Found 919 results
Authors: Whittaker Ian C., Rodger Craig J., Clilverd Mark A., and Sauvaud é
Title: The effects and correction of the geometric factor for the POES/MEPED electron flux instrument using a multisatellite comparison
Abstract: Measurements from the Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED) instrument are widely used in studies into radiation belt dynamics and atmospheric coupling. However, this instrument has been shown to have a complex energy-dependent response to incident particle fluxes, with the additional possibility of low-energy protons contaminating the electron fluxes. We test the recent Monte Carlo theoretical simulation of the instrument by comparing the responses against observations from an independent experimental data set. Our study examines the reported geometric factors for the MEPED electron flux instrument against the high-energy resolution Instrument for Detecting Particles (IDPs) on the Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted. . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 6386 - 6404 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020021 Available at:
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Authors: Wang X., Malaspina D. M., Hsu H.-W., Ergun R. E., and M. Horányi.
Title: The effects of magnetic fields on photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations
Abstract: Previously, we have experimentally studied photoelectron-mediated spacecraft potential fluctuations associated with time-dependent external electric fields. In this paper, we investigate the effects of magnetic fields on such spacecraft potential fluctuations. A magnetic field is created above the UV-illuminated surface of a spacecraft model to alter the escape rate of photoelectrons. The packet of the observed potential oscillations becomes less positive with increasing magnetic field strength because more of the emitted photoelectrons are returned to the surface. As a result, the photoelectric charging time is increased, corresponding to a decrease in the response frequency of the photoemitting surface. The amplitude of the potential oscillations decreases when the response frequency bec. . .
Date: 09/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7319 - 7326 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA019923 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Albert J M, and Cunningham G. S.
Title: Electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the systematic study of electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere. It relies on a new formulation of the bounce-averaged quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion coefficients parameterized by a single frequency, ω, and wave normal angle, θ. We first show that the diffusion coefficients scale with ω/Ωce, where Ωce is the equatorial electron gyrofrequency, and that maximal pitch angle diffusion occurs along the line α0 = π/2–θ, where α0 is the equatorial pitch angle. Lifetimes are computed for L shell values in the range [1.5, 3.5] and energies, E, in the range [0.1, 6] MeV as a function of frequency and wave normal angle. The maximal pitch angle associated with a given lifetime is also given, revealing the frequen. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020217 Available at:
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Authors: Kersten Tobias, Horne Richard B, Glauert Sarah A, Meredith Nigel P, Fraser Brian J., et al.
Title: Electron losses from the radiation belts caused by EMIC waves
Abstract: Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves cause electron loss in the radiation belts by resonating with high-energy electrons at energies greater than about 500 keV. However, their effectiveness has not been fully quantified. Here we determine the effectiveness of EMIC waves by using wave data from the fluxgate magnetometer on CRRES to calculate bounce-averaged pitch angle and energy diffusion rates for L*=3.5–7 for five levels of Kp between 12 and 18 MLT. To determine the electron loss, EMIC diffusion rates were included in the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt Model together with whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, and radial diffusion. By simulating a 100 day period in 1990, we show that EMIC waves caused a significant reduction in the electron flux for energies greater t. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020366 Available at:
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Authors: O'Brien T P, Claudepierre S G, Blake J B, Fennell J. F., Clemmons J. H., et al.
Title: An empirically observed pitch-angle diffusion eigenmode in the Earth's electron belt near L *  = 5.0
Abstract: Using data from NASA's Van Allen Probes, we have identified a synchronized exponential decay of electron flux in the outer zone, near L* = 5.0. Exponential decays strongly indicate the presence of a pure eigenmode of a diffusion operator acting in the synchronized dimension(s). The decay has a time scale of about 4 days with no dependence on pitch angle. While flux at nearby energies and L* is also decaying exponentially, the decay time varies in those dimensions. This suggests the primary decay mechanism is elastic pitch angle scattering, which itself depends on energy and L*. We invert the shape of the observed eigenmode to obtain an approximate shape of the pitch angle diffusion coefficient and show excellent agreement with diffusion by plasmaspheric hiss. Our results suggest that e. . .
