Found 11 results
Filters: Author is Blake, J. Bernard  [Clear All Filters]
Authors: Shumko Mykhaylo, Turner Drew L, O'Brien T P, Claudepierre Seth G., Sample John, et al.
Title: Evidence of Microbursts Observed Near the Equatorial Plane in the Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt
Abstract: We present the first evidence of electron microbursts observed near the equatorial plane in Earth's outer radiation belt. We observed the microbursts on March 31st, 2017 with the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and RBSP Ion Composition Experiment on the Van Allen Probes. Microburst electrons with kinetic energies of 29‐92 keV were scattered over a substantial range of pitch angles, and over time intervals of 150‐500 ms. Furthermore, the microbursts arrived without dispersion in energy, indicating that they were recently scattered near the spacecraft. We have applied the relativistic theory of wave‐particle resonant diffusion to the calculated phase space density, revealing that the observed transport of microburst electrons is not consistent with the hypothesized quasi‐linear ap. . .
Date: 07/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078451 Available at:
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Authors: Khoo Leng Ying, Li Xinlin, Zhao Hong, Sarris Theodore, Xiang Zheng, et al.
Title: On the Initial Enhancement of Energetic Electrons and the Innermost Plasmapause Locations: CME-Driven Storm Periods
Abstract: Using Van Allen Probes’ observations and established plasmapause location (Lpp) models, we investigate the relationship between the location of the initial enhancement (IE) of energetic electrons and the innermost (among all magnetic local time sectors) Lpp over five intense storm periods. Our study reveals that the IE events for 30 keV to 2MeV electrons always occurred outside of the innermost Lpp. On average, the inner extent of the IE events (LIE) for <800 keV electrons was closer to the innermost Lpp when compared to the LIE for >800 keV electrons that was found consistently at ~1.5 RE outside of the innermost Lpp. The IE of 10s keV electrons was observed before the IE of 100s keV electrons, and the IE of >800 keV electrons was observed on average 12.6±2.3 hours after the occurrence. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026074 Available at:
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Authors: Zhou Xu-Zhi, Wang Zi-Han, Zong Qiu-Gang, Rankin Robert, Kivelson Margaret G., et al.
Title: Charged particle behavior in the growth and damping stages of ultralow frequency waves: theory and Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: Ultralow frequency (ULF) electromagnetic waves in Earth's magnetosphere can accelerate charged particles via a process called drift resonance. In the conventional drift-resonance theory, a default assumption is that the wave growth rate is time-independent, positive, and extremely small. However, this is not the case for ULF waves in the real magnetosphere. The ULF waves must have experienced an earlier growth stage when their energy was taken from external and/or internal sources, and as time proceeds the waves have to be damped with a negative growth rate. Therefore, a more generalized theory on particle behavior during different stages of ULF wave evolution is required. In this paper, we introduce a time-dependent imaginary wave frequency to accommodate the growth and damping of the wav. . .
Date: 03/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: n/a - n/a DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022447 Available at:
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Authors: Zhang Jichun, Halford Alexa J., Saikin Anthony A., Huang Chia-Lin, Spence Harlan E., et al.
Title: EMIC waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation on 25-26 January 2013
Abstract: Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes and the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), we perform a case study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation (REP) observed on 25–26 January 2013. Among all the EMIC wave and REP events from the two missions, the pair of the events is the closest both in space and time. The Van Allen Probe-B detected significant EMIC waves at L = 2.1–3.9 and magnetic local time (MLT) = 21.0–23.4 for 53.5 min from 2353:00 UT, 25 January 2013. Meanwhile, BARREL-1T observed clear precipitation of relativistic electrons at L = 4.2–4.3 and MLT = 20.7–20.8 for 10.0 min from 2358 UT, 25 January 2013. Local plasma and field conditions for the excitation of the. . .
Date: 10/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022918 Available at:
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Authors: Morley Steven K., Sullivan John P., Henderson Michael G., Blake Bernard, and Baker Daniel N
Title: The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor: Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data
Abstract: Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse and multi-point studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross-calibration into two parts – one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation, and one that compares the energy spectra – we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra we use a combination of four distributions that, together. . .
Date: 02/2016 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001339 Available at:
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Authors: Kurita Satoshi, Miyoshi Yoshizumi, Blake Bernard, Reeves Geoffery D., and Kletzing Craig A.
