attention has turned to quantifying the ability of these structures and waves to scatter and accelerate inner magnetospheric plasma populations. A necessary step in that quantification is determining the distribution of observed structure and wave properties (e.g. occurrence rates, amplitudes, spatial scales). Kinetic structures and nonlinear waves have broadband signatures in frequency space and consequently, high resolution time domain electric and magnetic field data is required to uniquely identify such structures and waves as well as determine their properties. However, most high resolution fields data is collected with a . . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025005 Available at:
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Authors: Pinto Víctor A., Bortnik Jacob, Moya Pablo S., Lyons Larry R., Sibeck David G., et al.
Title: Characteristics, Occurrence and Decay Rates of Remnant Belts associated with Three-Belt events in the Earth's Radiation Belts
Abstract: Shortly after the launch of the Van Allen Probes, a new three‐belt configuration of the electron radiation belts was reported. Using data between September 2012 and November 2017, we have identified 30 three‐belt events and found that about 18% of geomagnetic storms result in such configuration. Based on the identified events, we evaluated some characteristics of the remnant (intermediate) belt. We determined the energy range of occurrence and found it peaks at E = 5.2 MeV. We also determined that the magnetopause location and SYM‐H value may play an important role in the outer belt losses that lead to formation and location of the remnant belt. Finally, we calculated the decay rates of the remnant belt for all events and found that their lifetime gets longer as energy increases,. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080274 Available at:
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Authors: Fathy A., Kim K.-H., Park J.-S., Jin H., Kletzing C., et al.
Title: Characteristics of Sudden Commencements Observed by Van Allen Probes in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: We have statistically studied sudden commencement (SC) by using the data acquired from Van Allen Probes (VAP) in the inner magnetosphere (L = 3.0–6.5) and GOES spacecraft at geosynchronous orbit (L =∼ 6.7) from October 2012 to September 2017. During the time period, we identified 85 SCs in the inner magnetosphere and 90 SCs at geosynchronous orbit. Statistical results of the SC events reveal the following characteristics. (1) There is strong seasonal dependence of the geosynchronous SC amplitude in the radial BV component at all local times. However, BV shows weak seasonal variation on the dayside in the inner magnetosphere. (2) The local time dependence of the SC amplitude in the compressional BH component at geosynchronous orbit is similar to that in the inner magnetosphere. (3) In a. . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024770 Available at:
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Authors: Yuan Zhigang, Yu Xiongdong, Huang Shiyong, Qiao Zheng, Yao Fei, et al.
Title: Cold Ion Heating by Magnetosonic Waves in a Density Cavity of the Plasmasphere
Abstract: Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves play an important role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Theoretical prediction and simulation have demonstrated that MS waves can heat cold ions. However, direct observational evidence of cold ion heating by MS waves has so far remained elusive. In this paper, we show a typical event of cold ion heating by magnetosonic waves in a density cavity of the plasmasphere with observations of the Van Allen Probe mission on 22 August 2013. During enhancements of the MS wave intensity in the density cavity, the fluxes of trapped H+ and He+ ions with energies of 10–100 eV were observed to increase, implying that cold plasmaspheric ions were heated through high-order resonances with the MS waves. Based on simultaneous observations of ring current protons, we h. . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024919 Available at:
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Authors: Hua Man, Ni Binbin, Fu Song, Gu Xudong, Xiang Zheng, et al.
Title: Combined Scattering of Outer Radiation Belt Electrons by Simultaneously Occurring Chorus, Exohiss, and Magnetosonic Waves
Abstract: We report a typical event that fast magnetosonic (MS) waves, exohiss, and two‐band chorus waves occurred simultaneously on the dayside observed by Van Allen Probes on 25 December 2013. By combining calculations of electron diffusion coefficients and 2‐D Fokker‐Planck diffusion simulations, we quantitatively analyze the combined scattering effect of multiple waves to demonstrate that the net impact of combined scattering does not simply depend on the wave intensity dominance of various plasma waves. Although the observed MS waves are most intense, the electron butterfly distribution is inhibited by exohiss and chorus, and electrons are considerably accelerated by combined scattering of MS and chorus waves. The simulated electron pitch angle distributions exhibit the variation trend co. . .