Date: 01/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 251 - 258 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058713 Available at:
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Authors: Mauk B H, Blake J B, Baker D N, Clemmons J. H., Reeves G D, et al.
Title: The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation and the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission
Abstract: The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of 5 fields-and-particles investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. MMS comprises 4 spacecraft flying in close formation in highly elliptical, near-Earth-equatorial orbits targeting understanding of the fundamental physics of the important physical process called magnetic reconnection using Earth’s magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory. EPD comprises two sensor types, the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) with one instrument on each of the 4 spacecraft, and the Fly’s Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) with 2 instruments on each of the 4 spacecraft. EIS measures energetic ion energy, angle and elemental compositional distributions from a required low energy limit of 20 keV for protons and 45 keV for o. . .
Date: 06/2014 Publisher: Space Science Reviews DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0055-5 Available at:
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Authors: Ozaki Mitsunori, Yagitani Satoshi, Takahashi Ken, Imachi Tomohiko, Koji Hiroki, et al.
Title: Equivalent Circuit Model for the Electric Field Sensitivity of a Magnetic Search Coil of Space Plasma
Abstract: Magnetic search coils (MSCs) are sensitive to both magnetic and electric fields, but detecting electric fields is unnecessary for magnetic observations of plasma waves. However, it is important to evaluate both sensitivities for different geometries and electrostatic shields to avoid electric field pickup. An equivalent circuit model for the electric field sensitivity of an MSC in a collisionless isotropic cold plasma is developed here using electrical coupling through a sheath capacitance. That sensitivity is defined by a relationship between the MSC impedance and the sheath capacitance. To confirm the validity of the circuit model, the sensitivity to an electric field is measured by imposing an external electric field using charged parallel metallic plates in laboratory experiments. The . . .
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: IEEE Sensors Journal Pages: 1 - 1 DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2014.2365495 Available at:
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Authors: Sarris T. E.
Title: Estimates of the power per mode number of broadband ULF waves at geosynchronous orbit
Abstract: In studies of radial diffusion processes in the magnetosphere it is well known that ultralow frequency (ULF) waves of frequency mωd can resonantly interact with particles of drift frequency ωd, where m is the waves' azimuthal mode number. Due to difficulties in estimating m, an oversimplifying assumption is often made in simulations, namely that all ULF wave power is located at a single mode number. In this paper a technique is presented for extracting information on the distribution of ULF power in a range of azimuthal mode numbers. As a first step, the cross power and phase differences between time series from azimuthally aligned magnetometers are calculated. Subsequently, through integrating the ULF power at particular ranges of phase differences that correspond to particular mode num. . .
Date: 07/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 5539 - 5550 DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019238 Available at:
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Authors: Tu Weichao, Cunningham G. S., Chen Y., Morley S. K., Reeves G D, et al.
Title: Event-specific chorus wave and electron seed population models in DREAM3D using the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: The DREAM3D diffusion model is applied to Van Allen Probes observations of the fast dropout and strong enhancement of MeV electrons during the October 2012 “double-dip” storm. We show that in order to explain the very different behavior in the two “dips,” diffusion in all three dimensions (energy, pitch angle, and L*) coupled with data-driven, event-specific inputs, and boundary conditions is required. Specifically, we find that outward radial diffusion to the solar wind-driven magnetopause, an event-specific chorus wave model, and a dynamic lower-energy seed population are critical for modeling the dynamics. In contrast, models that include only a subset of processes, use statistical wave amplitudes, or rely on inward radial diffusion of a seed population, perform poorly. The resu. . .
Date: 03/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1359 - 1366 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058819 Available at:
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Authors: Dai Lei, Wygant John R., Cattell Cynthia A., Thaller Scott, Kersten Kris, et al.
