Found 10 results
Filters: Author is Spence, H.E.  [Clear All Filters]
Authors: Yamamoto K., Nosé M., Keika K, Hartley D.P., Smith C.W., et al.
Title: Eastward Propagating Second Harmonic Poloidal Waves Triggered by Temporary Outward Gradient of Proton Phase Space Density: Van Allen Probe A Observation
Abstract: Two wave packets of second harmonic poloidal Pc 4 waves with a wave frequency of ~7 mHz were detected by Van Allen Probe A at a radial distance of ~5.8 RE and magnetic local time of 13 hr near the magnetic equator, where plasmaspheric refilling was in progress. Proton butterfly distributions with energy dispersions were also measured at the same time; the proton fluxes at 10‐30 keV oscillated with the same frequency as the Pc 4 waves. Using the ion sounding technique, we find that the Pc 4 waves propagated eastward with an azimuthal wave number (m number) of ~220 and ~260 for each wave packet, respectively. Such eastward propagating high‐m (m > 100) waves were seldom reported in previous studies. The condition of drift‐bounce resonance is well satisfied for the estimated m numbers in. . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027158 Available at:
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Authors: Menz A.M., Kistler L.M., Mouikis C.G., Spence H.E., and Henderson M.G.
Title: Effects of a Realistic O + Source on Modeling the Ring Current
Abstract: We use the UNH‐IMEF electric field model to simulate the convection of O+ from the near‐earth plasma sheet into the ring current during the March 17, 2015 storm. Using Van Allen Probes data from the night side apogee, we reconstruct a realistic O+ source. Modeling this storm using the UNH‐IMEF electric field and a dipole magnetic field has previously been found to have good agreement. Using the realistic source along with drift times and charge exchange loss from these results, we model an inbound pass near the peak of the storm where O+ is increasingly dominant over H+. We find that the time‐varying realistic O+ source is necessary to reproduce the observed spectral features and the O+ pressure enhancements at low L‐shells, while our previous results showed that the H+ was able . . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026859 Available at:
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Authors: Menz A.M., Kistler L.M., Mouikis C.G., Matsui H., Spence H.E., et al.
Title: Efficacy of Electric Field Models in Reproducing Observed Ring Current Ion Spectra During Two Geomagnetic Storms
Abstract: We use the UNH‐IMEF, Weimer 1996, and Volland‐Stern electric field models along with a dipole magnetic field to calculate drift paths for particles that reach the Van Allen Probes' orbit for two inbound passes during two large geomagnetic storms. We compare the particle access in the models with the observed particle access using both realistic and enhanced solar wind model parameters. To test the accuracy of the drift paths, we estimate the H+ charge exchange loss along these drift paths. While increasing the strength of the model electric field drives particles further inward, improving agreement, energy‐dependent cutoffs in the spectra do not agree, indicating that potential patterns for highly disturbed times are inaccurate. While none of the mod. . .
Date: 09/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026683 Available at:
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Authors: Saikin A.A., Jordanova V.K., Zhang J.C., Smith C.W., Spence H.E., et al.
Title: Comparing simulated and observed EMIC wave amplitudes using in situ Van Allen Probes’ measurements
Abstract: We perform a statistical study calculating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave amplitudes based off in situ plasma measurements taken by the Van Allen Probes’ (1.1–5.8 Re) Helium, Oxygen, Proton, Electron (HOPE) instrument. Calculated wave amplitudes are compared to EMIC waves observed by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science on board the Van Allen Probes during the same period. The survey covers a 22-month period (1 November 2012 to 31 August 2014), a full Van Allen Probe magnetic local time (MLT) precession. The linear theory proxy was used to identify EMIC wave events with plasma conditions favorable for EMIC wave excitation. Two hundred and thirty-two EMIC wave events (103 H+-band and 129 He+-band) were selected for this comparison. Nearly . . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2018.01.024 Available at:
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Authors: Boyd A.J., Turner D.L., Reeves G.D., Spence H.E., Baker D.N., et al.
