Found 60 results
Filters: First Letter Of Keyword is A  [Clear All Filters]
Authors: Zhao H., Baker D.N., Li X, Malaspina D.M., Jaynes A.N., et al.
Title: On the Acceleration Mechanism of Ultrarelativistic Electrons in the Center of the Outer Radiation Belt: A Statistical Study
Abstract: Using energetic particle and wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), the acceleration mechanism of ultrarelativistic electrons (>3 MeV) in the center of the outer radiation belt is investigated statistically. A superposed epoch analysis is conducted using 19 storms, which caused flux enhancements of 1.8–7.7 MeV electrons. The evolution of electron phase space density radial profile suggests an energy‐dependent acceleration of ultrarelativistic electrons in the outer belt. Especially, for electrons with very high energies (~7 MeV), prevalent positive phase space density radial gradients support inward radial diffusion being responsible for electron acceleration in the cente. . .
Date: 10/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027111 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chen Huayue, Gao Xinliang, Lu Quanming, and Wang Shui
Title: Analyzing EMIC Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere Using Long‐Term Van Allen Probes Observations
Abstract: With 64‐month magnetic data from Van Allen Probes, we have studied not only the global distribution, wave normal angle (θ), and ellipticity (ε) of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, but also the dependence of their occurrence rates and magnetic amplitudes on the AE* index (the mean value of AE index over previous 1 hr). Our results show that H+ band waves are preferentially detected at 5 ≤ L ≤ 6.5, in the noon sector. They typically have small θ (<30°) and weakly left‐hand polarization but become more oblique and linearly polarized at larger magnetic latitudes or L‐shells. With the increase of AE* index, their occurrence rate significantly increases in the noon sector, and their source region extends to dusk sector. He+ band waves usually occur in the predawn and mor. . .
Date: 08/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7402 - 7412 DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026965 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Da Silva L. A., Sibeck D., Alves L. R., Souza V. M., Jauer P. R., et al.
Title: Contribution of ULF wave activity to the global recovery of the outer radiation belt during the passage of a high-speed solar wind stream observed in September 2014
Abstract: Energy coupling between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere can affect the electron population in the outer radiation belt. However, the precise role of different internal and external mechanisms that leads to changes of the relativistic electron population is not entirely known. This paper describes how Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) wave activity during the passage of Alfvénic solar wind streams contributes to the global recovery of the relativistic electron population in the outer radiation belt. To investigate the contribution of the ULF waves, we searched the Van Allen Probes data for a period in which we can clearly distinguish the enhancement of electron fluxes from the background. We found that the global recovery that started on September 22, 2014, which coincides with the co. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026184 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Zhao H., Baker D N, Li X, Jaynes A. N., and Kanekal S G
Title: The Effects of Geomagnetic Storms and Solar Wind Conditions on the Ultrarelativistic Electron Flux Enhancements
Abstract: Using data from the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope on the Van Allen Probes, the effects of geomagnetic storms and solar wind conditions on the ultrarelativistic electron (E > ~3 MeV) flux enhancements in the outer radiation belt, especially regarding their energy dependence, are investigated. It is showed that, statistically, more intense geomagnetic storms are indeed more likely to cause flux enhancements of ~1.8‐ to 7.7‐MeV electrons, though large variations exist. As the electron energy gets higher, the probability of flux enhancement gets lower. To shed light on which conditions of the storms are preferred to cause ultrarelativistic electron flux enhancement, detailed superposed epoch analyses of solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices during moderate and intense stor. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 1948 - 1965 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026257 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Miyoshi Y, Matsuda S., Kurita S., Nomura K., Keika K, et al.
Title: EMIC waves converted from equatorial noise due to M/Q=2 ions in the plasmasphere: Observations from Van Allen Probes and Arase
Abstract: Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are observed inside and outside the plasmapause. EN emissions are referred to as magnetosonic mode waves. Using data from Van Allen Probes and Arase, we found conversion from EN emissions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the plasmasphere and in the topside ionosphere. A low frequency part of EN emissions becomes EMIC waves through branch splitting of EN emissions, and the mode conversion from EN to EMIC waves occurs around the frequency of M/Q=2 (deuteron and/or alpha particles) cyclotron frequency. These processes result in plasmaspheric EMIC waves. We investigated the ion composition ratio by characteristic frequencies of EN emissions and EMIC waves and obtained ion composition ratios. We found that the maximum composition ratio of M/Q=2 io. . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083024 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Yu Xiongdong, Yuan Zhigang, Huang Shiyong, Yao Fei, Qiao Zheng, et al.
