Found 876 results
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Authors: Orlova Ksenia, Shprits Yuri, and Spasojevic Maria
Title: New global loss model of energetic and relativistic electrons based on Van Allen Probes measurements
Abstract: Energetic electron observations in Earth's radiation belts are typically sparse and multi-point studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross-calibration into two parts – one that removes any spectral assumptions from the CXD flux calculation, and one that compares the energy spectra – we first validate the modeled instrument response functions, then the calculated electron fluxes. Unlike previous forward modeling of energetic electron spectra we use a combination of four distributions that, together. . .
Date: 02/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021878 Available at:
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Authors: Osmane A., and Pulkkinen T. I.
Title: On the threshold energization of radiation belt electrons by double layers
Abstract: Using a Hamiltonian approach, we quantify the energization threshold of electrons interacting with radiation belts' double layers discovered by Mozer et al. (2013). We find that double layers with electric field amplitude E0 ranging between 10 and 100 mV/m and spatial scales of the order of few Debye lengths are very efficient in energizing electrons with initial velocities v∥ ≤ vth to 1 keV levels but are unable to energize electrons with E ≥ 100 keV. Our results indicate that the localized electric field associated with the double layers are unlikely to generate a seed population of 100 keV necessary for a plethora of relativistic acceleration mechanisms and additional transport to higher energetic levels.
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020236 Available at:
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Authors: Osmane Adnane, III Lynn B. Wilson, Blum Lauren, and Pulkkinen Tuija I.
Title: On the Connection Between Microbursts and Nonlinear Electronic Structures in Planetary Radiation Belts
Abstract: Using a dynamical-system approach, we have investigated the efficiency of large-amplitude whistler waves for causing microburst precipitation in planetary radiation belts by modeling the microburst energy and particle fluxes produced as a result of nonlinear wave–particle interactions. We show that wave parameters, consistent with large-amplitude oblique whistlers, can commonly generate microbursts of electrons with hundreds of keV-energies as a result of Landau trapping. Relativistic microbursts (>1 MeV) can also be generated by a similar mechanism, but require waves with large propagation angles ${\theta }_{{kB}}\gt 50^\circ $ and phase-speeds ${v}_{{\rm{\Phi }}}\geqslant c/9$. Using our result for precipitating density and energy fluxes, we argue that holes in the distribution functio. . .
Date: 01/2016 Publisher: The Astrophysical Journal Pages: 51 DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/816/2/51 Available at:
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Authors: Over Matthew W., Wollschläger Ute, Osorio-Murillo Carlos Andres, and Rubin Yoram
Title: Bayesian inversion of Mualem-van Genuchten parameters in a multilayer soil profile: A data-driven, assumption-free likelihood function
Abstract: This paper introduces a hierarchical simulation and modeling framework that allows for inference and validation of the likelihood function in Bayesian inversion of vadose zone hydraulic properties. The likelihood function or its analogs (objective functions and likelihood measures) are commonly assumed to be multivariate Gaussian in form; however, this assumption is not possible to verify without a hierarchical simulation and modeling framework. In this paper, we present the necessary statistical mechanisms for utilizing the hierarchical framework. We apply the hierarchical framework to the inversion of the vadose zone hydraulic properties within a multilayer soil profile conditioned on moisture content observations collected in the uppermost four layers. The key result of our work is that. . .
Date: 02/2015 Publisher: Water Resources Research Pages: 861 - 884 DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.v51.210.1002/2014WR015252 Available at:
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Authors: Oyama S., Kero A., Rodger C. J., Clilverd M A, Miyoshi Y, et al.
Title: Energetic electron precipitation and auroral morphology at the substorm recovery phase
Abstract: It is well known that auroral patterns at the substorm recovery phase are characterized by diffuse or patch structures with intensity pulsation. According to satellite measurements and simulation studies, the precipitating electrons associated with these aurorae can reach or exceed energies of a few hundreds of keV through resonant wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. However, because of difficulty of simultaneous measurements, the dependency of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) on auroral morphological changes in the mesoscale has not been investigated to date. In order to study this dependency, we have analyzed data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar, the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) riometer, collocated cameras, ground-based m. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023484 Available at:
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Authors: Ozaki M., Shiokawa K., Miyoshi Y, Kataoka R., Yagitani S., et al.
Title: Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes
Abstract: To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensity showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of sec. . .
Date: 08/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 7859 - 7866 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070008 Available at:
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Authors: Ozaki Mitsunori, Yagitani Satoshi, Takahashi Ken, Imachi Tomohiko, Koji Hiroki, et al.
