Found 109 results
Filters: Keyword is Radiation belts  [Clear All Filters]
Authors: Da Silva L. A., Sibeck D., Alves L. R., Souza V. M., Jauer P. R., et al.
Title: Contribution of ULF wave activity to the global recovery of the outer radiation belt during the passage of a high-speed solar wind stream observed in September 2014
Abstract: Energy coupling between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere can affect the electron population in the outer radiation belt. However, the precise role of different internal and external mechanisms that leads to changes of the relativistic electron population is not entirely known. This paper describes how Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) wave activity during the passage of Alfvénic solar wind streams contributes to the global recovery of the relativistic electron population in the outer radiation belt. To investigate the contribution of the ULF waves, we searched the Van Allen Probes data for a period in which we can clearly distinguish the enhancement of electron fluxes from the background. We found that the global recovery that started on September 22, 2014, which coincides with the co. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026184 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Omura Yoshiharu, Hsieh Yi‐Kai, Foster John C., Erickson Philip J., Kletzing Craig A., et al.
Title: Cyclotron Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons Through Landau Resonance With Obliquely Propagating Whistler‐Mode Chorus Emissions
Abstract: Efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons at Landau resonance with obliquely propagating whistler‐mode chorus emissions is confirmed by theory, simulation, and observation. The acceleration is due to the perpendicular component of the wave electric field. We first review theoretical analysis of nonlinear motion of resonant electrons interacting with obliquely propagating whistler‐mode chorus. We have derived formulae of inhomogeneity factors for Landau and cyclotron resonances to analyze nonlinear wave trapping of energetic electrons by an obliquely propagating chorus element. We performed test particle simulations to confirm that nonlinear wave trapping by both Landau and cyclotron resonances can take place for a wide range of energies. For an element of large amplitude chorus . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026374 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Pinto V. A., Mourenas D., Bortnik J, Zhang X.‐J., Artemyev A. V., et al.
Title: Decay of Ultrarelativistic Remnant Belt Electrons Through Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss
Abstract: Ultrarelativistic electron remnant belts appear frequently following geomagnetic disturbances and are located in‐between the inner radiation belt and a reforming outer belt. As remnant belts are relatively stable, here we explore the importance of hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in controlling the observed decay rates of remnant belt ultrarelativistic electrons in a statistical way. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes inside the plasmasphere for 25 remnant belt events that occurred between 2012 and 2017 and that are located in the region 2.9Date: Dec-07-2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026509 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Smirnov A. G., Kronberg E. A., Latallerie F., Daly P. W., Aseev N. A., et al.
Title: Electron intensity measurements by the Cluster/RAPID/IES instrument in Earth's radiation belts and ring current
Abstract: The Cluster mission, launched in 2000, has produced a large database of electron flux intensity measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere by the Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detector (RAPID)/ Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) instrument. However, due to background contamination of the data with high‐energy electrons (<400 keV) and inner‐zone protons (230‐630 keV) in the radiation belts and ring current, the data have been rarely used for inner‐magnetospheric science. The current paper presents two algorithms for background correction. The first algorithm is based on the empirical contamination percentages by both protons and electrons. The second algorithm uses simultaneous proton observations. The efficiencies of these algorithms are demonstrated by comparison of the . . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2018SW001989 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Blum L.W., Artemyev A., Agapitov O., Mourenas D., Boardsen S., et al.
Title: EMIC Wave‐Driven Bounce Resonance Scattering of Energetic Electrons in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: While electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been long studied as a scattering mechanism for ultrarelativistic (megaelectron volt) electrons via cyclotron‐resonant interactions, these waves are also of the right frequency to resonate with the bounce motion of lower‐energy (approximately tens to hundreds of kiloelectron volts) electrons. Here we investigate the effectiveness of this bounce resonance interaction to better determine the effects of EMIC waves on subrelativistic electron populations in Earth's inner magnetosphere. Using wave and plasma parameters directly measured by the Van Allen Probes, we estimate bounce resonance diffusion coefficients for four different events, illustrative of wave and plasma parameters to be encountered in the inner magnetosphere. The range o. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026427 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Ripoll J.‐F., Farges T., Lay E. H., and Cunningham G. S.
Title: Local and Statistical Maps of Lightning‐Generated Wave Power Density Estimated at the Van Allen Probes Footprints From the World‐Wide Lightning Location Network Database
Abstract: We propose a new method that uses the World‐Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) to estimate both the local and the drift lightning power density at the Van Allen Probes footprints during 4.3 years (~2 × 108 strokes.). The ratio of the drift power density to the local power density defines a time‐resolved WWLLN‐based model of lightning‐generated wave (LGW) power density ratio, RWWLLN. RWWLLNis computed every ~34 s. This ratio multiplied by the time‐resolved LGW intensity measured by the Probes allows direct computation of pitch angle diffusion coefficients used in radiation belt codes. Statistical analysis shows the median power density ratio is urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl58808:grl58808-math-0001 over the Americas. Elsewhere, urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl58808:grl58808-ma. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 4122 - 4133 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081146 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Zhu Hui, Chen Lunjin, Liu Xu, and Shprits Yuri Y
Title: Modulation of Locally Generated Equatorial Noise by ULF Wave
Abstract: In this paper we report a rare and fortunate event of fast magnetosonic (MS, also called equatorial noise) waves modulated by compressional ultralow frequency (ULF) waves measured by Van Allen Probes. The characteristics of MS waves, ULF waves, proton distribution, and their potential correlations are analyzed. The results show that ULF waves can modulate the energetic ring proton distribution and in turn modulate the MS generation. Furthermore, the variation of MS intensities is attributed to not only ULF wave activities but also the variation of background parameters, for example, number density. The results confirm the opinion that MS waves are generated by proton ring distribution and propose a new modulation phenomenon.