Title: Excitation of extremely low-frequency chorus emissions: The role of background plasma density
Abstract: Low‐frequency chorus emissions have recently attracted much attention due to the suggestion that they may play important roles in the dynamics of the Van Allen Belts. However, the mechanism (s) generating these low‐frequency chorus emissions have not been well understood. . In this letter, we report an interesting case in which background plasma density lowered the lower cutoff frequency of chorus emissions from above 0.1 f ce (typical ordinary chorus) to 0.02 f ce (extremely low‐frequency chorus). Those extremely low‐frequency chorus waves were observed in a rather dense plasma, where the number density N e was found to be several times larger than has been associated with observations of ordinary chorus waves. For suprathermal electrons whose free energy is supplied by anisotropi. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Earth and Planetary Physics Pages: 1 - 7 DOI: 10.26464/epp2019001 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Lotekar Ajay, Kakad Amar, and Kakad Bharati
Title: Formation of Asymmetric Electron Acoustic Double Layers in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes have observed both symmetric and asymmetric bipolar electric field structures in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. In general, the symmetric bipolar structures are identified as electron‐phase space holes, whereas the asymmetric structures are interpreted as electron acoustic double layers (EADLs). The generation mechanism of these EADLs is not entirely understood yet. We have modeled the EADLs observed on 13 November 2012 by Van Allen Probe‐B. We performed a fluid simulation of the EADLs and tracked their formation and evolution in the simulation. We found that the localized depletion and enhancement in the electron populations act as a perturbation to excite the symmetric bipolar electron acoustic solitary waves, which later evolve into the EADLs. The Ponderomotiv. . .
Date: 08/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 6896 - 6905 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026303 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Zhao Wanli, Liu Si, Zhang Sai, Zhou Qinghua, Yang Chang, et al.
Title: Global Occurrences of Auroral Kilometric Radiation Related to Suprathermal Electrons in Radiation Belts
Abstract: Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) can potentially produce serious damage to space‐borne systems by accelerating trapped radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Here we examine the global occurrences of AKR emissions in radiation belts based on Van Allen Probes observations from 1 October 2012 to 31 December 2016. The statistical results (1,848 events in total) show that AKR covers a broad region of L= 3–6.5 and 00–24 magnetic local time (MLT), with a higher occurrence on the nightside (20–24 MLT and 00–04 MLT) within L= 5–6.5. All the AKR events are observed to be accompanied with suprathermal (∼1 keV) electron flux enhancements. During active geomagnetic periods, both AKR occurrences and electron injections tend to be more distinct, and AKR emission extends to th. . .
Date: 07/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083944 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chu Xiangning, Malaspina David, Gallardo‐Lacourt Bea, Liang Jun, Andersson Laila, et al.
Title: Identifying STEVE's Magnetospheric Driver Using Conjugate Observations in the Magnetosphere and on the Ground
Abstract: The magnetospheric driver of strong thermal emission velocity enhancement (STEVE) is investigated using conjugate observations when Van Allen Probes' footprint directly crossed both STEVE and stable red aurora (SAR) arc. In the ionosphere, STEVE is associated with subauroral ion drift features, including electron temperature peak, density gradient, and westward ion flow. The SAR arc at lower latitudes corresponds to regions inside the plasmapause with isotropic plasma heating, which causes redline‐only SAR emission via heat conduction. STEVE corresponds to the sharp plasmapause boundary containing quasi‐static subauroral ion drift electric field and parallel‐accelerated electrons by kinetic Alfvén waves. These parallel electrons could precipitate and be accelerated via auroral accel. . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082789 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Yoon Peter H., Hwang Junga, Kim Hyangpyo, and Seough Jungjoon
Title: Quasi Thermal Noise Spectroscopy for Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Quasi thermal fluctuations in the Langmuir/upper‐hybrid frequency range are pervasively observed in space plasmas including the radiation belt and the ring current region of inner magnetosphere as well as the solar wind. The quasi thermal noise spectroscopy may be employed in order to determine the electron density and temperature as well as to diagnose the properties of energetic electrons when direct measurements are not available. However, when employing the technique, one must carefully take the spacecraft orientation into account. The present paper takes the upper‐hybrid and multiple harmonic—or (n + 1/2)fce—emissions measured by the Van Allen Probes as an example in order to illustrate how the spacecraft antenna geometrical factor can be incorporated into the theoretical . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026460 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Yu Xiongdong, and Yuan Zhigang
Title: Saturation Characteristics of Parallel EMIC Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: In this letter, detailed evolution process of parallel electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere has been investigated through quasilinear theory. A new saturation has been found to occur after the usual first saturation. During the interval between these two saturations, the energy transfers from H+ band to He+ band electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. Moreover, through a best fitting, we obtain new model parameters for the anisotropy‐beta inverse relation of hot H+, which identifies the threshold of ion cyclotron instabilities in the inner magnetosphere. In situ observations of the Van Allen Probe mission also verify these new model parameters. Therefore, our results reveal the evolution process and saturation characteristics of parallel electromagnetic ion cyclotr. . .
Date: 07/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083630 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Yang Bing, Donovan Eric, Liang Jun, Ruohoniemi Michael, McWilliams Kathryn, et al.