Date: 09/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079533 Available at:
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Authors: Ren Jie, Zong Qiu-Gang, Miyoshi Yoshizumi, Rankin Robert, Spence Harlan E, et al.
Title: A comparative study of ULF waves' role in the dynamics of charged particles in the plasmasphere: Van Allen Probes observation
Abstract: By analyzing observations from Van Allen Probes in its inbound and outbound orbits, we present evidence of coherent enhancement of cold plasmaspheric electrons and ions due to drift‐bounce resonance with ULF waves. From 18:00 UT on 28 May 2017 to 10:00 UT on 29 May 2017, newly formed poloidal mode standing ULF waves with significant electric field oscillations were observed in two consecutive orbits when Probe B was travelling inbound. In contrast to observations during outbound orbits, the cold (< 150 eV) electorns measured by the HOPE instrument were characterized by flux enhancements several times larger and bi‐directional pitch angle distributions during inbound orbits. The electron number density inferred from upper hybrid waves is twice as larger as during inbound orbits, which w. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025255 Available at:
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Authors: Saikin A.A., Jordanova V.K., Zhang J.C., Smith C.W., Spence H.E., et al.
Title: Comparing simulated and observed EMIC wave amplitudes using in situ Van Allen Probes’ measurements
Abstract: We perform a statistical study calculating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave amplitudes based off in situ plasma measurements taken by the Van Allen Probes’ (1.1–5.8 Re) Helium, Oxygen, Proton, Electron (HOPE) instrument. Calculated wave amplitudes are compared to EMIC waves observed by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science on board the Van Allen Probes during the same period. The survey covers a 22-month period (1 November 2012 to 31 August 2014), a full Van Allen Probe magnetic local time (MLT) precession. The linear theory proxy was used to identify EMIC wave events with plasma conditions favorable for EMIC wave excitation. Two hundred and thirty-two EMIC wave events (103 H+-band and 129 He+-band) were selected for this comparison. Nearly . . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2018.01.024 Available at:
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Authors: Yue Chao, Bortnik Jacob, Li Wen, Ma Qianli, Gkioulidou Matina, et al.
Title: The composition of plasma inside geostationary orbit based on Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: The composition of the inner magnetosphere is of great importance for determining the plasma pressure, and thus the currents and magnetic field configuration. In this study, we perform a statistical survey of equatorial plasma pressure distributions and investigate the relative contributions of ions and electron with different energies inside of geostationary orbit under two AE levels based on over sixty months of observations from the HOPE and RBSPICE mass spectrometers on board Van Allen Probes. We find that the total and partial pressures of different species increase significantly at high AE levels with Hydrogen (H+) pressure being dominant in the plasmasphere. The pressures of the heavy ions and electrons increase outside the plasmapause and develop a strong dawn‐dusk asymmetry with. . .
Date: 07/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025344 Available at:
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Authors: Roederer Juan G., and Lejosne ène
Title: Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux
Abstract: Fifty years have passed since the parameter “L-star” was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like “distance to the equatorial point of a field line,” McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameter. . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025053 Available at:
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Authors: Allison Hayley J., Horne Richard B, Glauert Sarah A, and Del Zanna Giulio
Title: Determination of the Equatorial Electron Differential Flux From Observations at Low Earth Orbit
Abstract: Variations in the high‐energy relativistic electron flux of the radiation belts depend on transport, acceleration, and loss processes, and importantly on the lower‐energy seed population. However, data on the seed population is limited to a few satellite missions. Here we present a new method that utilizes data from the Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector on board the low‐altitude Polar Operational Environmental Satellites to retrieve the seed population at a pitch angle of 90°. The integral flux values measured by Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector relate to a low equatorial pitch angle and were converted to omnidirectional flux using parameters obtained from fitting one or two urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra54628:jgra54628-math-0001 functions to pitch angle distributions given . . .