Title: Equivalent Circuit Model for the Electric Field Sensitivity of a Magnetic Search Coil of Space Plasma
Abstract: Magnetic search coils (MSCs) are sensitive to both magnetic and electric fields, but detecting electric fields is unnecessary for magnetic observations of plasma waves. However, it is important to evaluate both sensitivities for different geometries and electrostatic shields to avoid electric field pickup. An equivalent circuit model for the electric field sensitivity of an MSC in a collisionless isotropic cold plasma is developed here using electrical coupling through a sheath capacitance. That sensitivity is defined by a relationship between the MSC impedance and the sheath capacitance. To confirm the validity of the circuit model, the sensitivity to an electric field is measured by imposing an external electric field using charged parallel metallic plates in laboratory experiments. The . . .
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: IEEE Sensors Journal Pages: 1 - 1 DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2014.2365495 Available at:
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Authors: Ozeke Louis G., Mann Ian R., Murphy Kyle R., Rae Jonathan, and Milling David K.
Title: Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients
Abstract: We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirica. . .
Date: 03/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 1587 - 1605 DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019204 Available at:
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Authors: Ozeke L. G., Mann I. R., Claudepierre S G, Henderson M., Morley S. K., et al.
Title: The March 2015 Superstorm Revisited: Phase Space Density Profiles and Fast ULF Wave Diffusive Transport
Abstract: We present the temporal evolution of electron Phase Space Density (PSD) in the outer radiation belt during the intense March 2015 geomagnetic storm. Comparing observed PSD profiles as a function of L* at fixed first, M, and second, K, adiabatic invariants with those produced by simulations is critical for determining the physical processes responsible for the outer radiation belt dynamics. Here we show that the bulk of the accelerated and enhanced outer radiation belt population consists of electrons with K < 0.17 G1/2Re. For these electrons, the observed PSD versus L* profiles during the recovery phase of the storm have a positive radial gradient. We compare the observed temporal evolution of the PSD profiles during the recovery phase with those produced by radial diffusion simulations dr. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026326 Available at:
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Authors: Ozeke Louis G., Mann Ian R., Turner Drew L, Murphy Kyle R., Degeling Alex W., et al.
Title: Modeling cross L shell impacts of magnetopause shadowing and ULF wave radial diffusion in the Van Allen belts
Abstract: We present simulations of the outer electron radiation belt using a new ULF wave-driven radial diffusion model, including empirical representations of loss due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss. With an outer boundary condition constrained by in situ electron flux observations, we focus on the impacts of magnetopause shadowing and outward radial diffusion in the heart of the radiation belt. Third invariant conserving solutions are combined to simulate the L shell and time dependence of the differential flux at a fixed energy. Results for the geomagnetically quiet year of 2008 demonstrate not only remarkable cross L shell impacts from magnetopause shadowing but also excellent agreement with the in situ observations even though no internal acceleration source is included in the model. Our mod. . .
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 6556 - 6562 DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060787 Available at:
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Authors: Ozeke Louis G., Mann Ian R., Murphy Kyle R., Sibeck David G., and Baker Daniel N
Title: Ultra-relativistic radiation belt extinction and ULF wave radial diffusion: Modeling the September 2014 extended dropout event
Abstract: In September 2014 an unusually long-lasting (≳10 days) ultra-relativistic electron flux depletion occurred in the outer radiation belt despite ongoing solar wind forcing. We simulate this period using a ULF wave radial diffusion model, driven by observed ULF wave power coupled to flux variations at the outer boundary at L* = 5, including empirical electron loss models due to chorus and hiss wave scattering. Our results show that unexplained rapid main phase loss, that depletes the belt within hours, is essential to explain the observations. Such ultra-relativistic electron extinction decouples the prestorm and poststorm fluxes, revealing the subsequent belt dynamics to be surprisingly independent of prestorm flux. However, once this extinction is included, ULF wave transport and co. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL072811 Available at:
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Authors: O’Brien T P, Looper M. D., and Blake J. B.
Title: Quantification of relativistic electron microburst losses during the GEM storms
Abstract: Bursty precipitation of relativistic electrons has been implicated as a major loss process during magnetic storms. One type of precipitation, microbursts, appears to contain enough electrons to empty the prestorm outer radiation belt in approximately a day. During storms that result in high fluxes of trapped relativistic electrons, microbursts continue for several days into the recovery phase, when trapped fluxes are dramatically increasing. The present study shows that this apparent inconsistency is resolved by observations that the number of electrons lost through microbursts is 10–100 times larger during the main phase than during the recovery phase of several magnetic storms chosen by the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) program.
Date: 02/2004 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2003GL018621 Available at:
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Authors: O’Brien T P, Lorentzen K. R., Mann I. R., Meredith N. P., Blake J. B., et al.
Title: Energization of relativistic electrons in the presence of ULF power and MeV microbursts: Evidence for dual ULF and VLF acceleration
Abstract: We examine signatures of two types of waves that may be involved in the acceleration of energetic electrons in Earth's outer radiation belts. We have compiled a database of ULF wave power from SAMNET and IMAGE ground magnetometer stations for 1987–2001. Long-duration, comprehensive, in situ VLF/ELF chorus wave observations are not available, so we infer chorus wave activity from low-altitude SAMPEX observations of MeV electron microbursts for 1996–2001 since microbursts are thought to be caused by interactions between chorus and trapped electrons. We compare the ULF and microburst observations to in situ trapped electrons observed by high-altitude satellites from 1989–2001. We find that electron acceleration at low L shells is closely associated with both ULF activity and MeV microbu. . .