Title: Storm-time convection dynamics viewed from optical auroras
Abstract: A series of statistical and event studies have demonstrated that the motion of patches in regions of Patchy Pulsating Aurora (PPA) is very close to, if not exactly, convection. Therefore, 2D maps of PPA motion provide us the opportunity to remotely sense magnetospheric convection with relatively high space and time resolution, subject to uncertainties associated with the mapping between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In this study, we use THEMIS ASI (All Sky Imager) aurora observations combined with RBSP electric field and magnetic field measurements to explore convection dynamics during storm time. From 0500 UT to 0600 UT on March 19 2015, auroral observations across ~4 h of magnetic local time (MLT) show that increases in the westward velocities of patches are closely related to ear. . .
Date: 10/2019 Publisher: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics Pages: 105088 DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2019.105088 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Roederer Juan G., and Lejosne ène
Title: Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux
Abstract: Fifty years have passed since the parameter “L-star” was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like “distance to the equatorial point of a field line,” McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameter. . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025053 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Murphy Kyle R., Inglis Andrew R., Sibeck David G., Rae Jonathan, Watt Clare E. J., et al.
Title: Determining the mode, frequency, and azimuthal wave number of ULF waves during a HSS and moderate geomagnetic storm
Abstract: Ultra‐low frequency (ULF) waves play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the inner‐magnetosphere and outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. Broadband ULF wave power can transport energetic electrons via radial diffusion and discrete ULF wave power can energize electrons through a resonant interaction. Using observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we characterize the evolution of ULF waves during a high‐speed solar wind stream (HSS) and moderate geomagnetic storm while there is an enhancement of the outer radiation belt. The Automated Flare Inference of Oscillations (AFINO) code is used to distinguish discrete ULF wave power from broadband wave power during the HSS. During periods of discrete wave power and utilizing the close separation of the MMS sp. . .
Date: 05/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2017JA024877 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Damiano P.A., Chaston C.C., Hull A.J., and Johnson J.R.
Title: Electron Distributions in Kinetic Scale Field Line Resonances: A Comparison of Simulations and Observations
Abstract: Observations in kinetic scale field line resonances, or eigenmodes of the geomagnetic field, reveal highly field‐aligned plateaued electron distributions. By combining observations from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft with a hybrid kinetic gyrofluid simulation we show how these distributions arise from the nonlocal self‐consistent interaction of electrons with the wavefield. This interaction is manifested as electron trapping in the standing wave potential. The process operates along most of the field line and qualitatively accounts for electron observations near the equatorial plane and at higher latitudes. In conjunction with the highly field‐aligned plateaus, loss cone features are also evident, which result from the action of the upward‐directed wave parallel electr. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077748 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Lejosne ène, Kunduri B. S. R., Mozer F S, and Turner D. L.
Title: Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere: a result of the subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) potential drop
Abstract: It has been reported that the dynamics of energetic (tens to hundreds of keV) electrons and ions is inconsistent with the theoretical picture in which the large‐scale electric field is a superposition of corotation and convection electric fields. Combining one year of measurements by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network, DMSP F‐18 and the Van Allen Probes, we show that subauroral polarization streams are observed when energetic electrons have penetrated below L = 4. Outside the plasmasphere in the premidnight region, potential energy is subtracted from the total energy of ions and added to the total energy of electrons during SAPS onset. This potential energy is converted into radial motion as the energetic particles drift around Earth and leave the SAPS azimuthal sector. As a result, . . .
Date: 04/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077969 Available at:
More Details
Authors: é M., Matsuoka A., Kumamoto A., Kasahara Y., Goldstein J, et al.
Title: Longitudinal Structure of Oxygen Torus in the Inner Magnetosphere: Simultaneous Observations by Arase and Van Allen Probe A
Abstract: Simultaneous observations of the magnetic field and plasma waves made by the Arase and Van Allen Probe A satellites at different magnetic local time (MLT) enable us to deduce the longitudinal structure of an oxygen torus for the first time. During 04:00–07:10 UT on 24 April 2017, Arase flew from L = 6.2 to 2.0 in the morning sector and detected an enhancement of the average plasma mass up to ~3.5 amu around L = 4.9–5.2 and MLT = 5.0 hr, implying that the plasma consists of approximately 15% O+ ions. Probe A moved outbound from L = 2.0 to 6.2 in the afternoon sector during 04:10–07:30 UT and observed no clear enhancements in the average plasma mass. For this event, the O+ density enhancement in the inner magnetosphere (i.e., oxygen torus) does not extend over all MLT but is skewed tow. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 10,177 - 10,184 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080122 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Nishi Katsuki, Shiokawa Kazuo, and Spence Harlan
Title: Magnetospheric source region of auroral finger-like structures observed by the RBSP-A satellite
Abstract: Auroral finger‐like structures appear equatorward of the auroral oval in the diffuse auroral region and contribute to the auroral fragmentation into patches. A previous report of the first conjugate observation of auroral finger‐like structures using a THEMIS GBO camera and the THEMIS‐E satellite at a radial distance of ∼8 RE showed anti‐phase oscillations of magnetic and plasma pressures in the dawnside plasma sheet. In the present study, we report another simultaneous observation of auroral finger‐like structures at Gillam, Canada at ∼0900 UT (0230 magnetic local time) on November 14, 2014 with the RBSP satellites at 5.8 RE in the inner magnetosphere. From this simultaneous observation event, we obtained the following observations. (1) Auroral finger‐like structures devel. . .