Title: Evidence for injection of relativistic electrons into the Earth's outer radiation belt via intense substorm electric fields
Abstract: Observation and model results accumulated in the last decade indicate that substorms can promptly inject relativistic ‘killer’ electrons (≥MeV) in addition to 10–100 keV subrelativistic populations. Using measurements from Cluster, Polar, LANL, and GOES satellites near the midnight sector, we show in two events that intense electric fields, as large as 20 mV/m, associated with substorm dipolarization are associated with injections of relativistic electrons into the outer radiation belt. Enhancements of hundreds of keV electrons at dipolarization in the magnetotail can account for the injected MeV electrons through earthward transport. These observations provide evidence that substorm electric fields inject relativistic electrons by transporting magnetotail electrons into the outer . . .
Date: 02/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1133 - 1141 DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059228 Available at:
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Authors: Li W, Mourenas D., Artemyev A., Agapitov O., Bortnik J, et al.
Title: Evidence of stronger pitch angle scattering loss caused by oblique whistler-mode waves as compared with quasi-parallel waves
Abstract: Wave normal distributions of lower-band whistler-mode waves observed outside the plasmapause exhibit two peaks; one near the parallel direction and the other at very oblique angles. We analyze a number of conjunction events between the Van Allen Probes near the equatorial plane and POES satellites at conjugate low altitudes, where lower-band whistler-mode wave amplitudes were inferred from the two-directional POES electron measurements over 30–100 keV, assuming that these waves were quasi-parallel. For conjunction events, the wave amplitudes inferred from the POES electron measurements were found to be overestimated as compared with the Van Allen Probes measurements primarily for oblique waves and quasi-parallel waves with small wave amplitudes (< ~20 pT) measured at low latitudes. This . . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: n/a - n/a DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061260 Available at:
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Authors: Nishimura Y., Bortnik J, Li W, Lyons L R, Donovan E. F., et al.
Title: Evolution of nightside subauroral proton aurora caused by transient plasma sheet flows
Abstract: While nightside subauroral proton aurora shows rapid temporal variations, the cause of this variability has rarely been investigated. Using well-coordinated observations by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) all-sky imagers, THEMIS satellites in the equatorial magnetosphere, and the low-altitude NOAA 17 satellite, we examined the rapid temporal evolution of subauroral proton aurora in the premidnight sector. An isolated proton aurora occurred soon after an auroral poleward boundary intensification that was followed by an auroral streamer reaching the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval. Three THEMIS satellites in the magnetotail detected flow bursts and one of the THEMIS satellites in the outer plasmasphere observed a ring current injectio. . .
Date: 07/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 5295 - 5304 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020029 Available at:
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Authors: Jaynes A. N., Li X, Schiller Q. G., Blum L. W., Tu W., et al.
Title: Evolution of relativistic outer belt electrons during an extended quiescent period
Abstract: To effectively study steady loss due to hiss-driven precipitation of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt, it is useful to isolate this loss by studying a time of relatively quiet geomagnetic activity. We present a case of initial enhancement and slow, steady decay of 700 keV - 2 MeV electron populations in the outer radiation belt during an extended quiescent period from ~15 December 2012 - 13 January 2013. We incorporate particle measurements from a constellation of satellites, including the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat, the Van Allen Probes twin spacecraft, and THEMIS, to understand the evolution of the electron populations across pitch angle and energy. Additional data from calculated phase space density (PSD), as well as hiss and chorus w. . .
Date: 12/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020125 Available at:
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Authors: Zanetti L. J., Mauk B H, Fox N.J., Barnes R.J., Weiss M, et al.