Date: 08/2003 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009784 Available at:
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Authors: Pakhotin I. P., Drozdov A. Y., Shprits Y Y, Boynton R. J., Subbotin D. A., et al.
Title: Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes
Abstract: This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system has been tested for three extended time periods totalling several weeks of observations. The time periods involved periods of quiet, moderate, and strong geomagnetic activity and captured a range of dynamics typical of the radiation belts. The model has successfully simulated energetic electron fluxes . . .
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020238 Available at:
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Authors: Palin L., Jacquey C., Opgenoorth H., Connors M., Sergeev V., et al.
Title: Three-dimensional current systems and ionospheric effects associated with small dipolarisation fronts
Abstract: We present a case study of eight successive plasma sheet (PS) activations (usually referred to as bursty bulk flows or dipolarization fronts ) associated with small individual inline image increases on 31 March 2009 (0200–0900 UT), observed by the THEMIS mission. This series of events happens during very quiet solar wind conditions, over a period of 7 hours preceding a substorm onset at 1230 UT. The amplitude of the dipolarizations increases with time. The low-amplitude dipolarization fronts are associated with few (1 or 2) rapid flux transport events (RFT, Eh > 2mV/m), whereas the large-amplitude ones encompass many more RFT events. All PS activations are associated with small and localized substorm current wedge (SCW) like current system signatures, which seems to be the consequenc. . .
Date: 04/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021040 Available at:
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Authors: Palo Scott E., Gerhardt David, Li Xinlin, Blum Lauren, Schiller Quintin, et al.
Title: One year of on-orbit performance of the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE)
Abstract: The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a 3-unit (10cm × 10cm × 30cm) CubeSat funded by the National Science Foundation and constructed at the University of Colorado (CU). The CSSWE science instrument, the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), provides directional differential flux measurements of 0.5 to >3.3 MeV electrons and 9 to 40 MeV protons. Though a collaboration of 60+ multidisciplinary graduate and undergraduate students working with CU professors and engineers at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), CSSWE was designed, built, tested, and delivered in 3 years. On September 13, 2012, CSSWE was inserted to a 477 × 780 km, 65° orbit as a secondary payload on an Atlas V through the NASA Educational Launch of. . .
Date: 01/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/USNC-URSI-NRSM.2014.6928087 Available at:
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Authors: Panasyuk Mikhail
Title: “Nonempty” Gap Between Radiation Belts: The First Observations
Abstract: The first space experiments carried out in 1958 by the scientific groups of James Van Allen (United States) on board the first Explorer satellites and Sergey Vernov (Soviet Union) on board the satellite Sputnik 3 led to the discovery of the Earth's radiation belts—the particles (mainly protons and electrons) captured by the magnetic field of the Earth. Two scientific groups independently came to the conclusion that the electrons in the geomagnetic trapping region fill two areas, inner and outer radiation belts, unlike the protons, which fill the whole trapping region [see, e.g., Lemaire, 2000].
Date: 12/2013 Publisher: Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union Pages: 500 - 500 DOI: 10.1002/2013EO510006 Available at:
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Authors: Pandya Megha, Veenadhari B., Ebihara Y., Kanekal S.G., and Baker D.N.
Title: Variation of Radiation belt electron flux during CME and CIR driven geomagnetic storms: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: Relativistic electron flux responses in the inner magnetosphere are investigated for 28 magnetic storms driven by Corotating Interaction Region (CIR) and 27 magnetic storms driven by Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), using data from the Relativistic Electron‐Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument on board Van‐Allen Probes from Oct‐2012 to May‐2017. In this present study we analyze the role of CIRs and CMEs in electron dynamics by sorting the electron fluxes in terms of averaged solar wind parameters, L‐values, and energies. The major outcomes from our study are: (i) At L = 3 and E = 3.4 MeV, for >70% cases the electron flux remains stable, while at L = 5, for ~82% cases it changes with the geomagnetic conditions. (ii) At L = 5, ~53% of the CIR storms and 30% of the CME storms show electro. . .
Date: 07/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026771 Available at:
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Authors: Paral J., Hudson M K, Kress B T, Wiltberger M. J., Wygant J R, et al.
Title: Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of three Van Allen Probes storms in 2012 and 2013
Abstract: Coronal mass ejection (CME)-shock compression of the dayside magnetopause has been observed to cause both prompt enhancement of radiation belt electron flux due to inward radial transport of electrons conserving their first adiabatic invariant and prompt losses which at times entirely eliminate the outer zone. Recent numerical studies suggest that enhanced ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave activity is necessary to explain electron losses deeper inside the magnetosphere than magnetopause incursion following CME-shock arrival. A combination of radial transport and magnetopause shadowing can account for losses observed at radial distances into L = 4.5, well within the computed magnetopause location. We compare ULF wave power from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) electric field instrument on th. . .