Date: 08/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025480 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Gao Zhonglei, Su Zhenpeng, Xiao Fuliang, Summers Danny, Liu Nigang, et al.
Title: Nonlinear coupling between whistler-mode chorus and electron cyclotron harmonic waves in the magnetosphere
Abstract: Electromagnetic whistler‐mode chorus and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves can contribute significantly to auroral electron precipitation and radiation belt electron acceleration. In the past, linear and nonlinear wave‐particle interactions have been proposed to explain the occurrences of these magnetospheric waves. By analyzing Van Allen Probes data, we present here the first evidence for nonlinear coupling between chorus and ECH waves. The sum‐frequency and difference‐frequency interactions produced the ECH sidebands with discrete frequency sweeping structures exactly corresponding to the chorus rising tones. The newly‐generated weak sidebands did not satisfy the original electrostatic wave dispersion relation. After the generation of chorus and normal ECH w. . .
Date: 11/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080635 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Halford A J, Reeves G D, Baker D N, et al.
Title: Pitch Angle Scattering and Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons in Broadband Electromagnetic Waves
Abstract: A magnetic conjunction between Van Allen Probes spacecraft and the Balloon Array for Radiation‐belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) reveals the simultaneous occurrence of broadband Alfvénic fluctuations and multi‐timescale modulation of enhanced atmospheric X‐ray bremsstrahlung emission. The properties of the Alfvénic fluctuations are used to build a model for pitch angle scattering in the outer radiation belt on electron gyro‐radii scale field structures. It is shown that this scattering may lead to the transport of electrons into the loss cone over an energy range from hundreds of keV to multi‐MeV on diffusive timescales on the order of hours. This process may account for modulation of atmospheric X‐ray fluxes observed from balloons and constitute a significant loss p. . .
Date: 09/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079527 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Wygant J R, Reeves G D, Baker D N, et al.
Title: Radiation belt “dropouts” and drift-bounce resonances in broadband electromagnetic waves
Abstract: Observations during the main phase of geomagnetic storms reveal an anti-correlation between the occurrence of broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves and outer radiation belt electron flux. We show that the drift-bounce motion of electrons in the magnetic field of these waves leads to rapid electron transport. For observed spectral energy densities it is demonstrated that the wave magnetic field can drive radial diffusion via drift-bounce resonance on timescales less than a drift orbit. This process may provide outward transport sufficient to account for electron “dropouts” during storm main phase and more generally modulate the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms.
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076362 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Kronberg E. A., Grigorenko E. E., Turner D. L., Daly P. W., Khotyaintsev Y., et al.
Title: Comparing and contrasting dispersionless injections at geosynchronous orbit during a substorm event
Abstract: Particle injections in the magnetosphere transport electrons and ions from the magnetotail to the radiation belts. Here we consider generation mechanisms of “dispersionless” injections, namely, those with simultaneous increase of the particle flux over a wide energy range. In this study we take advantage of multisatellite observations which simultaneously monitor Earth's magnetospheric dynamics from the tail toward the radiation belts during a substorm event. Dispersionless injections are associated with instabilities in the plasma sheet during the growth phase of the substorm, with a dipolarization front at the onset and with magnetic flux pileup during the expansion phase. They show different spatial spread and propagation characteristics. Injection associated with the dipolarization. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023551 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Oyama S., Kero A., Rodger C. J., Clilverd M A, Miyoshi Y, et al.
Title: Energetic electron precipitation and auroral morphology at the substorm recovery phase
Abstract: It is well known that auroral patterns at the substorm recovery phase are characterized by diffuse or patch structures with intensity pulsation. According to satellite measurements and simulation studies, the precipitating electrons associated with these aurorae can reach or exceed energies of a few hundreds of keV through resonant wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. However, because of difficulty of simultaneous measurements, the dependency of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) on auroral morphological changes in the mesoscale has not been investigated to date. In order to study this dependency, we have analyzed data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar, the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) riometer, collocated cameras, ground-based m. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023484 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Hartley D. P., Kletzing C A, Kurth W S, Hospodarsky G B, Bounds S R, et al.
Title: An improved sheath impedance model for the Van Allen probes EFW instrument: Effects of the spin axis antenna
Abstract: A technique to quantitatively determine the sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument is presented. This is achieved, for whistler mode waves, through a comparison between the total electric field wave power spectra calculated from magnetic field observations and cold plasma theory, and the total electric field wave power measured by the EFW spherical double probes instrument. In a previous study, a simple density-dependent sheath impedance model was developed in order to account for the differences between the observed and calculated wave electric field. The current study builds on this previous work by investigating the remaining discrepancies, identifying their cause, and developing an improved sheath impedance correction. Analysis reveals that a. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023597 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Wygant J R, Reeves G D, Baker D N, et al.