Title: What Causes Radiation Belt Enhancements: A Survey of the Van Allen Probes Era
Abstract: We survey radiation belt enhancement events during the Van Allen Probes era to determine what mechanism is the dominant cause of enhancements and where it is most effective. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed: (1) betatron/Fermi acceleration due to the Earthward radial transport of electrons which produces monotonic gradients in phase space density (PSD) and (2) “local acceleration" due to gyro/Landau resonant interaction with electromagnetic waves which produces radially localized, growing peaks in PSD. To differentiate between these processes, we examine radial profiles of PSD in adiabatic coordinates using data from the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellites for 80 outer belt enhancement events from October 2012‐April 2017 This study shows that local acceleration is the domin. . .
Date: 05/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077699 Available at:
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Authors: Kistler L.M., Mouikis C. G., Spence H.E., Menz A.M., Skoug R.M., et al.
Title: The Source of O + in the Storm-time Ring Current
Abstract: A stretched and compressed geomagnetic field occurred during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm on 1 June 2013. During the storm the Van Allen Probes spacecraft made measurements of the plasma sheet boundary layer, and observed large fluxes of O+ ions streaming up the field line from the nightside auroral region. Prior to the storm main phase there was an increase in the hot (>1 keV) and more isotropic O+ions in the plasma sheet. In the spacecraft inbound pass through the ring current region during the storm main phase, the H+ and O+ ions were significantly enhanced. We show that this enhanced inner magnetosphere ring current population is due to the inward adiabatic convection of the plasma sheet ion population. The energy range of the O+ ion plasma sheet that impacts the ring curren. . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022204 Available at:
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Authors: Boyd A.J., Spence H.E., Huang C.-L., Reeves G D, Baker D N, et al.
Title: Statistical Properties of the Radiation Belt Seed Population
Abstract: We present a statistical analysis of phase space density data from the first 26 months of the Van Allen Probes mission. In particular we investigate the relationship between the 10s-100s keV seed electrons and >1 MeV core radiation belt electron population. Using a cross correlation analysis, we find that the seed and core populations are well correlated with a coefficient of ≈ 0.73 with a time lag of 10-15 hours. We present evidence of a seed population threshold that is necessary for subsequent acceleration. The depth of penetration of the seed population determines the inner boundary of the acceleration process. However, we show that an enhanced seed population alone is not enough to produce acceleration in the higher energies, implying that the seed population of 100s of keV electron. . .
Date: 07/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022652 Available at:
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Authors: Drozdov A. Y., Shprits Y Y, Orlova K.G., Kellerman A. C., Subbotin D. A., et al.
Title: Energetic, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electrons: Comparison of long-term VERB code simulations with Van Allen Probes measurements
Abstract: In this study, we compare long-term simulations performed by the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code with observations from the MagEIS and REPT instruments on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model takes into account radial, energy, pitch-angle and mixed diffusion, losses into the atmosphere, and magnetopause shadowing. We consider the energetic (>100 keV), relativistic (~0.5-1 MeV) and ultra-relativistic (>2 MeV) electrons. One year of relativistic electron measurements (μ=700 MeV/G) from October 1, 2012 to October 1, 2013, are well reproduced by the simulation during varying levels of geomagnetic activity. However, for ultra-relativistic energies (μ=3500 MeV/G), the VERB code simulation overestimates electron fluxes and Phase Space Density. These results indicate that an . . .
Date: 04/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020637 Available at:
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Authors: Jaynes A.N., Baker D.N., Singer H.J., Rodriguez J.V., Loto'aniu T.M., et al.
Title: Source and Seed Populations for Relativistic Electrons: Their Roles in Radiation Belt Changes
Abstract: Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August-September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13-22 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward IMF, showed strong depletion of. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021234 Available at:
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Authors: O'Brien T.P., Claudepierre S.G., Looper M.D., Blake J.B., Fennell J.F., et al.
Title: On the use of drift echoes to characterize on-orbit sensor discrepancies
Abstract: We describe a method for using drift echo signatures in on-orbit data to resolve discrepancies between different measurements of particle flux. The drift period has a well-defined energy dependence, which gives rise to time dispersion of the echoes. The dispersion can then be used to determine the effective energy for one or more channels given each channel's drift period and the known energy for a reference channel. We demonstrate this technique on multiple instruments from the Van Allen probes mission. Drift echoes are only easily observed at high energies (100s keV to multiple MeV), where several drift periods occur before the observing satellite has moved on or the global magnetic conditions have changed. We describe a first-order correction for spacecraft motion. The drift echo techni. . .
Date: 02/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020859 Available at:
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