Title: The Evolving Space Weather System - Van Allen Probes Contribution
Abstract: The overarching goal and purpose of the study of space weather is clear - to understand and address the issues caused by solar disturbances on humans and technological systems. Space weather has evolved in the past few decades from a collection of concerned agencies and researchers to a critical function of the National Weather Service of NOAA. The general effects have also evolved from the well-known telegraph disruptions of the mid-1800’s to modern day disturbances of the electric power grid, communications and navigation, human spaceflight and spacecraft systems. The last two items in this list, and specifically the effects of penetrating radiation, were the impetus for the space weather broadcast implemented on NASA’s Van Allen Probes’ twin pair of satellites, launched in August . . .
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2014SW001108 Available at:
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Authors: Thomas Evan G., Yan Jingye, Zhang Jiaojiao, Baker Joseph B. H., Ruohoniemi Michael, et al.
Title: An examination of the source of decameter-scale irregularities in the geomagnetically disturbed mid-latitude ionosphere
Abstract: We present first results from a study of the plasma instability mechanism responsible for the small-scale (∼10 m) ionospheric density irregularities commonly observed by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radars in the vicinity of Sub Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) during periods of geomagnetic disturbance. A focus is placed on the mid-latitude region of the ionosphere over North America where recent expansion of the SuperDARN network allows for extensive direct comparisons with total electron content (TEC) measurements from a dense network of ground-based GPS receivers. The TEC observations indicate that high-speed SAPS channels and the associated small-scale irregularities are typically located within the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. The Millstone Hill Incoher. . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929853 Available at:
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Authors: Zhang J.-C., Saikin A. A., Kistler L. M., Smith C W, Spence H E, et al.
Title: Excitation of EMIC waves detected by the Van Allen Probes on 28 April 2013
Abstract: We report the wave observations, associated plasma measurements, and linear theory testing of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave events observed by the Van Allen Probes on 28 April 2013. The wave events are detected in their generation regions as three individual events in two consecutive orbits of Van Allen Probe-A, while the other spacecraft, B, does not detect any significant EMIC wave activity during this period. Three overlapping H+ populations are observed around the plasmapause when the waves are excited. The difference between the observational EMIC wave growth parameter (Σh) and the theoretical EMIC instability parameter (Sh) is significantly raised, on average, to 0.10 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.02, and 0.07 ± 0.02 during the three wave events, respectively. On Van A. . .
Date: 06/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 4101–4108 DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060621 Available at:
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Authors: Zhou Qinghua, Xiao Fuliang, Yang Chang, Liu Si, Kletzing C A, et al.
Title: Excitation of nightside magnetosonic waves observed by Van Allen Probes
Abstract: During the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm on 30-31 March 2013, Van Allen Probe A detected enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves in a broad range of L =1.8-4.7 and MLT =17-22 h, with a frequency range ~10-100 Hz. In the meanwhile, distinct proton ring distributions with peaks at energies of ~10 keV, were also observed in L =3.2-4.6 and L =5.0-5.6. Using a subtracted bi-Maxwellian distribution to model the observed proton ring distribution, we perform three dimensional ray tracing to investigate the instability, propagation and spatial distribution of MS waves. Numerical results show that nightside MS waves are produced by proton ring distribution and grow rapidly from the source location L =5.6 to the location L =5.0, but remain nearly stable at locations L <5.0 Moreover, waves launched. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: n/a - n/a DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020481 Available at:
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Authors: Takahashi Kazue, Denton Richard E, Kurth William, Kletzing Craig, Wygant John, et al.
Title: Externally driven plasmaspheric ULF waves observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: We analyze data acquired by the Van Allen Probes on 8 November 2012, during a period of extended low geomagnetic activity, to gain new insight into plasmaspheric ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves. The waves exhibited strong spectral power in the 5–40 mHzband and included multiharmonic toroidal waves visible up to the 11th harmonic, unprecedented in the plasmasphere. During this wave activity, the interplanetary magnetic field cone angle was small, suggesting that the waves were driven by broadband compressional ULF waves originating in the foreshock region. This source mechanism is supported by the tailward propagation of the compressional magnetic field perturbations at a phase velocity of a few hundred kilometers per second that is determined bythe cross phase analysis of data from the t. . .