Title: Radial transport of radiation belt electrons in kinetic field-line resonances
Abstract: A representative case study from the Van Allen Probes during a geomagnetic storm recovery phase reveals enhanced electron fluxes at intermediate pitch angles over energies from ~100 keV to 5 MeV coincident with broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves. The statistical properties of these waves are used to build a model for radial diffusion via drift-bounce resonances in kinetic Alfvén eigenmodes/kinetic field-line resonances. Estimated diffusion coefficients indicate timescales for radial transport of the order of hours in storm-time events at energies from <100 keV to MeVs over equatorial pitch angles from the edge of the loss cone to nearly perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. The correlation of kinetic resonances with electron depletions and enhancements during storm main phase. . .
Date: 07/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074587 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Osmane Adnane, III Lynn B. Wilson, Blum Lauren, and Pulkkinen Tuija I.
Title: On the Connection Between Microbursts and Nonlinear Electronic Structures in Planetary Radiation Belts
Abstract: Using a dynamical-system approach, we have investigated the efficiency of large-amplitude whistler waves for causing microburst precipitation in planetary radiation belts by modeling the microburst energy and particle fluxes produced as a result of nonlinear wave–particle interactions. We show that wave parameters, consistent with large-amplitude oblique whistlers, can commonly generate microbursts of electrons with hundreds of keV-energies as a result of Landau trapping. Relativistic microbursts (>1 MeV) can also be generated by a similar mechanism, but require waves with large propagation angles ${\theta }_{{kB}}\gt 50^\circ $ and phase-speeds ${v}_{{\rm{\Phi }}}\geqslant c/9$. Using our result for precipitating density and energy fluxes, we argue that holes in the distribution functio. . .
Date: 01/2016 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 51 DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/816/2/51 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Reeves G D, and Skoug R M
Title: Driving ionospheric outflows and magnetospheric O + energy density with Alfvén waves
Abstract: We show how dispersive Alfvén waves observed in the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms can extract O+ ions from the topside ionosphere and accelerate these ions to energies exceeding 50 keV in the equatorial plane. This occurs through wave trapping, a variant of “shock” surfing, and stochastic ion acceleration. These processes in combination with the mirror force drive field-aligned beams of outflowing ionospheric ions into the equatorial plane that evolve to provide energetic O+ distributions trapped near the equator. These waves also accelerate preexisting/injected ion populations on the same field lines. We show that the action of dispersive Alfvén waves over several minutes may drive order of magnitude increases in O+ ion pressure to make substantial contributions to. . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 4825 - 4833 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069008 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Xiao Fuliang, Zhou Qinghua, Su Zhenpeng, He Zhaoguo, Yang Chang, et al.
Title: Explaining occurrences of auroral kilometric radiation in Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a strong terrestrial radio emission and dominates at higher latitudes because of reflection in vicinities of the source cavity and plasmapause. Recently, Van Allen Probes have observed occurrences of AKR emission in the equatorial region of Earth's radiation belts but its origin still remains an open question. Equatorial AKR can produce efficient acceleration of radiation belt electrons and is a risk to space weather. Here we report high-resolution observations during two small storm periods 4–6 April and 18–20 May 2013 and show, using a 3-D ray tracing simulation, that AKR can propagate downward all the way into the equatorial plane in the radiation belts under appropriate conditions. The simulated results can successfully explain the observed AKR. . .
Date: 12/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 11,971 - 11,978 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071728 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Mann I. R., Ozeke L. G., Murphy K. R., Claudepierre S G, Turner D. L., et al.
Title: Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt
Abstract: Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave–particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. Using a datadriven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt is established as a simple, elegant consequence o. . .
Date: 06/2016 Publisher: Nature Physics DOI: 10.1038/nphys3799 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Sarno-Smith Lois K., Liemohn Michael W., Skoug Ruth M., Larsen Brian A., Moldwin Mark B., et al.
Title: Local time variations of high-energy plasmaspheric ion pitch angle distributions
Abstract: Recent observations from the Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument revealed a persistent depletion in the 1–10 eV ion population in the postmidnight sector during quiet times in the 2 < L < 3 region. This study explores the source of this ion depletion by developing an algorithm to classify 26 months of pitch angle distributions measured by the HOPE instrument. We correct the HOPE low energy fluxes for spacecraft potential using measurements from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument. A high percentage of low count pitch angle distributions is found in the postmidnight sector coupled with a low percentage of ion distributions peaked perpendicular to the field line. A peak in loss cone distributions in the dusk sector is also observed. These results char. . .
Date: 07/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022301 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Mozer F S, Artemyev A., Agapitov O. V., Mourenas D., and Vasko I.
Title: Near-Relativistic Electron Acceleration by Landau Trapping in Time Domain Structures
Abstract: Data from the Van Allen Probes have provided the first extensive evidence of nonlinear (as opposed to quasi-linear) wave-particle interactions in space with the associated rapid (less than a bounce period) electron acceleration to hundreds of keV by Landau resonance in the parallel electric field of time domain structures (TDSs) traveling at high speeds (~20,000 km/s). This observational evidence is supported by simulations and discussion of the source and spatial extent of the fast TDS. This result indicates the possibility that the electrostatic fields in TDS may generate the electron seed population for cyclotron resonance interaction with chorus waves to make higher-energy electrons.