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Annales Geophysicae Pages: 1037 - 1050 DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-1037-2015 Available at:
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Authors: Patel Maulik, Li Zhao, Hudson Mary, Claudepierre Seth, and Wygant John
Title: Simulation of Prompt Acceleration of Radiation Belt Electrons During the 16 July 2017 Storm
Abstract: We investigate the prompt enhancement of radiation belt electron flux observed by the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instrument on board Van Allen Probes following the 16 July 2017 CME‐shock compression using MHD‐test particle simulations. The prompt enhancements can be explained by the source population interacting with the azimuthally directed electric field impulses induced by CME‐shock compressions of the dayside magnetopause. Electrons in drift resonance with the electric field impulse were accelerated by ∼ 0.6 MeV on a drift period timescale (in minutes) as the impulse propagated from the dayside to the nightside around the flanks of the magnetosphere. MHD test particle simulation of energization and drift phase bunching, due to the bipolar electric field that accompa. . .
Date: 06/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083257 Available at:
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Authors: Paulson K. W., Smith C W, Lessard M. R., Torbert R B, Kletzing C A, et al.
Title: In situ statistical observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations and unstructured EMIC waves by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: We present here the first in situ statistical survey of structured Pc1 pearl pulsations compared with unstructured electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft. This data set was compiled from observations spanning 8 September 2012 through 31 August 2015 and comprises over 1630 h of total EMIC wave activity, of which 291 h exhibited pearl structure. Additionally, we have identified 29 wave events demonstrating periodically oscillating wave packets, mostly about the magnetic equator, indicated by the reversal of Poynting flux along the background magnetic field. We have found several stark differences between Pc1 pearl pulsations and unstructured EMIC waves. While unstructured EMIC waves demonstrate the predicted behavior of a higher occurrence acro. . .
Date: 12/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023160 Available at:
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Authors: Paulson K. W., Smith C W, Lessard M. R., Engebretson M. J., Torbert R B, et al.
Title: In situ observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: We present in situ observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations using the Van Allen Probes. These waves are often observed using ground-based magnetometers, but are rarely observed by orbiting satellites. With the Van Allen Probes, we have seen at least 14 different pearl pulsation events during the first year of operations. These new in situ measurements allow us to identify the wave classification based on local magnetic field conditions. Additionally, by using two spacecraft, we are able to observe temporal changes in the region of observation. The waves appear to be generated at an overall central frequency, as often observed on the ground, and change polarization from left- to right-handedness as they propagate into a region where they are resonant with the crossover frequency (where R- and L. . .
Date: 04/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1823 - 1829 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059187 Available at:
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Authors: Perry K L, Hudson M K, and Elkington S. R.
Title: Incorporating spectral characteristics of Pc5 waves into three-dimensional radiation belt modeling and the diffusion of relativistic electrons
Abstract: The influence of ultralow frequency (ULF) waves in the Pc5 frequency range on radiation belt electrons in a compressed dipole magnetic field is examined. This is the first analysis in three dimensions utilizing model ULF wave electric and magnetic fields on the guiding center trajectories of relativistic electrons. A model is developed, describing magnetic and electric fields associated with poloidal mode Pc5 ULF waves. The frequency and L dependence of the ULF wave power are included in this model by incorporating published ground-based magnetometer data. It is demonstrated here that realistic spectral characteristics play a significant role in the rate of diffusion of relativistic electrons via drift resonance with poloidal mode ULF waves. Radial diffusion rates including bounce motion s. . .
Date: 03/2005 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2004JA010760 Available at:
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Authors: Pich Maria de Soria-S, Jun Insoo, and Evans Robin
Title: Empirical radiation belt models: Comparison with in-situ data and implications for environment definition
Abstract: The empirical AP8/AE8 model has been the de-facto Earth's radiation belts engineering reference for decades. The need from the community for a better model incubated the development of AP9/AE9/SPM, which addresses several shortcomings of the old model. We provide additional validation of AP9/AE9 by comparing in-situ electron and proton data from Jason-2, POES, and the Van Allen Probes spacecraft with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles from AE9/AP9 and with the model outputs from AE8/AP8. The relatively short duration of Van Allen Probes and Jason-2 missions means that their measurements are most certainly the result of specific climatological conditions. In LEO, the Jason-2 proton flux is better reproduced by AP8 compared to AP9, while the POES electron data are well enveloped by AE9 5th . . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2017SW001612 Available at:
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Authors: Pierrard V., and Rosson G.
