Found 10 results
Filters: Keyword is substorms  [Clear All Filters]
Authors: Stephens G. K., Sitnov M I, Korth H., Tsyganenko N A, Ohtani S, et al.
Title: Global Empirical Picture of Magnetospheric Substorms Inferred From Multimission Magnetometer Data
Abstract: Magnetospheric substorms represent key explosive processes in the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind, and their understanding and modeling are critical for space weather forecasting. During substorms, the magnetic field on the nightside is first stretched in the antisunward direction and then it rapidly contracts earthward bringing hot plasmas from the distant space regions into the inner magnetosphere, where they contribute to geomagnetic storms and Joule dissipation in the polar ionosphere, causing impressive splashes of aurora. Here we show for the first time that mining millions of spaceborne magnetometer data records from multiple missions allows one to reconstruct the global 3‐D picture of these stretching and dipolarization processes. Stretching results i. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025843 Available at:
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Authors: Sandhu J. K., Rae I. J., Freeman M. P., Forsyth C., Gkioulidou M., et al.
Title: Energisation of the ring current by substorms
Abstract: The substorm process releases large amounts of energy into the magnetospheric system, although where the energy is transferred to and how it is partitioned remains an open question. In this study, we address whether the substorm process contributes a significant amount of energy to the ring current. The ring current is a highly variable region, and understanding the energisation processes provides valuable insight into how substorm ‐ ring current coupling may contribute to the generation of storm conditions and provide a source of energy for wave driving. In order to quantify the energy input into the ring current during the substorm process, we analyse RBSPICE and HOPE ion flux measurements for H+, O+, and He+. The energy content of the ring current is estimated and binned spatially for. . .
Date: 09/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025766 Available at:
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Authors: Ohtani S, Motoba T., Gkioulidou M., Takahashi K., and Singer H J
Title: Spatial Development of the Dipolarization Region in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: The present study examines dipolarization events observed by the Van Allen Probes within 5.8 RE from Earth. It is found that the probability of occurrence is significantly higher in the dusk‐to‐midnight sector than in the midnight‐to‐dawn sector, and it deceases sharply earthward. A comparison with observations made at nearby satellites shows that dipolarization signatures are often highly correlated (c.c. > 0.8) within 1 hr in MLT and 1 RE in RXY, and the dipolarization region expands earthward and westward in the dusk‐to‐midnight sector. The westward expansion velocity is estimated at 0.4 hr (in MLT) per minute, or 60 km/s, which is consistent with the previously reported result for geosynchronous dipolarization. The earthward expansion is apparently less systematic than the . . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025443 Available at:
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Authors: Turner D. L., Fennell J. F., Blake J B, Claudepierre S G, Clemmons J. H., et al.
Title: Multipoint observations of energetic particle injections and substorm activity during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes
Abstract: This study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between MMS and Van Allen Probes on 07 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from THEMIS, Geotail, and LANL-GEO (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (max. AE < 300 nT) during quiet geomagnetic conditions in steady, below-average solar wind, a complex series of at least six different electron injections was observed throughout the system. Intriguingly, only one corresponding ion injection was clearly observed. All ion and electron injections were observed at < 600 keV only. MMS reveals detailed substructure within the lar. . .
Date: 09/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024554 Available at:
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Authors: Baker D N, Jaynes A. N., Turner D. L., Nakamura R, Schmid D., et al.
Title: A telescopic and microscopic examination of acceleration in the June 2015 geomagnetic storm: Magnetospheric Multiscale and Van Allen Probes study of substorm particle injection
Abstract: An active storm period in June 2015 showed that particle injection events seen sequentially by the four (Magnetospheric Multiscale) MMS spacecraft subsequently fed the enhancement of the outer radiation belt observed by Van Allen Probes mission sensors. Several episodes of significant southward interplanetary magnetic field along with a period of high solar wind speed (Vsw ≳ 500 km/s) on 22 June occurred following strong interplanetary shock wave impacts on the magnetosphere. Key events on 22 June 2015 show that the magnetosphere progressed through a sequence of energy-loading and stress-developing states until the entire system suddenly reconfigured at 19:32 UT. Energetic electrons, plasma, and magnetic fields measured by the four MMS spacecraft revealed clear dipolarization front. . .