Date: 01/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL067316 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Yue Chao, Li Wen, Nishimura Yukitoshi, Zong Qiugang, Ma Qianli, et al.
Title: Rapid enhancement of low-energy (<100 eV) ion flux in response to interplanetary shocks based on two Van Allen Probes case studies: Implications for source regions and heating mechanisms
Abstract: Interactions between interplanetary (IP) shocks and the Earth's magnetosphere manifest many important space physics phenomena including low-energy ion flux enhancements and particle acceleration. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving shock-induced enhancement of low-energy ion flux, we have examined two IP shock events that occurred when the Van Allen Probes were located near the equator while ionospheric and ground observations were available around the spacecraft footprints. We have found that, associated with the shock arrival, electromagnetic fields intensified, and low-energy ion fluxes, including H+, He+, and O+, were enhanced dramatically in both the parallel and perpendicular directions. During the 2 October 2013 shock event, both parallel and perpendicular flux enhancemen. . .
Date: 06/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022808 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Keika Kunihiro, Seki Kanako, é Masahito, Machida Shinobu, Miyoshi Yoshizumi, et al.
Title: Storm time impulsive enhancements of energetic oxygen due to adiabatic acceleration of preexisting warm oxygen in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: We examine enhancements of energetic (>50 keV) oxygen ions observed by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on board the Van Allen Probes spacecraft in the inner magnetosphere (L ~ 6) at 22–23 h magnetic local time (MLT) during an injection event of the 6 June 2013 storm. Simultaneous observations by two Van Allen Probes spacecraft located close together (~0.5 RE) indicate that particle injections occurred in the premidnight sector (< ~24 h MLT). We also examine the evolution of the proton and oxygen energy spectra at L ~ 6 during the injection event. The spectral slope did not significantly change during the storm. The oxygen phase space density (PSD) was shifted toward higher PSD in a wide range of the first adiabatic invariant. . .
Date: 08/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7739 - 7752 DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022384 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Lyons L R, Nishimura Y., Gallardo-Lacourt B., Nicolls M. J., Chen S., et al.
Title: Azimuthal flow bursts in the Inner Plasma Sheet and Possible Connection with SAPS and Plasma Sheet Earthward Flow Bursts
Abstract: We have combined radar observations and auroral images obtained during the PFISR Ion Neutral Observations in the Thermosphere campaign to show the common occurrence of westward moving, localized auroral brightenings near the auroral equatorward boundary and to show their association with azimuthally moving flow bursts near or within the SAPS region. These results indicate that the SAPS region, rather than consisting of relatively stable proton precipitation and westward flows, can have rapidly varying flows, with speeds varying from ~100 m/s to ~1 km/s in just a few minutes. The auroral brightenings are associated with bursts of weak electron precipitation that move westward with the westward flow bursts and extend into the SAPS region. Additionally, our observations show evidence that the. . .
Date: 05/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021023 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Kletzing C A, Hospodarsky G B, Wygant J R, et al.
Title: Broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: A prominent yet largely unrecognized feature of the inner magnetosphere associated with particle injections, and more generally geomagnetic storms, is the occurrence of broadband electromagnetic field fluctuations over spacecraft frame frequencies (fsc) extending from effectively zero to fsc ≳ 100 Hz. Using observations from the Van Allen Probes we show that these waves most commonly occur pre-midnight but are observed over a range of local times extending into the dayside magnetosphere. We find that the variation of magnetic spectral energy density with fsc obeys inline image over several decades with a spectral break-point at fb ≈1 Hz. The values for α are log normally distributed with α = 1.9 ± 0.6 for fsc < fb andα = 2.9 ± 0.6 for fsc > fb. A is . . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021690 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Hwang J., Choi E.-J., Park J.-S., Fok M.-C., Lee D.-Y., et al.
Title: Comprehensive analysis of the flux dropout during 7-8 November 2008 storm using multi-satellites observations and RBE model
Abstract: We investigate an electron flux dropout during a weak storm on 7–8 November 2008, with Dst minimum value being −37 nT. During this period, two clear dropouts were observed on GOES 11 > 2 MeV electrons. We also find a simultaneous dropout in the subrelativistic electrons recorded by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probes in the outer radiation belt. Using the Radiation Belt Environment model, we try to reproduce the observed dropout features in both relativistic and subrelativistic electrons. We found that there are local time dependences in the dropout for both observation and simulation in subrelativistic electrons: (1) particle loss begins from nightside and propagates into dayside and (2) resupply starts from near dawn magnetic local time . . .
Date: 05/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021085 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Jaynes A. N., Lessard M. R., Takahashi K., Ali A. F., Malaspina D. M., et al.