Title: The effects of the big storm events in the first half of 2015 on the radiation belts observed by EPT/PROBA-V
Abstract: With the energetic particle telescope (EPT) performing with direct electron and proton discrimination on board the ESA satellite PROBA-V, we analyze the high-resolution measurements of the charged particle radiation environment at an altitude of 820 km for the year 2015. On 17 March 2015, a big geomagnetic storm event injected unusual fluxes up to low radial distances in the radiation belts. EPT electron measurements show a deep dropout at L > 4 starting during the main phase of the storm, associated to the penetration of high energy fluxes at L < 2 completely filling the slot region. After 10 days, the formation of a new slot around L = 2.8 for electrons of 500–600 keV separates the outer belt from the belt extending at other longitudes than the South Atlantic Anomaly. Two oth. . .
Date: 01/2016 Publisher: Annales Geophysicae Pages: 75 - 84 DOI: 10.5194/angeo-34-75-2016 Available at:
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Authors: Pinto V. A., Mourenas D., Bortnik J, Zhang X.‐J., Artemyev A. V., et al.
Title: Decay of Ultrarelativistic Remnant Belt Electrons Through Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss
Abstract: Ultrarelativistic electron remnant belts appear frequently following geomagnetic disturbances and are located in‐between the inner radiation belt and a reforming outer belt. As remnant belts are relatively stable, here we explore the importance of hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in controlling the observed decay rates of remnant belt ultrarelativistic electrons in a statistical way. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes inside the plasmasphere for 25 remnant belt events that occurred between 2012 and 2017 and that are located in the region 2.9Date: Dec-07-2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026509 Available at:
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Authors: Pinto Víctor A., Bortnik Jacob, Moya Pablo S., Lyons Larry R., Sibeck David G., et al.
Title: Characteristics, Occurrence and Decay Rates of Remnant Belts associated with Three-Belt events in the Earth's Radiation Belts
Abstract: Shortly after the launch of the Van Allen Probes, a new three‐belt configuration of the electron radiation belts was reported. Using data between September 2012 and November 2017, we have identified 30 three‐belt events and found that about 18% of geomagnetic storms result in such configuration. Based on the identified events, we evaluated some characteristics of the remnant (intermediate) belt. We determined the energy range of occurrence and found it peaks at E = 5.2 MeV. We also determined that the magnetopause location and SYM‐H value may play an important role in the outer belt losses that lead to formation and location of the remnant belt. Finally, we calculated the decay rates of the remnant belt for all events and found that their lifetime gets longer as energy increases,. . .
Date: 10/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080274 Available at:
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Authors: Posch J. L, Engebretson M. J., Olson C. N., Thaller S. A., Breneman A. W., et al.
Title: Low-harmonic magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Purely compressional electromagnetic waves (fast magnetosonic waves), generated at multiple harmonics of the local proton gyrofrequency, have been observed by various types of satellite instruments (fluxgate and search coil magnetometers and electric field sensors), but most recent studies have used data from search coil sensors, and many have been restricted to high harmonics. We report here on a survey of low-harmonic waves, based on electric and magnetic field data from the EFW double probe and EMFISIS fluxgate magnetometer instruments, respectively, on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during its first full precession through all local times, from October 1, 2012 through July 13, 2014. These waves were observed both inside and outside the plasmapause (PP), at L shells from 2.4 to ~6 (the. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021179 Available at:
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Authors: Posner A., Hesse M, and Cyr O. C. St.
Title: The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations
Abstract: Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not as. . .
Date: 04/2014 Publisher: Space Weather Pages: 257 - 276 DOI: 10.1002/swe.v12.410.1002/2013SW001007 Available at:
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Authors: Powers Nicole
Title: A Parametric Approach to NASA Mission Operations Costing
Abstract: Quantifying the cost of mission operations can be problematic. Currently few tools exist to estimate these costs and fewer that utilize a parametric approach. This paper begins the process of developing a parametric model for estimating mission operation costs. We hypothesize that the costs of mission operations are determined by the duration and type of operation activity. For the purposes of this paper operation activities fall into the following four categories: hibernated cruise, standard cruise, flyby, and high intensity operations. Hypothesis tests were conducted on each of the aforementioned categories and the results are based on data from APL’s historical missions. Those results will be used to develop a Cost Estimating Relationship (CER) to better predict missio. . .
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics DOI: 10.2514/MSPACE1410.2514/6.2014-4398 Available at:
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Authors: Qin Murong, Hudson Mary, Kress Brian, Selesnick Richard, Engel Miles, et al.