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026199 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Baker Daniel N, Hoxie Vaughn, Zhao Hong, Jaynes Allison N., Kanekal Shri, et al.
Title: Multiyear Measurements of Radiation Belt Electrons: Acceleration, Transport, and Loss
Abstract: In addition to clarifying morphological structures of the Earth's radiation belts, it has also been a major achievement of the Van Allen Probes mission to understand more thoroughly how highly relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons are accelerated deep inside the radiation belts. Prior studies have demonstrated that electrons up to energies of 10 megaelectron volts (MeV) can be produced over broad regions of the outer Van Allen zone on timescales of minutes to a few hours. It often is seen that geomagnetic activity driven by strong solar storms (i.e., coronal mass ejections, or CMEs) almost inexorably leads to relativistic electron production through the intermediary step of intense magnetospheric substorms. In this study, we report observations over the 6‐year period 1 September 2. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026259 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Kilpua E. K. J., Turner D. L., Jaynes A. N., Hietala H., Koskinen H. E. J., et al.
Title: Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt Response to Interacting Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections
Abstract: We study the response of the outer Van Allen radiation belt during an intense magnetic storm on 15–22 February 2014. Four interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) arrived at Earth, of which the three last ones were interacting. Using data from the Van Allen Probes, we report the first detailed investigation of electron fluxes from source (tens of kiloelectron volts) to core (megaelectron volts) energies and possible loss and acceleration mechanisms as a response to substructures (shock, sheath and ejecta, and regions of shock‐compressed ejecta) in multiple interacting ICMEs. After an initial enhancement induced by a shock compression of the magnetosphere, core fluxes strongly depleted and stayed low for 4 days. This sustained depletion can be related to a sequence of ICME substruc. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 1927 - 1947 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026238 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Turner D. L., Kilpua E. K. J., Hietala H., Claudepierre S G, O'Brien T P, et al.
Title: The Response of Earth's Electron Radiation Belts to Geomagnetic Storms: Statistics From the Van Allen Probes Era Including Effects From Different Storm Drivers
Abstract: A statistical study was conducted of Earth's radiation belt electron response to geomagnetic storms using NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. Data for electrons with energies ranging from 30 keV to 6.3 MeV were included and examined as a function of L‐shell, energy, and epoch time during 110 storms with SYM‐H ≤−50 nT during September 2012 to September 2017 (inclusive). The radiation belt response revealed clear energy and L‐shell dependencies, with tens of keV electrons enhanced at all L‐shells (2.5 ≤ L ≤ 6) in all storms during the storm commencement and main phase and then quickly decaying away during the early recovery phase, low hundreds of keV electrons enhanced at lower L‐shells (~3 ≤ L ≤ ~4) in upward of 90% of all storms and then decaying gradually during the rec. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026066 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Zhu Hui, Liu Xu, and Chen Lunjin
Title: Triggered Plasmaspheric Hiss: Rising Tone Structures
Abstract: In this study, a rare hiss event observed by Van Allen Probe is reported and the possible generation is investigated based on wave and plasma measurements. The results suggest that the normal hiss (from 0.05fce to 0.5fce) with dominantly equatorward Poynting fluxes is locally generated by plasma sheet electrons via cyclotron instability. The low‐frequency band (from 30 Hz to 0.05fce) with a mixture of equatorward and poleward Poynting fluxes is probably due to multiple reflections inside the plasmasphere. Such difference in the two bands is confirmed by the calculation of minimum energy of resonant electrons and local growth rate. Moreover, the analysis on the fine structures of normal hiss waves shows that besides the expected incoherent structure (below 1 kHz), several rising tone elem. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082688 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Zhao H., Baker D N, Li X, Jaynes A. N., and Kanekal S G
Title: The Acceleration of Ultrarelativistic Electrons During a Small to Moderate Storm of 21 April 2017
Abstract: The ultrarelativistic electrons (E > ~3 MeV) in the outer radiation belt received limited attention in the past due to sparse measurements. Nowadays, the Van Allen Probes measurements of ultrarelativistic electrons with high energy resolution provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the dynamics of this population. In this study, using data from the Van Allen Probes, we report significant flux enhancements of ultrarelativistic electrons with energies up to 7.7 MeV during a small to moderate geomagnetic storm. The underlying physical mechanisms are investigated by analyzing and simulating the evolution of electron phase space density. The results suggest that during this storm, the acceleration mechanism for ultrarelativistic electrons in the outer belt is energy‐dependent: local acc. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078582 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Malaspina David M., Ukhorskiy Aleksandr, Chu Xiangning, and Wygant John
Title: A census of plasma waves and structures associated with an injection front in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Now that observations have conclusively established that the inner magnetosphere is abundantly populated with kinetic electric field structures and nonlinear waves, attention has turned to quantifying the ability of these structures and waves to scatter and accelerate inner magnetospheric plasma populations. A necessary step in that quantification is determining the distribution of observed structure and wave properties (e.g. occurrence rates, amplitudes, spatial scales). Kinetic structures and nonlinear waves have broadband signatures in frequency space and consequently, high resolution time domain electric and magnetic field data is required to uniquely identify such structures and waves as well as determine their properties. However, most high resolution fields data is collected with a . . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025005 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Pinto Víctor A., Bortnik Jacob, Moya Pablo S., Lyons Larry R., Sibeck David G., et al.
