Found 12 results
Filters: Author is Li, Xinlin  [Clear All Filters]
Authors: Baker Daniel N, Hoxie Vaughn, Zhao Hong, Jaynes Allison N., Kanekal Shri, et al.
Title: Multiyear Measurements of Radiation Belt Electrons: Acceleration, Transport, and Loss
Abstract: In addition to clarifying morphological structures of the Earth's radiation belts, it has also been a major achievement of the Van Allen Probes mission to understand more thoroughly how highly relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons are accelerated deep inside the radiation belts. Prior studies have demonstrated that electrons up to energies of 10 megaelectron volts (MeV) can be produced over broad regions of the outer Van Allen zone on timescales of minutes to a few hours. It often is seen that geomagnetic activity driven by strong solar storms (i.e., coronal mass ejections, or CMEs) almost inexorably leads to relativistic electron production through the intermediary step of intense magnetospheric substorms. In this study, we report observations over the 6‐year period 1 September 2. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026259 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Khoo Leng Ying, Li Xinlin, Zhao Hong, Sarris Theodore, Xiang Zheng, et al.
Title: On the Initial Enhancement of Energetic Electrons and the Innermost Plasmapause Locations: CME-Driven Storm Periods
Abstract: Using Van Allen Probes’ observations and established plasmapause location (Lpp) models, we investigate the relationship between the location of the initial enhancement (IE) of energetic electrons and the innermost (among all magnetic local time sectors) Lpp over five intense storm periods. Our study reveals that the IE events for 30 keV to 2MeV electrons always occurred outside of the innermost Lpp. On average, the inner extent of the IE events (LIE) for <800 keV electrons was closer to the innermost Lpp when compared to the LIE for >800 keV electrons that was found consistently at ~1.5 RE outside of the innermost Lpp. The IE of 10s keV electrons was observed before the IE of 100s keV electrons, and the IE of >800 keV electrons was observed on average 12.6±2.3 hours after the occurrence. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026074 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Zhang Dianjun, Liu Wenlong, Li Xinlin, Sarris Theodore, Xiao Chao, et al.
Title: Observations of impulsive electric fields induced by Interplanetary Shock
Abstract: We investigate the characteristics of impulsive electric fields in Earth's magnetosphere, as measured by the Van Allen Probes, in association with interplanetary shocks, as measured by ACE and Wind spacecraft in the solar wind from January 2013 to July 2016. It is shown that electric field impulses are mainly induced by global compressions by the shocks, mostly in the azimuthal direction and the amplitudes of the initial electric field impulses are positively correlated with the rate of increase of dynamic pressure across the shock in the dayside. It is also shown that the temporal profile of the impulse is related to the temporal profile of the solar wind dynamic pressure, Pd. It is suggested that during the first period of the impulse the evolution of the electric field is directly contr. . .
Date: 07/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078809 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Sarris Theodore E., Li Xinlin, Temerin Michael, Zhao Hong, Califf Sam, et al.
Title: On the Relationship Between Electron Flux Oscillations and ULF Wave-Driven Radial Transport
Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the levels of electron flux oscillations and radial diffusion for different Phase Space Density (PSD) gradients, through observation and particle tracing simulations under the effect of model Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) fluctuations. This investigation aims to demonstrate that electron flux oscillation is associated with and could be used as an indicator of ongoing radial diffusion. To this direction, flux oscillations are observed through the Van Allen Probes’ MagEIS energetic particle detector; subsequently, flux oscillations are produced in a particle tracing model that simulates radial diffusion by using model magnetic and electric field fluctuations that are approximating measured magnetic and electric field fluctu. . .
Date: 06/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023741 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Xiang Zheng, Tu Weichao, Li Xinlin, Ni Binbin, Morley S. K., et al.
Title: Understanding the Mechanisms of Radiation Belt Dropouts Observed by Van Allen Probes
Abstract: To achieve a better understanding of the dominant loss mechanisms for the rapid dropouts of radiation belt electrons, three distinct radiation belt dropout events observed by Van Allen Probes are comprehensively investigated. For each event, observations of the pitch angle distribution of electron fluxes and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are analyzed to determine the effects of atmospheric precipitation loss due to pitch angle scattering induced by EMIC waves. Last closed drift shells (LCDS) and magnetopause standoff position are obtained to evaluate the effects of magnetopause shadowing loss. Evolution of electron phase space density (PSD) versus L* profiles and the μ and K (first and second adiabatic invariants) dependence of the electron PSD drops are calculated to further. . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024487 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Sarris Theodore E., and Li Xinlin
Title: Calculating ultra-low-frequency wave power of the compressional magnetic field vs. L and time: multi-spacecraft analysis using the Van Allen probes, THEMIS and GOES
Abstract: Ultra-low-frequency (ULF) pulsations are critical in radial diffusion processes of energetic particles, and the power spectral density (PSD) of these fluctuations is an integral part of the radial diffusion coefficients and of assimilative models of the radiation belts. Using simultaneous measurements from two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) geosynchronous satellites, three satellites of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft constellation and the two Van Allen probes during a 10-day period of intense geomagnetic activity and ULF pulsations of October 2012, we calculate the PSDs of ULF pulsations at different L shells. By following the time history of measurements at different L it is shown that, during this tim. . .