Date: 06/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 6051 - 6059 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v43.1210.1002/2016GL069643 Available at:
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Authors: Nakayama Y., Ebihara Y., Ohtani S, Gkioulidou M., Takahashi K., et al.
Title: Void structure of O + ions in the inner magnetosphere observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument observed a new type of enhancement of O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere during substorms. As the satellite moved outward in the premidnight sector, the flux of the O+ ions with energy ~10 keV appeared first in the energy-time spectrograms. Then, the enhancement of the flux spread toward high and low energies. The enhanced flux of the O+ ions with the highest energy remained, whereas the flux of the ions with lower energy vanished near apogee, forming what we call the void structure. The structure cannot be found in the H+ spectrogram. We studied the generation mechanism of this structure by using numerical simulation. We traced the trajectories of O+ ions in the electric and magnetic fields from the global magnetohydrodynamic. . .
Date: 11/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023013 Available at:
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Authors: Jaynes A. N., Lessard M. R., Takahashi K., Ali A. F., Malaspina D. M., et al.
Title: Correlated Pc4-5 ULF waves, whistler-mode chorus and pulsating aurora observed by the Van Allen Probes and ground-based systems
Abstract: Theory and observations have linked equatorial VLF waves with pulsating aurora for decades, invoking the process of pitch-angle scattering of 10's keV electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere. Recently published satellite studies have strengthened this argument, by showing strong correlation between pulsating auroral patches and both lower-band chorus and 10's keV electron modulation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Additionally, a previous link has been made between Pc4-5 compressional pulsations and modulation of whistler-mode chorus using THEMIS. In the current study, we present simultaneous in-situ observations of structured chorus waves and an apparent field line resonance (in the Pc4-5 range) as a result of a substorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes, along with groun. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021380 Available at:
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Authors: Turner D. L., Claudepierre S G, Fennell J. F., O'Brien T P, Blake J B, et al.
Title: Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity
Abstract: From a survey of the first nightside season of NASA's Van Allen Probes mission (Dec/2012 – Sep/2013), 47 energetic (10s to 100s of keV) electron injection events were found at L-shells ≤ 4, all of which are deeper than any previously reported substorm-related injections. Preliminary details from these events are presented, including how: all occurred shortly after dipolarization signatures and injections were observed at higher L-shells; the deepest observed injection was at L~2.5; and, surprisingly, L≤4 injections are limited in energy to ≤250 keV. We present a detailed case study of one example event revealing that the injection of electrons down to L~3.5 was different from injections observed at higher L and likely resulted from drift resonance with a fast magnetosonic wave in t. . .
Date: 02/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225 Available at:
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Authors: Jaynes A.N., Baker D.N., Singer H.J., Rodriguez J.V., Loto'aniu T.M., et al.
Title: Source and Seed Populations for Relativistic Electrons: Their Roles in Radiation Belt Changes
Abstract: Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August-September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13-22 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward IMF, showed strong depletion of. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021234 Available at:
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Authors: Sergeev V. A., Nikolaev A. V., Tsyganenko N A, Angelopoulos V, Runov A. V., et al.
Title: Testing a two-loop pattern of the substorm current wedge (SCW2L)
Abstract: Recent quantitative testing of the classical (region 1 sense) substorm current wedge (SCI) model revealed systematic discrepancies between the observed and predicted amplitudes, which suggested us to include additional region 2 sense currents (R2 loop) earthward of the dipolarized region (SCW2L model). Here we discuss alternative circuit geometries of the 3-D substorm current system and interpret observations of the magnetic field dipolarizations made between 6.6RE and 11RE, to quantitatively investigate the SCW2L model parameters. During two cases of a dipole-like magnetotail configuration, the dipolarization/injection front fortuitously stopped at r ~ 9RE for the entire duration of ~ 30 min long SCW-related dipolarization within a unique, radially distributed multispacecraft constellat. . .
Date: 02/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 947 - 963 DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019629 Available at:
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