Title: Investigation of Solar Proton Access into the inner magnetosphere on 11 September 2017
Abstract: In this study, access of solar energetic protons to the inner magnetosphere on 11 September 2017 is investigated by computing the reverse particle trajectories with the Dartmouth geomagnetic cutoff code [Kress et al., 2010]. The maximum and minimum cutoff rigidity at each point along the orbit of Van Allen Probe A is numerically computed by extending the code to calculate cutoff rigidity for particles coming from arbitrary direction. Pulse‐height analyzed (PHA) data has the advantage of providing individual particle energies and effectively excluding background high energy proton contamination. This technique is adopted to study the cutoff locations for solar protons with different energy. The results demonstrate that cutoff latitude is lower for solar protons with higher energy, consist. . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026380 Available at:
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Authors: Qin Murong, Hudson Mary, Millan Mary, Woodger Leslie, and Shekhar Sapna
Title: Statistical investigation of the efficiency of EMIC waves in precipitating relativistic electrons
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP). In our study, we carry out 4 years of analysis from 2013 to 2016, with relativistic electron precipitation spikes obtained from POES satellites and EMIC waves observation from Van Allen Probes. Among the 473 coincidence events when POES satellites go through the region conjugate to EMIC wave activity, only 127 are associated with REP. Additionally, the coincidence occurrence rate is about 10% higher than the random coincidence occurrence rate, indicating that EMIC waves and relativistic electrons can be statistically related, but the link is weaker than expected. H+ band EMIC waves have been regarded as less important than He+ band EMIC waves for the precipitation of relativist. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025419 Available at:
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Authors: Qin Murong, Hudson Mary, Li Zhao, Millan Robyn, Shen Xiaochen, et al.
Title: Investigating Loss of Relativistic Electrons Associated With EMIC Waves at Low L Values on 22 June 2015
Abstract: In this study, rapid loss of relativistic radiation belt electrons at low L* values (2.4–3.2) during a strong geomagnetic storm on 22 June 2015 is investigated along with five possible loss mechanisms. Both the particle and wave data are obtained from the Van Allen Probes. Duskside H+ band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed during a rapid decrease of relativistic electrons with energy above 5.2 MeV occurring outside the plasmasphere during extreme magnetopause compression. Lower He+ composition and enriched O+ composition are found compared to typical values assumed in other studies of cyclotron resonant scattering of relativistic electrons by EMIC waves. Quantitative analysis demonstrates that even with the existence of He+ band EMIC waves, it is the H+ band EMIC w. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025726 Available at:
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Authors: Reeves G D, Spence H E, Henderson M G, Morley S. K., Friedel R H W, et al.
Title: Electron Acceleration in the Heart of the Van Allen Radiation Belts
Abstract: The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth’s magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside the radiation belts (radial acceleration) or acceleration of lower-energy electrons to relativistic energies in situ in the heart of the radiation belts (local acceleration). We report measurements from NASA’s Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes that clearly distinguish between the two types of acceleration. The observed radial profiles of phase space density are characteristic of local acceleration in the heart of the radiation belt. . .
Date: 07/2013 Publisher: Science Pages: 991 - 994 DOI: 10.1126/science.1237743 Available at:
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Authors: Reeves G D, Spence H E, Henderson M G, Tu W., Cunningham G. S., et al.
Title: Acceleration and loss driven by VLF chorus: Van Allen Probes observations and DREAM model results
Abstract: For over a decade now we have understood the response of the Earth's radiation belts to solar wind driving are a delicate balance of acceleration and loss processes. Theory has shown that the interaction of relativistic electrons with VLF whistler mode chorus can produce both energization through momentum diffusion and loss through pitch angle diffusion. Recent results from the Van Allen Probes mission has confirmed observationally that chorus can produce both acceleration and loss. The Van Allen Probes satellites are able to measure all the critical particle populations and wave fields with unprecedented precision and resolution but only at the two spacecraft locations. Those spatially-localized observations can be extended globally using three-dimensional diffusion codes such as the DREA. . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929879 Available at:
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Authors: Reeves Geoffrey D
Title: Radiation Belt Storm Probes: The Next Generation of Space Weather Forecasting
Abstract: N/A
Date: 11/2007 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2007SW000341 Available at:
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Authors: Reeves Geoffrey D, Friedel Reiner H W, Larsen Brian A., Skoug Ruth M., Funsten Herbert O., et al.
Title: Energy dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions.
Abstract: We present observations of the radiation belts from the HOPE and MagEIS particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy-dependence and L-shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on March 1 in more detail. The observations show: (a) At all L-shells, lower-energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) Events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) Enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are more common at lower energies; and (d) Even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower-energies tend to extend to lower L-shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L-shells at lower energie. . .
Date: 12/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021569 Available at:
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Authors: Reeves G. D., and Daglis I. A.
Title: Geospace Magnetic Storms and the Van Allen Radiation Belts
Abstract: N/A
Date: Publisher: Oxford University Press DOI: N/A
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Authors: Reid Mark, and Ottman Geffrey
Title: Software controlled memory scrubbing for the Van Allen Probes Solid State Recorder (SSR) memory
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes mission which was designed and built by the Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) is also being operated by the APL mission operations team in Laurel, Maryland. The two Van Allen Probes spacecraft have been successfully collecting data on orbit since they were launched on August 30, 2012. These twin probes are providing unprecedented insight into the physical dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts and are giving scientists the data they need to make predictions of changes in this critical region of space, by sampling the harsh radiation belt environment where major space weather activity occurs and many spacecraft operate.[1] Shortly after launch, radiation induced anomalies were reported on both spacecraft and investigated by the hardware and sof. . .