Title: Correlated Pc4-5 ULF waves, whistler-mode chorus and pulsating aurora observed by the Van Allen Probes and ground-based systems
Abstract: Theory and observations have linked equatorial VLF waves with pulsating aurora for decades, invoking the process of pitch-angle scattering of 10's keV electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere. Recently published satellite studies have strengthened this argument, by showing strong correlation between pulsating auroral patches and both lower-band chorus and 10's keV electron modulation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Additionally, a previous link has been made between Pc4-5 compressional pulsations and modulation of whistler-mode chorus using THEMIS. In the current study, we present simultaneous in-situ observations of structured chorus waves and an apparent field line resonance (in the Pc4-5 range) as a result of a substorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes, along with groun. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021380 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Reeves Geoffrey D, Friedel Reiner H W, Larsen Brian A., Skoug Ruth M., Funsten Herbert O., et al.
Title: Energy dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions.
Abstract: We present observations of the radiation belts from the HOPE and MagEIS particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy-dependence and L-shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on March 1 in more detail. The observations show: (a) At all L-shells, lower-energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) Events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) Enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are more common at lower energies; and (d) Even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower-energies tend to extend to lower L-shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L-shells at lower energie. . .
Date: 12/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021569 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Wygant J R, Kletzing C A, Reeves G D, et al.
Title: Extreme ionospheric ion energization and electron heating in Alfvén waves in the storm-time inner magnetosphere
Abstract: We report measurements of energized outflowing/bouncing ionospheric ions and heated electrons in the inner magnetosphere during a geomagnetic storm. The ions arrive in the equatorial plane with pitch angles that increase with energy over a range from tens of eV to > 50 keV while the electrons are field-aligned up to ~1 keV. These particle distributions are observed during intervals of broadband low frequency electromagnetic field fluctuations consistent with a Doppler-shifted spectrum of kinetic Alfvén waves and kinetic field-line resonances. The fluctuations extend from L≈3 out to the apogee of the Van Allen Probes spacecraft at L≈6.5. They thereby span most of the L-shell range occupied by the ring current. These measurements suggest a model for ionospheric ion outflow and energizat. . .
Date: 12/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066674 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Skov Tamitha Mulligan, Fennell Joseph F., Roeder James L., Blake Bernard, and Claudepierre Seth G.
Title: Internal Charging Hazards in Near-Earth Space During Solar Cycle 24 Maximum: Van Allen Probes Measurements
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes mission provides an unprecedented opportunity to make detailed measurements of electrons and protons in the inner magnetosphere during the weak solar maximum period of cycle 24. The MagEIS suite of sensors measures energy spectra and fluxes of charged particles in the space environment. The calculations show that these fluxes result in electron deposition rates high enough to cause internal charging. We use omnidirectional fluxes of electrons and protons to calculate the dose under varying materials and thicknesses of shielding. We show examples of charge deposition rates during the times of nominal and high levels of penetrating fluxes in the inner magnetosphere covering the period from the beginning of 2013 through mid-2014. These charge deposition rates are related . . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Pages: 3070 - 3074 DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2015.2468214 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Neal Jason J., Rodger Craig J., Clilverd Mark A., Thomson Neil R., Raita Tero, et al.
Title: Long-term determination of energetic electron precipitation into the atmosphere from AARDDVARK subionospheric VLF observations
Abstract: We analyze observations of subionospherically propagating very low frequency (VLF) radio waves to determine outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation (EEP) flux magnitudes. The radio wave receiver in Sodankylä, Finland (Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory) observes signals from the transmitter with call sign NAA (Cutler, Maine). The receiver is part of the Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-belt Dynamic Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK). We use a near-continuous data set spanning November 2004 until December 2013 to determine the long time period EEP variations. We determine quiet day curves over the entire period and use these to identify propagation disturbances caused by EEP. Long Wave Propagation Code radio wave propagation modeling is used to estimate the p. . .
Date: 03/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020689 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Bonnell John, and Lanzerotti Louis J.
Title: Neutral Oxygen Effects at Low Earth Altitudes: A Critical Uncertainty for Spacecraft Operations and Space Weather Effects
Abstract: Space Weather sits at the intersection of natural phenomena interacting with modern technology—either in space or on Earth's surface. A key aspect of space weather is the interaction of Earth's extended neutral atmosphere with satellite surfaces [e.g., Samwel, 2014, and references therein]. Because neutral oxygen causes spacecraft surface erosion and oxidation, detailed knowledge of the atmosphere below 1000 km is essential for spacecraft design and operations.
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001229 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Ni Binbin, Zou Zhengyang, Gu Xudong, Zhou Chen, Thorne Richard M, et al.
Title: Variability of the pitch angle distribution of radiation belt ultra-relativistic electrons during and following intense geomagnetic storms: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: Fifteen months of pitch angle resolved Van Allen Probes REPT measurements of differential electron flux are analyzed to investigate the characteristic variability of the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of radiation belt ultra-relativistic (>2 MeV) electrons during storm conditions and during the long-term post-storm decay. By modeling the ultra-relativistic electron pitch angle distribution as sinn α, where α is the equatorial pitch angle, we examine the spatio-temporal variations of the n-value. The results show that in general n-values increase with the level of geomagnetic activity. In principle, ultra-relativistic electrons respond to geomagnetic storms by becoming more peaked at 90° pitch angle with n-values of 2–3 as a supportive signature of chorus acceleration outside the pla. . .
