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Authors: Summers D., Ni Binbin, and Meredith Nigel P
Title: Timescales for radiation belt electron acceleration and loss due to resonant wave-particle interactions: 1. Theory
Abstract: Radiation belt electrons can interact with various modes of plasma wave in their drift orbits about the Earth, including whistler-mode chorus outside the plasmasphere, and both whistler-mode hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves inside the plasmasphere. Electrons undergo gyroresonant diffusion in their interactions with these waves. To determine the timescales for electron momentum diffusion and pitch angle diffusion, we develop bounce-averaged quasi-linear resonant diffusion coefficients for field-aligned electromagnetic waves in a hydrogen or multi-ion (H+, He+, O+) plasma. We assume that the Earth's magnetic field is dipolar and that the wave frequency spectrum is Gaussian. Evaluation of the diffusion coefficients requires the solution of a sixth-order polynomial equation for the. . .
Date: 04/2007 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011801 Available at:
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Authors: Meredith Nigel P, Horne Richard B, Glauert Sarah A, Thorne Richard M, Summers D., et al.
Title: Energetic outer zone electron loss timescales during low geomagnetic activity
Abstract: Following enhanced magnetic activity the fluxes of energetic electrons in the Earth's outer radiation belt gradually decay to quiet-time levels. We use CRRES observations to estimate the energetic electron loss timescales and to identify the principal loss mechanisms. Gradual loss of energetic electrons in the region 3.0 ≤ L ≤ 5.0 occurs during quiet periods (Kp < 3−) following enhanced magnetic activity on timescales ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 days for 214 keV electrons to 5.5 to 6.5 days for 1.09 MeV electrons. The intervals of decay are associated with large average values of the ratio fpe/fce (>7), indicating that the decay takes place in the plasmasphere. We compute loss timescales for pitch-angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss using the PADIE code with wave properties based on C. . .
Date: 05/2006 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011516 Available at:
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Authors: Thorne R M, O'Brien T. P., Shprits Y. Y., Summers D., and Horne R. B.
Title: Timescale for MeV electron microburst loss during geomagnetic storms
Abstract: Energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt can resonate with intense bursts of whistler-mode chorus emission leading to microburst precipitation into the atmosphere. The timescale for removal of outer zone MeV electrons during the main phase of the October 1998 magnetic storm has been computed by comparing the rate of microburst loss observed on SAMPEX with trapped flux levels observed on Polar. Effective lifetimes are comparable to a day and are relatively independent of L shell. The lifetimes have also been evaluated by theoretical calculations based on quasi-linear scattering by field-aligned waves. Agreement with the observations requires average wide-band wave amplitudes comparable to 100 pT, which is consistent with the intensity of chorus emissions observed under active conditi. . .
Date: 09/2005 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2004JA010882 Available at:
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Authors: Meredith Nigel P, Cain Michelle, Horne Richard B., Thorne Richard M., Summers D., et al.
Title: Evidence for chorus-driven electron acceleration to relativistic energies from a survey of geomagnetically disturbed periods
Abstract: We perform a survey of the plasma wave and particle data from the CRRES satellite during 26 geomagnetically disturbed periods to investigate the viability of a local stochastic electron acceleration mechanism to relativistic energies driven by Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonant interactions with whistler mode chorus. Relativistic electron flux enhancements associated with moderate or strong storms may be seen over the whole outer zone (3 < L < 7), typically peaking in the range 4 < L < 5, whereas those associated with weak storms and intervals of prolonged substorm activity lacking a magnetic storm signature (PSALMSS) are typically observed further out in the regions 4 < L < 7 and 4.5 < L < 7, respectively. The most significant relativistic electron flux enhancements are seen outside of th. . .
Date: 06/2003 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009764 Available at:
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Authors: Summers D.
Title: Relativistic electron pitch-angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves during geomagnetic storms
Abstract: [1] During magnetic storms, relativistic electrons execute nearly circular orbits about the Earth and traverse a spatially confined zone within the duskside plasmapause where electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are preferentially excited. We examine the mechanism of electron pitch-angle diffusion by gyroresonant interaction with EMIC waves as a cause of relativistic electron precipitation loss from the outer radiation belt. Detailed calculations are carried out of electron cyclotron resonant pitch-angle diffusion coefficients Dαα for EMIC waves in a multi-ion (H+, He+, O+) plasma. A simple functional form for Dαα is used, based on quasi-linear theory that is valid for parallel-propagating, small-amplitude electromagnetic waves of general spectral density. For typical observed EM. . .
Date: 04/2003 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009489 Available at:
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Authors: Summers D., Thorne Richard M, and Xiao Fuliang
Title: Relativistic theory of wave-particle resonant diffusion with application to electron acceleration in the magnetosphere
Abstract: Resonant diffusion curves for electron cyclotron resonance with field-aligned electromagnetic R mode and L mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are constructed using a fully relativistic treatment. Analytical solutions are derived for the case of a single-ion plasma, and a numerical scheme is developed for the more realistic case of a multi-ion plasma. Diffusion curves are presented, for plasma parameters representative of the Earth's magnetosphere at locations both inside and outside the plasmapause. The results obtained indicate minimal electron energy change along the diffusion curves for resonant interaction with L mode waves. Intense storm time EMIC waves are therefore ineffective for electron stochastic acceleration, although these waves could induce rapid pitch angle scat. . .
Date: 09/1998 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 20487 - 20500 DOI: 10.1029/98JA01740 Available at:
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