Date: 12/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020373 Available at:
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Authors: Artemyev A. V., Vasiliev A. A., Mourenas D., Agapitov O. V., Krasnoselskikh V., et al.
Title: Fast transport of resonant electrons in phase space due to nonlinear trapping by whistler waves
Abstract: We present an analytical, simplified formulation accounting for the fast transport of relativistic electrons in phase space due to wave-particle resonant interactions in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of Earth's radiation belts. We show that the usual description of the evolution of the particle velocity distribution based on the Fokker-Planck equation can be modified to incorporate nonlinear processes of wave-particle interaction, including particle trapping. Such a modification consists in one additional operator describing fast particle jumps in phase space. The proposed, general approach is used to describe the acceleration of relativistic electrons by oblique whistler waves in the radiation belts. We demonstrate that for a wave power distribution with a hard enough power law tail in. . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 5727 - 5733 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v41.1610.1002/2014GL061380 Available at:
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Authors: McKenna-Lawlor Susan
Title: Feasibility study of astronaut standardized career dose limits in LEO and the outlook for BLEO
Abstract: Cosmic Study Group SG 3.19/1.10 was established in February 2013 under the aegis of the International Academy of Astronautics to consider and compare the dose limits adopted by various space agencies for astronauts in Low Earth Orbit. A preliminary definition of the limits that might later be adopted by crews exploring Beyond Low Earth Orbit was, in addition, to be made. The present paper presents preliminary results of the study reported at a Symposium held in Turin by the Academy in July 2013. First, an account is provided of exposure limits assigned by various partner space agencies to those of their astronauts that work aboard the International Space Station. Then, gaps in the scientific and technical information required to safely implement human missions beyond the shielding provided. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Acta Astronautica Pages: 565 - 573 DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2014.07.011 Available at:
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Authors: Santolik O, Kletzing C A, Kurth W S, Hospodarsky G B, and Bounds S R
Title: Fine structure of large-amplitude chorus wave packets
Abstract: Whistler mode chorus waves in the outer Van Allen belt can have consequences for acceleration of relativistic electrons through wave-particle interactions. New multicomponent waveform measurements have been collected by the Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science's Waves instrument. We detect fine structure of chorus elements with peak instantaneous amplitudes of a few hundred picotesla but exceptionally reaching up to 3 nT, i.e., more than 1% of the background magnetic field. The wave vector direction turns by a few tens of degrees within a single chorus element but also within its subpackets. Our analysis of a significant number of subpackets embedded in rising frequency elements shows that amplitudes of their peaks tend to decrease with frequ. . .
Date: 01/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 293 - 299 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058889 Available at:
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Authors: Summers Danny, Omura Yoshiharu, Nakamura Satoko, and Kletzing Craig A.
Title: Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss
Abstract: Plasmaspheric hiss has been widely regarded as a broadband, structureless, incoherent emission. In this study, by examining burst-mode vector waveform data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission, we show that plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission with complex fine structure. Specifically, plasmaspheric hiss appears as discrete rising tone and falling tone elements. Our study comprises the analysis of two one-hour samples within which a total of 8 one-second samples were analyzed. By means of waveform analysis on two samples we identify typical amplitudes, phase profiles, and sweep rates of the rising and falling tone elements. The exciting new observations reported here can be expected to fuel a . . .
Date: 12/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020437 Available at:
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Authors: Fu H. S., Cao J. B., Zhima Z., Khotyaintsev Y. V., Angelopoulos V, et al.
Title: First observation of rising-tone magnetosonic waves
Abstract: Magnetosonic (MS) waves are linearly polarized emissions confined near the magnetic equator with wave normal angle near 90° and frequency below the lower hybrid frequency. Such waves, also termed equatorial noise, were traditionally known to be “temporally continuous” in their time-frequency spectrogram. Here we show for the first time that MS waves actually have discrete wave elements with rising-tone features in their spectrogram. The frequency sweep rate of MS waves, ~1 Hz/s, is between that of chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. For the two events we analyzed, MS waves occur outside the plasmapause and cannot penetrate into the plasmasphere; their power is smaller than that of chorus. We suggest that the rising-tone feature of MS waves is a consequence of nonl. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 7419 - 7426 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v41.2110.1002/2014GL061867 Available at:
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Authors: Ganguli G., Tejero E., Crabtree C., Amatucci W., and Rudakov L.