Title: Characteristics, Occurrence and Decay Rates of Remnant Belts associated with Three-Belt events in the Earth's Radiation Belts
Abstract: Shortly after the launch of the Van Allen Probes, a new three‐belt configuration of the electron radiation belts was reported. Using data between September 2012 and November 2017, we have identified 30 three‐belt events and found that about 18% of geomagnetic storms result in such configuration. Based on the identified events, we evaluated some characteristics of the remnant (intermediate) belt. We determined the energy range of occurrence and found it peaks at E = 5.2 MeV. We also determined that the magnetopause location and SYM‐H value may play an important role in the outer belt losses that lead to formation and location of the remnant belt. Finally, we calculated the decay rates of the remnant belt for all events and found that their lifetime gets longer as energy increases,. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080274 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Roederer Juan G., and Lejosne ène
Title: Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux
Abstract: Fifty years have passed since the parameter “L-star” was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like “distance to the equatorial point of a field line,” McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameter. . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025053 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Allison Hayley J., Horne Richard B, Glauert Sarah A, and Del Zanna Giulio
Title: Determination of the Equatorial Electron Differential Flux From Observations at Low Earth Orbit
Abstract: Variations in the high‐energy relativistic electron flux of the radiation belts depend on transport, acceleration, and loss processes, and importantly on the lower‐energy seed population. However, data on the seed population is limited to a few satellite missions. Here we present a new method that utilizes data from the Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector on board the low‐altitude Polar Operational Environmental Satellites to retrieve the seed population at a pitch angle of 90°. The integral flux values measured by Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector relate to a low equatorial pitch angle and were converted to omnidirectional flux using parameters obtained from fitting one or two urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra54628:jgra54628-math-0001 functions to pitch angle distributions given . . .
Date: 11/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025786 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Murphy Kyle R., Inglis Andrew R., Sibeck David G., Rae Jonathan, Watt Clare E. J., et al.
Title: Determining the mode, frequency, and azimuthal wave number of ULF waves during a HSS and moderate geomagnetic storm
Abstract: Ultra‐low frequency (ULF) waves play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the inner‐magnetosphere and outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. Broadband ULF wave power can transport energetic electrons via radial diffusion and discrete ULF wave power can energize electrons through a resonant interaction. Using observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we characterize the evolution of ULF waves during a high‐speed solar wind stream (HSS) and moderate geomagnetic storm while there is an enhancement of the outer radiation belt. The Automated Flare Inference of Oscillations (AFINO) code is used to distinguish discrete ULF wave power from broadband wave power during the HSS. During periods of discrete wave power and utilizing the close separation of the MMS sp. . .
Date: 05/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2017JA024877 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Hartinger M. D., Claudepierre S G, Turner D. L., Reeves G D, Breneman A., et al.
Title: Diagnosis of ULF Wave-Particle Interactions With Megaelectron Volt Electrons: The Importance of Ultrahigh-Resolution Energy Channels
Abstract: Electron flux measurements are an important diagnostic for interactions between ultralow‐frequency (ULF) waves and relativistic (∼1 MeV) electrons. Since measurements are collected by particle detectors with finite energy channel width, they are affected by a phase mixing process that can obscure these interactions. We demonstrate that ultrahigh‐resolution electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer on the Van Allen Probes mission—obtained using a data product that improves the energy resolution by roughly an order of magnitude—are crucial for understanding ULF wave‐particle interactions. In particular, the ultrahigh‐resolution measurements reveal a range of complex dynamics that cannot be resolved by standard measurements. Furthermore, the standard meas. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080291 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Damiano P.A., Chaston C.C., Hull A.J., and Johnson J.R.
Title: Electron Distributions in Kinetic Scale Field Line Resonances: A Comparison of Simulations and Observations
Abstract: Observations in kinetic scale field line resonances, or eigenmodes of the geomagnetic field, reveal highly field‐aligned plateaued electron distributions. By combining observations from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft with a hybrid kinetic gyrofluid simulation we show how these distributions arise from the nonlocal self‐consistent interaction of electrons with the wavefield. This interaction is manifested as electron trapping in the standing wave potential. The process operates along most of the field line and qualitatively accounts for electron observations near the equatorial plane and at higher latitudes. In conjunction with the highly field‐aligned plateaus, loss cone features are also evident, which result from the action of the upward‐directed wave parallel electr. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077748 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Mourenas D., Zhang X.-J., Artemyev A. V., Angelopoulos V, Thorne R M, et al.
