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Authors: Xiao Fuliang, Yang Chang, He Zhaoguo, Su Zhenpeng, Zhou Qinghua, et al.
Title: Chorus acceleration of radiation belt relativistic electrons during March 2013 geomagnetic storm
Abstract: The recent launching of Van Allen probes provides an unprecedent opportunity to investigate variations of the radiation belt relativistic electrons. During the 17–19 March 2013 storm, the Van Allen probes simultaneously detected strong chorus waves and substantial increases in fluxes of relativistic (2 − 4.5 MeV) electrons around L = 4.5. Chorus waves occurred within the lower band 0.1–0.5fce (the electron equatorial gyrofrequency), with a peak spectral density ∼10−4 nT2/Hz. Correspondingly, relativistic electron fluxes increased by a factor of 102–103 during the recovery phase compared to the main phase levels. By means of a Gaussian fit to the observed chorus spectra, the drift and bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients are calculated and then used to solve a 2-D Fokker-Planc. . .
Date: 05/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 3325 - 3332 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019822 Available at:
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Authors: Xiao Fuliang, Zhou Qinghua, He Yihua, Yang Chang, Liu Si, et al.
Title: Penetration of magnetosonic waves into the plasmasphere observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: During the small storm on 14–15 April 2014, Van Allen Probe A measured a continuously distinct proton ring distribution and enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves along its orbit outside the plasmapause. Inside the plasmasphere, strong MS waves were still present but the distinct proton ring distribution was falling steeply with distance. We adopt a sum of subtracted bi-Maxwellian components to model the observed proton ring distribution and simulate the wave trajectory and growth. MS waves at first propagate toward lower L shells outside the plasmasphere, with rapidly increasing path gains related to the continuous proton ring distribution. The waves then gradually cross the plasmapause into the deep plasmasphere, with almost unchanged path gains due to the falling proton ring distribution an. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065745 Available at:
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Authors: Xiao Fuliang, Yang Chang, Su Zhenpeng, Zhou Qinghua, He Zhaoguo, et al.
Title: Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons
Abstract: Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day–night asymmetry in Earth’s magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosoni. . .
Date: 05/2015 Publisher: Nature Communications Pages: 8590 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9590 Available at:
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Authors: Xiao Fuliang, Zhou Qinghua, Su Zhenpeng, He Zhaoguo, Yang Chang, et al.
Title: Explaining occurrences of auroral kilometric radiation in Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a strong terrestrial radio emission and dominates at higher latitudes because of reflection in vicinities of the source cavity and plasmapause. Recently, Van Allen Probes have observed occurrences of AKR emission in the equatorial region of Earth's radiation belts but its origin still remains an open question. Equatorial AKR can produce efficient acceleration of radiation belt electrons and is a risk to space weather. Here we report high-resolution observations during two small storm periods 4–6 April and 18–20 May 2013 and show, using a 3-D ray tracing simulation, that AKR can propagate downward all the way into the equatorial plane in the radiation belts under appropriate conditions. The simulated results can successfully explain the observed AKR. . .
Date: 12/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 11,971 - 11,978 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071728 Available at:
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Authors: Xiao Fuliang, Liu Si, Tao Xin, Su Zhenpeng, Zhou Qinghua, et al.
Title: Generation of extremely low frequency chorus in Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that chorus can efficiently accelerate the outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Chorus, previously often observed above 0.1 equatorial electron gyrofrequency fce, was generated by energetic electrons originating from Earth's plasma sheet. Chorus below 0.1 fce has seldom been reported until the recent data from Van Allen Probes, but its origin has not been revealed so far. Because electron resonant energy can approach the relativistic level at extremely low frequency, relativistic effects should be considered in the formula for whistler mode wave growth rate. Here we report high-resolution observations during the 14 October 2014 small storm and firstly demonstrate, using a fully relativistic simulation, that electrons with the high-energy tail p. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023561 Available at:
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