Date: 11/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025786 Available at:
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Authors: Hartley D. P., Kletzing C A, De Pascuale S., Kurth W S, and ík O.
Title: Determining Plasmaspheric Densities from Observations of Plasmaspheric Hiss
Abstract: A new method of inferring electron plasma densities inside of the plasmasphere is presented. Utilizing observations of the electric and magnetic field wave power associated with plasmaspheric hiss, coupled with the cold plasma dispersion relation, permits calculation of the plasma density. This methodology yields a density estimate for each frequency channel and time interval where plasmaspheric hiss is observed and is shown to yield results that are generally in agreement with densities determined via other methods. A statistical calibration is performed against the density from the upper hybrid line, accounting for both systematic offsets and distribution scatter in the hiss‐inferred densities. This calculation and calibration methodology provides accurate density estimates, both stati. . .
Date: 08/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025658 Available at:
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Authors: Murphy Kyle R., Inglis Andrew R., Sibeck David G., Rae Jonathan, Watt Clare E. J., et al.
Title: Determining the mode, frequency, and azimuthal wave number of ULF waves during a HSS and moderate geomagnetic storm
Abstract: Ultra‐low frequency (ULF) waves play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the inner‐magnetosphere and outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. Broadband ULF wave power can transport energetic electrons via radial diffusion and discrete ULF wave power can energize electrons through a resonant interaction. Using observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we characterize the evolution of ULF waves during a high‐speed solar wind stream (HSS) and moderate geomagnetic storm while there is an enhancement of the outer radiation belt. The Automated Flare Inference of Oscillations (AFINO) code is used to distinguish discrete ULF wave power from broadband wave power during the HSS. During periods of discrete wave power and utilizing the close separation of the MMS sp. . .
Date: 05/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2017JA024877 Available at:
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Authors: Boardsen Scott A., Hospodarsky George B., Min Kyungguk, Averkamp Terrance F., Bounds Scott R., et al.
Title: Determining the wave vector direction of equatorial fast magnetosonic waves
Abstract: We perform polarization analysis of the equatorial fast magnetosonic waves electric field over a 20 minute interval of Van Allen Probes A Waveform Receiver burst mode data. The wave power peaks at harmonics of the proton cyclotron frequency indicating the spacecraft is near or in the source region. The wave vector is inferred from the direction of the major axis of the electric field polarization ellipsoid and the sign of the phase between the longitudinal electric and compressional magnetic field components. We show that wave vector is preferentially in the azimuthal direction as opposed to the radial direction. From Poynting flux analysis one would infer that the wave vector is primarily in the radial direction. We show that the error in the Poynting flux is large ~ 90°. These results s. . .
Date: 07/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078695 Available at:
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Authors: Hartinger M. D., Claudepierre S G, Turner D. L., Reeves G D, Breneman A., et al.
Title: Diagnosis of ULF Wave-Particle Interactions With Megaelectron Volt Electrons: The Importance of Ultrahigh-Resolution Energy Channels
Abstract: Electron flux measurements are an important diagnostic for interactions between ultralow‐frequency (ULF) waves and relativistic (∼1 MeV) electrons. Since measurements are collected by particle detectors with finite energy channel width, they are affected by a phase mixing process that can obscure these interactions. We demonstrate that ultrahigh‐resolution electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer on the Van Allen Probes mission—obtained using a data product that improves the energy resolution by roughly an order of magnitude—are crucial for understanding ULF wave‐particle interactions. In particular, the ultrahigh‐resolution measurements reveal a range of complex dynamics that cannot be resolved by standard measurements. Furthermore, the standard meas. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080291 Available at:
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