Title: Electron nonlinear resonant interaction with short and intense parallel chorus wave-packets
Abstract: One of the major drivers of radiation belt dynamics, electron resonant interaction with whistler‐mode chorus waves, is traditionally described using the quasi‐linear diffusion approximation. Such a description satisfactorily explains many observed phenomena, but its applicability can be justified only for sufficiently low intensity, long duration waves. Recent spacecraft observations of a large number of very intense lower band chorus waves (with magnetic field amplitudes sometimes reaching ∼1% of the background) therefore challenge this traditional description, and call for an alternative approach when addressing the global, long‐term effects of the nonlinear interaction of these waves with radiation belt electrons. In this paper, we first use observations from the Van Allen Probe. . .
Date: 05/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025417 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Zhu Hui, Shprits Yuri Y, Chen Lunjin, Liu Xu, and Kellerman Adam C.
Title: An event on simultaneous amplification of exohiss and chorus waves associated with electron density enhancements
Abstract: Whistler mode exohiss are the structureless hiss waves observed outside the plasmapause with featured equatorward Poynting flux. An event of the amplification of exohiss as well as chorus waves was recorded by Van Allen Probes during the recovery phase of a weak geomagnetic storm. Amplitudes of both types of the waves showed a significant increase at the regions of electron density enhancements. It is found that the electrons resonant with exohiss and chorus showed moderate pitch‐angle anisotropies. The ratio of the number of electrons resonating with exohiss to total electron number presented in‐phase correlation with density variations, which suggests that exohiss can be amplified due to electron density enhancement in terms of cyclotron instability. The calculation of linear growth . . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2017JA025023 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Jaynes A. N., Ali A. F., Elkington S R, Malaspina D. M., Baker D N, et al.
Title: Fast diffusion of ultra-relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt: 17 March 2015 storm event
Abstract: Inward radial diffusion driven by ULF waves has long been known to be capable of accelerating radiation belt electrons to very high energies within the heart of the belts, but more recent work has shown that radial diffusion values can be highly event‐specific and mean values or empirical models may not capture the full significance of radial diffusion to acceleration events. Here we present an event of fast inward radial diffusion, occurring during a period following the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. Ultra‐relativistic electrons up to ∼8 MeV are accelerated in the absence of intense higher‐frequency plasma waves, indicating an acceleration event in the core of the outer belt driven primarily or entirely by ULF wave‐driven diffusion. We examine this fast diffusion rate alon. . .
Date: 09/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079786 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Meredith Nigel P, Horne Richard B, Kersten Tobias, Li Wen, Bortnik Jacob, et al.
Title: Global model of plasmaspheric hiss from multiple satellite observations
Abstract: We present a global model of plasmaspheric hiss, using data from eight satellites, extending the coverage and improving the statistics of existing models. We use geomagnetic activity dependent templates to separate plasmaspheric hiss from chorus. In the region 22‐14 MLT the boundary between plasmaspheric hiss and chorus moves to lower L∗ values with increasing geomagnetic activity. The average wave intensity of plasmaspheric hiss is largest on the dayside and increases with increasing geomagnetic activity from midnight through dawn to dusk. Plasmaspheric hiss is most intense and spatially extended in the 200‐500 Hz frequency band during active conditions, 400 Date: 05/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025226 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Murphy Kyle R., Watt C. E. J., Mann Ian R., Rae Jonathan, Sibeck David G., et al.
Title: The global statistical response of the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms
Abstract: Using the total radiation belt electron content calculated from Van Allen Probe phase space density (PSD), the time‐dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms is statistically studied. Using PSD reduces the impacts of adiabatic changes in the main phase, allowing a separation of adiabatic and non‐adiabatic effects, and revealing a clear modality and repeatable sequence of events in storm‐time radiation belt electron dynamics. This sequence exhibits an important first adiabatic invariant (μ) dependent behaviour in the seed (150 MeV/G), relativistic (1000 MeV/G), and ultra‐relativistic (4000 MeV/G) populations. The outer radiation belt statistically shows an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase of rapid acceleration, whilst the seed. . .
Date: 04/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076674 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Woodger L A, Millan R M, Li Z., and Sample J G
Title: Impact of Background Magnetic Field for EMIC Wave-Driven Electron Precipitation
Abstract: Wave‐particle interaction between relativistic electrons and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is a highly debated loss process contributing to the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts. Theoretical studies show that EMIC waves can result in strong loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts (Summers & Thorne, 2003, However, many of these studies have not been validated by observations. Li et al. (2014, modeled the relativistic electron precipitation observed by Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) in a single‐event case study based on a quasi‐linear diffusion model and observations by Van Allen Probes and GOES 13. We expand upon that study to investigate th. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025315 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Li Li, Zhou Xu-Zhi, Omura Yoshiharu, Wang Zi-Han, Zong Qiu-Gang, et al.