Date: 03/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2014.6836406 Available at:
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Authors: Reiff P. H., Daou A. G., Sazykin S. Y., Nakamura R, Hairston M. R., et al.
Title: Multispacecraft Observations and Modeling of the June 22/23, 2015 Geomagnetic Storm
Abstract: The magnetic storm of June 22-23, 2015 was one of the largest in the current solar cycle. We present in situ observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) and the Van Allen Probes (VAP) in the magnetotail, field-aligned currents from AMPERE, and ionospheric flow data from DMSP. Our real-time space weather alert system sent out a “red alert”, correctly predicting Kp indices greater than 8. We show strong outflow of ionospheric Oxygen, dipolarizations in the MMS magnetometer data, and dropouts in the particle fluxes seen by the MMS FPI instrument suite. At ionospheric altitudes, the AMPERE data show highly variable currents exceeding 20 MA. We present numerical simulations with the BATS-R-US global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model linked with the Rice Convection Model (RCM. . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069154 Available at:
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Authors: Remya B., Sibeck D G, Halford A J, Murphy K. R., Reeves G D, et al.
Title: Ion Injection Triggered EMIC Waves in the Earth's Magnetosphere
Abstract: We present Van Allen Probe observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves triggered solely due to individual substorm‐injected ions in the absence of storms or compressions of the magnetosphere during 9 August 2015. The time at which the injected ions are observed directly corresponds to the onset of EMIC waves at the location of Van Allen Probe A (L = 5.5 and 18:06 magnetic local time). The injection was also seen at geosynchronous orbit by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft, and the westward(eastward) drift of ions(electrons) was monitored by Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft at different local times. The azimuthal location of the injection was determined by tracing the injection signatures backward in. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025354 Available at:
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Authors: Ren Jie, Zong Qiu-Gang, Miyoshi Yoshizumi, Rankin Robert, Spence Harlan E, et al.
Title: A comparative study of ULF waves' role in the dynamics of charged particles in the plasmasphere: Van Allen Probes observation
Abstract: By analyzing observations from Van Allen Probes in its inbound and outbound orbits, we present evidence of coherent enhancement of cold plasmaspheric electrons and ions due to drift‐bounce resonance with ULF waves. From 18:00 UT on 28 May 2017 to 10:00 UT on 29 May 2017, newly formed poloidal mode standing ULF waves with significant electric field oscillations were observed in two consecutive orbits when Probe B was travelling inbound. In contrast to observations during outbound orbits, the cold (< 150 eV) electorns measured by the HOPE instrument were characterized by flux enhancements several times larger and bi‐directional pitch angle distributions during inbound orbits. The electron number density inferred from upper hybrid waves is twice as larger as during inbound orbits, which w. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025255 Available at:
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Authors: Ren Jie, Zong Q. G., Miyoshi Y, Zhou X. Z., Wang Y. F., et al.
Title: Low-energy (< 200 eV) electron acceleration by ULF waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer: Van Allen Probes observation
Abstract: We report observational evidence of cold plamsmaspheric electron (< 200 eV) acceleration by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer on 10 September 2015. Strongly enhanced cold electron fluxes in the energy spectrogram were observed along with second harmonic mode waves with a period of about 1 minute which lasted several hours during two consecutive Van Allen Probe B orbits. Cold electron (<200 eV) and energetic proton (10-20 keV) bi-directional pitch angle signatures observed during the event are suggestive of the drift-bounce resonance mechanism. The correlation between enhanced energy fluxes and ULF waves leads to the conclusions that plasmaspheric dynamics is strongly affected by ULF waves. Van Allen Probe A and B, GOES 13, GOES 15 and MMS 1 observations su. . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024316 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Albert J M, and Cunningham G. S.
Title: Electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the systematic study of electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere. It relies on a new formulation of the bounce-averaged quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion coefficients parameterized by a single frequency, ω, and wave normal angle, θ. We first show that the diffusion coefficients scale with ω/Ωce, where Ωce is the equatorial electron gyrofrequency, and that maximal pitch angle diffusion occurs along the line α0 = π/2–θ, where α0 is the equatorial pitch angle. Lifetimes are computed for L shell values in the range [1.5, 3.5] and energies, E, in the range [0.1, 6] MeV as a function of frequency and wave normal angle. The maximal pitch angle associated with a given lifetime is also given, revealing the frequen. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020217 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Santol?k O., Reeves G., Kurth W S, Denton M., et al.