Title: Relativistic electron microbursts and variations in trapped MeV electron fluxes during the 8-9 October 2012 storm: SAMPEX and Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: It has been suggested that whistler mode chorus is responsible for both acceleration of MeV electrons and relativistic electron microbursts through resonant wave-particle interactions. Relativistic electron microbursts have been considered as an important loss mechanism of radiation belt electrons. Here we report on the observations of relativistic electron microbursts and flux variations of trapped MeV electrons during the 8–9 October 2012 storm, using the SAMPEX and Van Allen Probes satellites. Observations by the satellites show that relativistic electron microbursts correlate well with the rapid enhancement of trapped MeV electron fluxes by chorus wave-particle interactions, indicating that acceleration by chorus is much more efficient than losses by microbursts during the storm. It . . .
Date: 02/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: n/a - n/a DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068260 Available at:
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Authors: Chen X.-R., Zong Q.-G., Zhou X.-Z., Blake Bernard, Wygant John R., et al.
Title: Van Allen Probes observation of a 360° phase shift in the flux modulation of injected electrons by ULF waves
Abstract: We present Van Allen Probe observation of drift-resonance interaction between energetic electrons and ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves on October 29, 2013. Oscillations in electron flux were observed at the period of ∼450s, which is also the dominant period of the observed ULF magnetic pulsations. The phase shift of the electron fluxes (∼50 to 150 keV) across the estimated resonant energy (∼104 keV) is ∼360°. This phase relationship is different from the characteristic 180° phase shift as expected from the drift-resonance theory. We speculate that the additional 180° phase difference arises from the inversion of electron phase space density (PSD) gradient, which in turn is caused by the drift motion of the substorm injected electrons. This PSD gradient adjusts the characteristic . . .
Date: 12/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071252 Available at:
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Authors: Reeves Geoffrey D, Friedel Reiner H W, Larsen Brian A., Skoug Ruth M., Funsten Herbert O., et al.
Title: Energy dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions.
Abstract: We present observations of the radiation belts from the HOPE and MagEIS particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy-dependence and L-shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on March 1 in more detail. The observations show: (a) At all L-shells, lower-energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) Events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) Enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are more common at lower energies; and (d) Even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower-energies tend to extend to lower L-shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L-shells at lower energie. . .
Date: 12/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021569 Available at:
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Authors: Skov Tamitha Mulligan, Fennell Joseph F., Roeder James L., Blake Bernard, and Claudepierre Seth G.
Title: Internal Charging Hazards in Near-Earth Space During Solar Cycle 24 Maximum: Van Allen Probes Measurements
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes mission provides an unprecedented opportunity to make detailed measurements of electrons and protons in the inner magnetosphere during the weak solar maximum period of cycle 24. The MagEIS suite of sensors measures energy spectra and fluxes of charged particles in the space environment. The calculations show that these fluxes result in electron deposition rates high enough to cause internal charging. We use omnidirectional fluxes of electrons and protons to calculate the dose under varying materials and thicknesses of shielding. We show examples of charge deposition rates during the times of nominal and high levels of penetrating fluxes in the inner magnetosphere covering the period from the beginning of 2013 through mid-2014. These charge deposition rates are related . . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Pages: 3070 - 3074 DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2015.2468214 Available at:
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Authors: Dai Lei, Wang Chi, Duan Suping, He Zhaohai, Wygant John R., et al.
Title: Near-Earth Injection of MeV Electrons associated with Intense Dipolarization Electric Fields: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: Substorms generally inject 10s-100s keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the pre-midnight sector at L∼5.5, Van Allen Probes (RBSP)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50mV/m) over ∼40s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ∼3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the in. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064955 Available at:
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Authors: Shi Run, Summers Danny, Ni Binbin, Fennell Joseph F., Blake Bernard, et al.
Title: Survey of radiation belt energetic electron pitch angle distributions based on the Van Allen Probes MagEIS measurements
Abstract: A statistical survey of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) is performed based on the pitch angle resolved flux observations from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument on board the Van Allen Probes during the period from 1 October 2012 to 1 May 2015. By fitting the measured PADs to a sinnα form, where α is the local pitch angle and n is the power law index, we investigate the dependence of PADs on electron kinetic energy, magnetic local time (MLT), the geomagnetic Kp index and L-shell. The difference in electron PADs between the inner and outer belt is distinct. In the outer belt, the common averaged n values are less than 1.5, except for large values of the Kp index and high electron energies. The averaged n values vary considerably with MLT, with a peak in th. . .
Date: 12/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021724 Available at:
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