Title: Nonlinear drift resonance between charged particles and ultra-low frequency waves: Theory and Observations
Abstract: In Earth's inner magnetosphere, electromagnetic waves in the ultra‐low frequency (ULF) range play an important role in accelerating and diffusing charged particles via drift resonance. In conventional drift‐resonance theory, linearization is applied under the assumption of weak wave‐particle energy exchange so particle trajectories are unperturbed. For ULF waves with larger amplitudes and/or durations, however, the conventional theory becomes inaccurate since particle trajectories are strongly perturbed. Here, we extend the drift‐resonance theory into a nonlinear regime, to formulate nonlinear trapping of particles in a wave‐carried potential well, and predict the corresponding observable signatures such as rolled‐up structures in particle energy spectrum. After considering how. . .
Date: 08/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079038 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Ripoll ‐F., Loridan V., Denton M. H., Cunningham G., Reeves G., et al.
Title: Observations and Fokker‐Planck simulations of the L‐shell, energy, and pitch‐angle structure of Earth’s electron radiation belts during quiet times
Abstract: The evolution of the radiation belts in L‐shell (L), energy (E), and equatorial pitch‐angle (α0) is analyzed during the calm 11‐day interval (March 4 –March 15) following the March 1 storm 2013. Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) observations from Van Allen Probes are interpreted alongside 1D and 3D Fokker‐Planck simulations combined with consistent event‐driven scattering modeling from whistler mode hiss waves. Three (L, E, α0)‐regions persist through 11 days of hiss wave scattering; the pitch‐angle dependent inner belt core (L~<2.2 and E<700 keV), pitch‐angle homogeneous outer belt low‐energy core (L>~5 and E~<100 keV), and a distinct pocket of electrons (L~[4.5, 5.5] and E~[0.7, 2] MeV). The pitch‐angle homogeneous outer belt is explained by the diff. . .
Date: 12/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026111 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Bingham S. T., Mouikis C. G., Kistler L. M., Boyd A. J., Paulson K., et al.
Title: The outer radiation belt response to the storm time development of seed electrons and chorus wave activity during CME and CIR storms
Abstract: Gyroresonant wave‐particle interactions with very low frequency whistler mode chorus waves can accelerate subrelativistic seed electrons (hundreds of keV) to relativistic energies in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. In this study, we conduct a superposed epoch analysis of the chorus wave activity, the seed electron development, and the outer radiation belt electron response between L* = 2.5 and 5.5, for 25 coronal mass ejection and 35 corotating interaction region storms using Van Allen Probes observations. Electron data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instruments are used to monitor the storm‐phase development of the seed and relativistic electrons, and magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic . . .
Date: 12/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025963 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Halford A J, Reeves G D, Baker D N, et al.
Title: Pitch Angle Scattering and Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons in Broadband Electromagnetic Waves
Abstract: A magnetic conjunction between Van Allen Probes spacecraft and the Balloon Array for Radiation‐belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) reveals the simultaneous occurrence of broadband Alfvénic fluctuations and multi‐timescale modulation of enhanced atmospheric X‐ray bremsstrahlung emission. The properties of the Alfvénic fluctuations are used to build a model for pitch angle scattering in the outer radiation belt on electron gyro‐radii scale field structures. It is shown that this scattering may lead to the transport of electrons into the loss cone over an energy range from hundreds of keV to multi‐MeV on diffusive timescales on the order of hours. This process may account for modulation of atmospheric X‐ray fluxes observed from balloons and constitute a significant loss p. . .
Date: 09/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079527 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Wygant J R, Reeves G D, Baker D N, et al.
Title: Radiation belt “dropouts” and drift-bounce resonances in broadband electromagnetic waves
Abstract: Observations during the main phase of geomagnetic storms reveal an anti-correlation between the occurrence of broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves and outer radiation belt electron flux. We show that the drift-bounce motion of electrons in the magnetic field of these waves leads to rapid electron transport. For observed spectral energy densities it is demonstrated that the wave magnetic field can drive radial diffusion via drift-bounce resonance on timescales less than a drift orbit. This process may provide outward transport sufficient to account for electron “dropouts” during storm main phase and more generally modulate the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms.
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076362 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Olifer L., Mann I. R., Morley S. K., Ozeke L. G., and Choi D.
Title: On the role of last closed drift shell dynamics in driving fast losses and Van Allen radiation belt extinction
Abstract: We present observations of very fast radiation belt loss as resolved using high‐time resolution electron flux data from the constellation of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The timescale of these losses is revealed to be as short as ∼0.5 − 2 hours during intense magnetic storms, with some storms demonstrating almost total loss on these timescales and which we characterize as radiation belt extinction. The intense March 2013 and March 2015 storms both show such fast extinction, with a rapid recovery, while the September 2014 storm shows fast extinction but no recovery for around two weeks. By contrast, the moderate September 2012 storm which generated a three radiation belt morphology shows more gradual loss. We compute the last closed drift shell (LCDS) for each of these . . .
Date: 04/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025190 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Capannolo L., Li W, Ma Q, Zhang X.-J., Redmon R. J., et al.