Date: 05/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021065 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Artemyev A.V., Agapitov O.V., Mourenas D., Krasnoselskikh V.V., and Mozer F.S.
Title: Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth’s radiation belts uncovers a missing energy
Abstract: Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth’s magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth’s magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heat. . .
Date: 05/2015 Publisher: Nature Communications Pages: 8143 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8143 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Su Zhenpeng, Xiao Fuliang, Zheng Huinan, and Zhu Hui
Title: Chorus-driven acceleration of radiation belt electrons in the unusual temporal/spatial regions
Abstract: Cyclotron resonance with whistler-mode chorus waves is an important mechanism for the local acceleration of radiation belt energetic electrons. Such acceleration process has been widely investigated during the storm times, and its favored region is usually considered to be the low-density plasmatrough with magnetic local time (MLT) from midnight through dawn to noon. Here we present two case studies on the chorus-driven acceleration of radiation belt electrons in some “unusual” temporal /spatial regions. (1) The first event recorded by the Van Allen Probes during the nonstorm times from 21 to 23 February 2013. Within two days, a new radiation belt centering around L=5.8 formed and gradually merged with the original outer belt. The corresponding relativistic electron fluxes increased by. . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929875 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Battiston Roberto
Title: Cosmic ray physics in space: from fundamental physics to applications
Abstract: One hundred years after their discovery by Victor Hess, cosmic rays are nowadays subject of intense research from space-based detectors, able to perform for the first time high precision measurement of their composition and spectra as well as of isotropy and time variability. On May 2011, the alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS-02) has been installed on the International Space Station, to measure with high accuracy the cosmic ray properties searching for rare events which could be an indication of the nature of dark matter or presence of nuclear antimatter. AMS-02 is the result of nearly two decades of effort of an international collaboration, involving in particular Chinese and Italian scientists, to design and build a state of the art detector capable to perform high precision cosmic rays m. . .
Date: 03/2014 Publisher: Rendiconti Lincei Pages: 97 - 105 DOI: 10.1007/s12210-014-0293-1 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Nag Sreeja, LeMoigne Jacqueline, and de Weck Olivier
Title: Cost and risk analysis of small satellite constellations for earth observation
Abstract: Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to Earth science missions owing to their ability to increase observation sampling in spatial, spectral, temporal and angular dimensions. Past literature from academia and industry have proposed and evaluated many cost models for spacecraft as well as methods for quantifying risk. However, there have been few comprehensive studies quantifying the cost for multiple spacecraft, for small satellites and the cost risk for the operations phase of the project which needs to be budgeted for when designing and building efficient architectures. This paper identifies the three critical problems with the applicability of current cost and risk models to distributed small satellite missions and uses data-based modeling to sugges. . .
Date: 03/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2014.6836396 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Posner A., Hesse M, and Cyr O. C. St.
Title: The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations
Abstract: Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not as. . .
Date: 04/2014 Publisher: Space Weather Pages: 257 - 276 DOI: 10.1002/swe.v12.410.1002/2013SW001007 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Degeling A W, Rankin R, and Zong Q.-G.
Title: Modeling radiation belt electron acceleration by ULF fast mode waves, launched by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations
Abstract: We investigate the magnetospheric MHD and energetic electron response to a Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) and subsequent magnetopause buffeting, focusing on an interval following an SSC event on 25 November 2001. We find that the electron flux signatures observed by LANL, Cluster, and GOES spacecraft during this event can largely be reproduced using an advective kinetic model for electron phase space density, using externally prescribed electromagnetic field inputs, (herein described as a “test-kinetic model”) with electromagnetic field inputs provided by a 2-D linear ideal MHD model for ULF waves. In particular, we find modulations in electron flux phase shifted by 90° from the local azimuthal ULF wave electric field (Eφ) and a net enhancement in electron flux after 1.5 h for energ. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019672 Available at:
More Details
Authors: Palo Scott E., Gerhardt David, Li Xinlin, Blum Lauren, Schiller Quintin, et al.
Title: One year of on-orbit performance of the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE)
Abstract: The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a 3-unit (10cm × 10cm × 30cm) CubeSat funded by the National Science Foundation and constructed at the University of Colorado (CU). The CSSWE science instrument, the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), provides directional differential flux measurements of 0.5 to >3.3 MeV electrons and 9 to 40 MeV protons. Though a collaboration of 60+ multidisciplinary graduate and undergraduate students working with CU professors and engineers at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), CSSWE was designed, built, tested, and delivered in 3 years. On September 13, 2012, CSSWE was inserted to a 477 × 780 km, 65° orbit as a secondary payload on an Atlas V through the NASA Educational Launch of. . .
Date: 01/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/USNC-URSI-NRSM.2014.6928087 Available at:
More Details