Date: 06/2016 Publisher: Annales Geophysicae Pages: 565 - 571 DOI: 10.5194/angeo-34-565-2016 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Ni Binbin, Zou Zhengyang, Li Xinlin, Bortnik Jacob, Xie Lun, et al.
Title: Occurrence Characteristics of Outer Zone Relativistic Electron Butterfly Distribution: A Survey of Van Allen Probes REPT Measurements
Abstract: Using Van Allen Probes REPT pitch angle resolved electron flux data from September 2012 to March 2015, we investigate in detail the global occurrence pattern of equatorial (|λ| ≤ 3°) butterfly distribution of outer zone relativistic electrons and its potential correlation with the solar wind dynamic pressure. The statistical results demonstrate that these butterfly distributions occur with the highest occurrence rate ~ 80% at ~ 20 – 04 MLT and L > ~ 5.5 and with the second peak (> ~ 50 %) at ~ 11 – 15 MLT of lower L-shells ~ 4.0. They can also extend to L = 3.5 and to other MLT intervals but with the occurrence rates predominantly < ~25%. It is further shown that outer zone relativistic electron butterfly distributions are likely to peak between . . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069350 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Dai Lei, Wang Chi, Duan Suping, He Zhaohai, Wygant John R., et al.
Title: Near-Earth Injection of MeV Electrons associated with Intense Dipolarization Electric Fields: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: Substorms generally inject 10s-100s keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the pre-midnight sector at L∼5.5, Van Allen Probes (RBSP)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50mV/m) over ∼40s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ∼3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the in. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064955 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Ni Binbin, Zou Zhengyang, Gu Xudong, Zhou Chen, Thorne Richard M, et al.
Title: Variability of the pitch angle distribution of radiation belt ultra-relativistic electrons during and following intense geomagnetic storms: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: Fifteen months of pitch angle resolved Van Allen Probes REPT measurements of differential electron flux are analyzed to investigate the characteristic variability of the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of radiation belt ultra-relativistic (>2 MeV) electrons during storm conditions and during the long-term post-storm decay. By modeling the ultra-relativistic electron pitch angle distribution as sinn α, where α is the equatorial pitch angle, we examine the spatio-temporal variations of the n-value. The results show that in general n-values increase with the level of geomagnetic activity. In principle, ultra-relativistic electrons respond to geomagnetic storms by becoming more peaked at 90° pitch angle with n-values of 2–3 as a supportive signature of chorus acceleration outside the pla. . .
Date: 05/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021065 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Schiller Quintin, Li Xinlin, Blum Lauren, Tu Weichao, Turner Drew L, et al.
Title: A nonstorm time enhancement of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt
Abstract: Despite the lack of a geomagnetic storm (based on the Dst index), relativistic electron fluxes were enhanced over 2.5 orders of magnitude in the outer radiation belt in 13 h on 13–14 January 2013. The unusual enhancement was observed by Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), onboard the Van Allen Probes; Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope Integrated Little Experiment, onboard the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment; and Solid State Telescope, onboard Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS). Analyses of MagEIS phase space density (PSD) profiles show a positive outward radial gradient from 4 < L < 5.5. However, THEMIS observations show a peak in PSD outside of the Van Allen Probes' apogee, which suggest a very interesting s. . .
Date: 01/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 7 - 12 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058485 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Li Xinlin, Baker D N, Temerin M, Cayton T E, Reeves E G D, et al.
Title: Multisatellite observations of the outer zone electron variation during the November 3–4, 1993, magnetic storm
Abstract: The disappearance and reappearance of outer zone energetic electrons during the November 3–4, 1993, magnetic storm is examined utilizing data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the Global Positioning System (GPS) series, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sensors onboard geosynchronous satellites. The relativistic electron flux drops during the main phase of the magnetic storm in association with the large negative interplanetary Bz and rapid solar wind pressure increase late on November 3. Outer zone electrons with E > 3 MeV measured by SAMPEX disappear for over 12 hours at the beginning of November 4. This represents a 3 orders of magnitude decrease down to the cosmic ray background of the detector. GPS and LANL sensors show similar eff. . .
Date: 01/1997 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 14123 - 14140 DOI: 10.1029/97JA01101 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Li Xinlin, Roth I, Temerin M, Wygant J R, Hudson M K, et al.
Title: Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC
Abstract: We model the rapid (∼ 1 min) formation of a new electron radiation belt at L ≃ 2.5 that resulted from the Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) of March 24, 1991 as observed by the CRRES satellite. Guided by the observed electric and magnetic fields, we represent the time-dependent magnetospheric electric field during the SSC by an asymmetric bipolar pulse that is associated with the compression and relaxation of the Earth's magnetic field. We follow the electrons using a relativistic guiding center code. The test-particle simulations show that electrons with energies of a few MeV at L > 6 were energized up to 40 MeV and transported to L ≃ 2.5 during a fraction of their drift period. The energization process conserves the first adiabatic invariant and is enhanced due to resonance of the el. . .
Date: 11/1993 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 2423–2426 DOI: 10.1029/93GL02701 Available at:
More Details