Title: Understanding the Driver of Energetic Electron Precipitation Using Coordinated Multisatellite Measurements
Abstract: Magnetospheric plasma waves play a significant role in ring current and radiation belt dynamics, leading to pitch angle scattering loss and/or stochastic acceleration of the particles. During a non‐storm time dropout event on 24 September 2013, intense electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were detected by Van Allen Probe A (Radiation Belt Storm Probes‐A). We quantitatively analyze a conjunction event when Van Allen Probe A was located approximately along the same magnetic field line as MetOp‐01, which detected simultaneous precipitation of >30 keV protons and energetic electrons over an unexpectedly broad energy range (>~30 keV). Multipoint observations together with quasi‐linear theory provide direct evidence that the observed electron precipitation at higher energy (>~700 k. . .
Date: 07/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078604 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Malaspina David M., Ripoll Jean-Francois, Chu Xiangning, Hospodarsky George, and Wygant John
Title: Variation in Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Power With Plasma Density
Abstract: Plasmaspheric hiss waves are commonly observed in the inner magnetosphere. These waves efficiently scatter electrons, facilitating their precipitation into the atmosphere. Predictive inner magnetosphere simulations often model hiss waves using parameterized empirical maps of observed hiss power. These maps nearly always include parameterization by magnetic L value. In this work, data from the Van Allen Probes are used to compare variation in hiss wave power with variation in both L value and cold plasma density. It is found that for L> 2.5, plasmaspheric hiss wave power increases with plasma density. For L> 3, this increase is stronger and occurs regardless of L value and for all local times. This result suggests that the current paradigm for parameterizing hiss wave power in many magnetos. . .
Date: 09/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078564 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Drozdov A. Y., Shprits Y Y, Aseev N. A., Kellerman A. C., and Reeves G D
Title: Dependence of radiation belt simulations to assumed radial diffusion rates tested for two empirical models of radial transport
Abstract: Radial diffusion is one of the dominant physical mechanisms that drives acceleration and loss of the radiation belt electrons, which makes it very important for nowcasting and forecasting space weather models. We investigate the sensitivity of the two parameterizations of the radial diffusion of Brautigam and Albert (2000) and Ozeke et al. (2014) on long-term radiation belt modeling using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB). Following Brautigam and Albert (2000) and Ozeke et al. (2014), we first perform 1-D radial diffusion simulations. Comparison of the simulation results with observations shows that the difference between simulations with either radial diffusion parameterization is small. To take into account effects of local acceleration and loss, we perform 3-D simulations, in. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Space Weather Pages: 150 - 162 DOI: 10.1002/swe.v15.110.1002/2016SW001426 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Moya Pablo. S., Pinto íctor A., Sibeck David G., Kanekal Shrikanth G, and Baker Daniel N
Title: On the effect of geomagnetic storms on relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: Using Van Allen Probes ECT-REPT observations we performed a statistical study on the effect of geomagnetic storms on relativistic electrons fluxes in the outer radiation belt for 78 storms between September 2012 and June 2016. We found that the probability of enhancement, depletion and no change in flux values depends strongly on L and energy. Enhancement events are more common for ∼ 2 MeV electrons at L ∼ 5, and the number of enhancement events decreases with increasing energy at any given L shell. However, considering the percentage of occurrence of each kind of event, enhancements are more probable at higher energies, and the probability of enhancement tends to increases with increasing L shell. Depletion are more probable for 4-5 MeV electrons at the heart of the outer radiation be. . .
Date: 10/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024735 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Santol?k O., Reeves G., Kurth W S, Denton M., et al.
Title: Effects of whistler mode hiss waves in March 2013
Abstract: We present simulations of the loss of radiation belt electrons by resonant pitch angle diffusion caused by whistler mode hiss waves for March 2013. Pitch angle diffusion coefficients are computed from the wave properties and the ambient plasma data obtained by the Van Allen Probes with a resolution of 8 hours and 0.1 L-shell. Loss rates follow a complex dynamic structure, imposed by the wave and plasma properties. Hiss effects can be strong, with minimum lifetimes (of ~1 day) moving from energies of ~100 keV at L~5 up to ~2 MeV at L~2, and stop abruptly, similarly to the observed energy-dependent inner belt edge. Periods when the plasmasphere extends beyond L~5 favor long-lasting hiss losses from the outer belt. Such loss rates are embedded in a reduced Fokker-Planck code and validated aga. . .
Date: 06/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024139 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Drozdov A. Y., Shprits Y Y, Usanova M. E., Aseev N. A., Kellerman A. C., et al.
Title: EMIC wave parameterization in the long-term VERB code simulation
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the dynamics of ultrarelativistic electron population in the radiation belts. However, as EMIC waves are very sporadic, developing a parameterization of such wave properties is a challenging task. Currently, there are no dynamic, activity-dependent models of EMIC waves that can be used in the long-term (several months) simulations, which makes the quantitative modeling of the radiation belt dynamics incomplete. In this study, we investigate Kp, Dst, and AE indices, solar wind speed, and dynamic pressure as possible parameters of EMIC wave presence. The EMIC waves are included in the long-term simulations (1 year, including different geomagnetic activity) performed with the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt code, and we co. . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024389 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Pich Maria de Soria-S, Jun Insoo, and Evans Robin
Title: Empirical radiation belt models: Comparison with in-situ data and implications for environment definition
Abstract: The empirical AP8/AE8 model has been the de-facto Earth's radiation belts engineering reference for decades. The need from the community for a better model incubated the development of AP9/AE9/SPM, which addresses several shortcomings of the old model. We provide additional validation of AP9/AE9 by comparing in-situ electron and proton data from Jason-2, POES, and the Van Allen Probes spacecraft with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles from AE9/AP9 and with the model outputs from AE8/AP8. The relatively short duration of Van Allen Probes and Jason-2 missions means that their measurements are most certainly the result of specific climatological conditions. In LEO, the Jason-2 proton flux is better reproduced by AP8 compared to AP9, while the POES electron data are well enveloped by AE9 5th . . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2017SW001612 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Turner D. L., Lee J. H., Claudepierre S G, Fennell J. F., Blake J B, et al.