Title: Effects of whistler mode hiss waves in March 2013
Abstract: We present simulations of the loss of radiation belt electrons by resonant pitch angle diffusion caused by whistler mode hiss waves for March 2013. Pitch angle diffusion coefficients are computed from the wave properties and the ambient plasma data obtained by the Van Allen Probes with a resolution of 8 hours and 0.1 L-shell. Loss rates follow a complex dynamic structure, imposed by the wave and plasma properties. Hiss effects can be strong, with minimum lifetimes (of ~1 day) moving from energies of ~100 keV at L~5 up to ~2 MeV at L~2, and stop abruptly, similarly to the observed energy-dependent inner belt edge. Periods when the plasmasphere extends beyond L~5 favor long-lasting hiss losses from the outer belt. Such loss rates are embedded in a reduced Fokker-Planck code and validated aga. . .
Date: 06/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024139 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll J. F., Reeves G., Cunningham G., Loridan V., Denton M., et al.
Title: Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model
Abstract: We present dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt " slot region" and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the March 1st storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally-resolved whistler mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L-shells (2 to 6) including (a) the strong energy-dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L-shells at lower energies and (c) an " S-shaped" energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial tran. . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068869 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll J.‐F., Farges T., Lay E. H., and Cunningham G. S.
Title: Local and Statistical Maps of Lightning‐Generated Wave Power Density Estimated at the Van Allen Probes Footprints From the World‐Wide Lightning Location Network Database
Abstract: We propose a new method that uses the World‐Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) to estimate both the local and the drift lightning power density at the Van Allen Probes footprints during 4.3 years (~2 × 108 strokes.). The ratio of the drift power density to the local power density defines a time‐resolved WWLLN‐based model of lightning‐generated wave (LGW) power density ratio, RWWLLN. RWWLLNis computed every ~34 s. This ratio multiplied by the time‐resolved LGW intensity measured by the Probes allows direct computation of pitch angle diffusion coefficients used in radiation belt codes. Statistical analysis shows the median power density ratio is urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl58808:grl58808-math-0001 over the Americas. Elsewhere, urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl58808:grl58808-ma. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 4122 - 4133 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081146 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll ‐F., Loridan V., Denton M. H., Cunningham G., Reeves G., et al.
Title: Observations and Fokker‐Planck simulations of the L‐shell, energy, and pitch‐angle structure of Earth’s electron radiation belts during quiet times
Abstract: The evolution of the radiation belts in L‐shell (L), energy (E), and equatorial pitch‐angle (α0) is analyzed during the calm 11‐day interval (March 4 –March 15) following the March 1 storm 2013. Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) observations from Van Allen Probes are interpreted alongside 1D and 3D Fokker‐Planck simulations combined with consistent event‐driven scattering modeling from whistler mode hiss waves. Three (L, E, α0)‐regions persist through 11 days of hiss wave scattering; the pitch‐angle dependent inner belt core (L~<2.2 and E<700 keV), pitch‐angle homogeneous outer belt low‐energy core (L>~5 and E~<100 keV), and a distinct pocket of electrons (L~[4.5, 5.5] and E~[0.7, 2] MeV). The pitch‐angle homogeneous outer belt is explained by the diff. . .
Date: 12/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026111 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll J. F., Loridan V., Cunningham G. S., Reeves G D, and Shprits Y Y
Title: On the Time Needed to Reach an Equilibrium Structure of the Radiation Belts
Abstract: In this study, we complement the notion of equilibrium states of the radiation belts with a discussion on the dynamics and time needed to reach equilibrium. We solve for the equilibrium states obtained using 1D radial diffusion with recently developed hiss and chorus lifetimes at constant values of Kp = 1, 3 and 6. We find that the equilibrium states at moderately low Kp, when plotted vs L-shell (L) and energy (E), display the same interesting S-shape for the inner edge of the outer belt as recently observed by the Van Allen Probes. The S-shape is also produced as the radiation belts dynamically evolve toward the equilibrium state when initialized to simulate the buildup after a massive dropout or to simulate loss due to outward diffusion from a saturated state. Physically, this shape,. . .
Date: 06/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022207 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Chen Y., Fennell J, and Friedel R
Title: On long decays of electrons in the vicinity of the slot region observed by HEO3
Abstract: Long decay periods of electron counts, which follow abrupt rises and last from weeks to months, have been observed by the HEO3 spacecraft in the vicinity of the slot region between the years 1998 and 2007. During the most stable decay periods as selected, e-folding timescales are extracted and statistically analyzed from observations as a function of L-shell and electron energy. A challenge is to reproduce the observed timescales from simulations of pitch angle diffusion by three acting waves–the plasmaspheric hiss, lightning-generated whistlers, and VLF transmitter waves. We perform full numerical simulations to accurately compute electron lifetimes. We choose to use the method and wave parameters proposed by Abel & Thorne [1998] with the goal to assess whether they can reproduce lifeti. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020449 Available at:
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