Title: Examining coherency scales, substructure, and propagation of whistler-mode chorus elements with Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)
Abstract: Whistler-mode chorus waves are a naturally occurring electromagnetic emission observed in Earth's magnetosphere. Here, for the first time, data from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission were used to analyze chorus waves in detail, including the calculation of chorus wave normal vectors, k. A case study was examined from a period of substorm activity around the time of a conjunction between the MMS constellation and NASA's Van Allen Probes mission on 07 April 2016. Chorus wave activity was simultaneously observed by all six spacecraft over a broad range of L-shells (5.5 < L < 8.5), magnetic local time (06:00 < MLT < 09:00), and magnetic latitude (-32° < MLat < -15°), implying a large chorus active region. Eight chorus elements and their substructure were analyzed in detail with . . .
Date: 10/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024474 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Turner D L, O'Brien T. P., Fennell J F, Claudepierre S. G., Blake J. B., et al.
Title: Investigating the source of near-relativistic and relativistic electrons in Earth's inner radiation belt
Abstract: Using observations from NASA's Van Allen Probes, we study the role of sudden particle enhancements at low L shells (SPELLS) as a source of inner radiation belt electrons. SPELLS events are characterized by electron intensity enhancements of approximately an order of magnitude or more in less than 1 day at L < 3. During quiet and average geomagnetic conditions, the phase space density radial distributions for fixed first and second adiabatic invariants are peaked at 2 < L < 3 for electrons ranging in energy from ~50 keV to ~1 MeV, indicating that slow inward radial diffusion is not the dominant source of inner belt electrons under quiet/average conditions. During SPELLS events, the evolution of electron distributions reveals an enhancement of phase space density that can e. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900445 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Wygant J R, Reeves G D, Baker D N, et al.
Title: Radial transport of radiation belt electrons in kinetic field-line resonances
Abstract: A representative case study from the Van Allen Probes during a geomagnetic storm recovery phase reveals enhanced electron fluxes at intermediate pitch angles over energies from ~100 keV to 5 MeV coincident with broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves. The statistical properties of these waves are used to build a model for radial diffusion via drift-bounce resonances in kinetic Alfvén eigenmodes/kinetic field-line resonances. Estimated diffusion coefficients indicate timescales for radial transport of the order of hours in storm-time events at energies from <100 keV to MeVs over equatorial pitch angles from the edge of the loss cone to nearly perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. The correlation of kinetic resonances with electron depletions and enhancements during storm main phase. . .
Date: 07/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074587 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Su Zhenpeng, Gao Zhonglei, Zheng Huinan, Wang Yuming, Wang Shui, et al.
Title: Rapid loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons by EMIC waves
Abstract: How relativistic electrons are lost is an important question surrounding the complex dynamics of the Earth's outer radiation belt. Radial loss to the magnetopause and local loss to the atmosphere are two main competing paradigms. Here, on the basis of the analysis of a radiation belt storm event on 27 February 2014, we present new evidence for the EMIC wave-driven local precipitation loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt. During the main phase of this storm, the radial profile of relativistic electron phase space density was quasi-monotonic, qualitatively inconsistent with the prediction of radial loss theory. The local loss at low L-shells was required to prevent the development of phase space density peak resulting from the radial loss process at high L-. . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024169 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Sarris Theodore E., Li Xinlin, Temerin Michael, Zhao Hong, Califf Sam, et al.
Title: On the Relationship Between Electron Flux Oscillations and ULF Wave-Driven Radial Transport
Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the levels of electron flux oscillations and radial diffusion for different Phase Space Density (PSD) gradients, through observation and particle tracing simulations under the effect of model Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) fluctuations. This investigation aims to demonstrate that electron flux oscillation is associated with and could be used as an indicator of ongoing radial diffusion. To this direction, flux oscillations are observed through the Van Allen Probes’ MagEIS energetic particle detector; subsequently, flux oscillations are produced in a particle tracing model that simulates radial diffusion by using model magnetic and electric field fluctuations that are approximating measured magnetic and electric field fluctu. . .
Date: 06/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023741 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Hao Y. X., Zong Q.-G., Zhou X.-Z., Rankin R, Chen X. R., et al.
Title: Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions
Abstract: We present an analysis of “boomerang-shaped” pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on June 7th, 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90∘ pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180∘, and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of the arrival time of particles of different pitch angles at the spacecraft location, a scenario is investigated in which shock-induced ULF waves interact with electrons through the drift resonance mechanism in a localized region westward of the spacecraft. Numerical calculations on particle energy. . .
Date: 07/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074006 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Hwang J., Shin D. K., Yoon P. H., Kurth W S, Larsen B A, et al.
Title: Roles of hot electrons in generating upper-hybrid waves in the earth's radiation belt
Abstract: Electrostatic fluctuations near upper-hybrid frequency, which are sometimes accompanied by multiple-harmonic electron cyclotron frequency bands above and below the upper-hybrid frequency, are common occurrences in the Earth's radiation belt, as revealed through the twin Van Allen Probe spacecrafts. It is customary to use the upper-hybrid emissions for estimating the background electron density, which in turn can be used to determine the plasmapause locations, but the role of hot electrons in generating such fluctuations has not been discussed in detail. The present paper carries out detailed analyses of data from the Waves instrument, which is part of the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science suite onboard the Van Allen Probes. Combined with the theoretical ca. . .
Date: 06/2017 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas Pages: 062904 DOI: 10.1063/1.4984249 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Aseev N. A., Shprits Y Y, Drozdov A. Y., Kellerman A. C., Usanova M. E., et al.
Title: Signatures of Ultrarelativistic Electron Loss in the Heart of the Outer Radiation Belt Measured by Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Up until recently, signatures of the ultrarelativistic electron loss driven by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the Earth's outer radiation belt have been limited to direct or indirect measurements of electron precipitation or the narrowing of normalized pitch angle distributions in the heart of the belt. In this study, we demonstrate additional observational evidence of ultrarelativistic electron loss that can be driven by resonant interaction with EMIC waves. We analyzed the profiles derived from Van Allen Probe particle data as a function of time and three adiabatic invariants between 9 October and 29 November 2012. New local minimums in the profiles are accompanied by the narrowing of normalized pitch angle distributions and ground-based detection of EMIC waves. Such a cor. . .
Date: 09/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024485 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Shekhar Sapna, Millan Robyn, and Smith David
Title: A Statistical Study of the Spatial Extent of Relativistic Electron Precipitation with Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites.
Abstract: Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP) in the atmosphere can contribute significantly to electron loss from the outer radiation belts. In order to estimate the contribution to this loss, it is important to estimate the spatial extent of the precipitation region. We observed REP with the zenith pointing (0o) Medium Energy Proton Electron Detector (MEPED) on board Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), for 15 years (2000-2014) and used both single and multi satellite measurements to estimate an average extent of the region of precipitation in L shell and Magnetic Local Time (MLT). In the duration of 15 years (2000-2014), 31035 REP events were found in this study. Events were found to split into two classes; one class of events coincided with proton precipitation in the P1 channel. . .
Date: 10/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024716 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Malaspina David M., Jaynes Allison N., é Cory, Bortnik Jacob, Thaller Scott A., et al.
Title: The distribution of plasmaspheric hiss wave power with respect to plasmapause location
Abstract: In this work, Van Allen Probes data are used to derive terrestrial plasmaspheric hiss wave power distributions organized by (1) distance away from the plasmapause and (2) plasmapause distance from Earth. This approach is in contrast to the traditional organization of hiss wave power by L parameter and geomagnetic activity. Plasmapause-sorting reveals previously unreported and highly repeatable features of the hiss wave power distribution, including a regular spatial distribution of hiss power with respect to the plasmapause, a standoff distance between peak hiss power and the plasmapause, and frequency-dependent spatial localization of hiss. Identification and quantification of these features can provide insight into hiss generation and propagation and will facilitate improved parameteriza. . .
Date: 08/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 7878 - 7886 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069982 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Xiao Fuliang, Zhou Qinghua, Su Zhenpeng, He Zhaoguo, Yang Chang, et al.
Title: Explaining occurrences of auroral kilometric radiation in Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a strong terrestrial radio emission and dominates at higher latitudes because of reflection in vicinities of the source cavity and plasmapause. Recently, Van Allen Probes have observed occurrences of AKR emission in the equatorial region of Earth's radiation belts but its origin still remains an open question. Equatorial AKR can produce efficient acceleration of radiation belt electrons and is a risk to space weather. Here we report high-resolution observations during two small storm periods 4–6 April and 18–20 May 2013 and show, using a 3-D ray tracing simulation, that AKR can propagate downward all the way into the equatorial plane in the radiation belts under appropriate conditions. The simulated results can successfully explain the observed AKR. . .
Date: 12/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 11,971 - 11,978 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071728 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chen Yue, Reeves Geoffrey D, Cunningham Gregory S., Redmon Robert J., and Henderson Michael G.
Title: Forecasting and remote sensing outer belt relativistic electrons from low Earth orbit
Abstract: This study demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of using observations from low Earth orbit (LEO) to forecast and nowcast relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt. We first report a high cross-energy, cross-pitch-angle coherence discovered between the trapped MeV electrons and precipitating approximately hundreds (~100s) of keV electrons—observed by satellites with very different altitudes—with correlation coefficients as high as ≳ 0.85. Based upon the coherence, we then tested the feasibility of applying linear prediction filters to LEO data to predict the arrival of new MeV electrons during geomagnetic storms, as well as their evolving distributions afterward. Reliability of these predictive filters is quantified by the performance efficiency with values as high . . .
Date: 02/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1031 - 1038 DOI: 10.1002/2015GL067481 Available at:
More Details