Title: Generation of electromagnetic waves in the very low frequency band by velocity gradient
Abstract: It is shown that a magnetized plasma layer with a velocity gradient in the flow perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field is unstable to waves in the Very Low Frequency band that spans the ion and electron gyrofrequencies. The waves are formally electromagnetic. However, depending on wave vector k⎯⎯=kc/ωpe (normalized by the electron skin depth) and the obliqueness, k⊥/k|| , where k⊥,∣∣∣∣ are wave vectors perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field, the waves are closer to electrostatic in nature when k⎯⎯≫1 and k⊥≫k|| and electromagnetic otherwise. Inhomogeneous transverse flows are generated in plasma that contains a static electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field, a configuration that may naturally arise in the boundary layer between plasmas of. . .
Date: 01/2014 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas Pages: 012107 DOI: 10.1063/1.4862032 Available at:
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Authors: Chen Lunjin, Thorne Richard M, Bortnik Jacob, Li Wen, Horne Richard B, et al.
Title: Generation of Unusually Low Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss
Abstract: It has been reported from Van Allen Probe observations that plasmaspheric hiss intensification in the outer plasmasphere, associated with a substorm injection on Sept 30 2012, occurred with a peak frequency near 100 Hz, well below the typical plasmaspheric hiss frequency range, extending down to ~20 Hz. We examine this event of unusually low frequency plasmaspheric hiss to understand its generation mechanism. Quantitative analysis is performed by simulating wave ray paths via the HOTRAY ray tracing code with measured plasma density and calculating ray path-integrated wave gain evaluated using the measured energetic electron distribution. We demonstrate that the growth rate due to substorm injected electrons is positive but rather weak, leading to small wave gain (~10 dB) during a sin. . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060628 Available at:
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Authors: Chen Yue, Reeves Geoffrey D, Friedel Reiner H W, and Cunningham Gregory S.
Title: Global time-dependent chorus maps from low-Earth-orbit electron precipitation and Van Allen Probes data
Abstract: Substorm injected electrons (several–100 s keV) produce whistler-mode chorus waves that are thought to have a major impact on the radiation belts by causing both energization and loss of relativistic electrons in the outer belt. High-altitude measurements, such as those from the Van Allen Probes, provide detailed wave measurements at a few points in the magnetosphere. But physics-based models of radiation-belt dynamics require knowledge of the global distribution of chorus waves. We demonstrate that time-dependent, global distributions of near-equatorial chorus wave intensities can be inferred from low-Earth-orbit (LEO) measurements of precipitating low-energy electrons. We compare in situ observations of near-equatorial chorus waves with LEO observations of precipitating electrons a. . .
Date: 02/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 755 - 761 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059181 Available at:
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Authors: Baker D N, Jaynes A. N., Li X, Henderson M G, Kanekal S G, et al.
Title: Gradual diffusion and punctuated phase space density enhancements of highly relativistic electrons: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E ~10 MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L ~4.0 ± 0.5). Thi. . .
Date: 03/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1351 - 1358 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058942 Available at:
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Authors: Shiokawa Kazuo, Yokoyama Yu, Ieda Akimasa, Miyoshi Yoshizumi, Nomura Reiko, et al.
Title: Ground-based ELF/VLF chorus observations at subauroral latitudes-VLF-CHAIN Campaign
Abstract: We report observations of very low frequency (VLF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) chorus waves taken during the ELF/VLF Campaign observation with High-resolution Aurora Imaging Network (VLF-CHAIN) of 17–25 February 2012 at subauroral latitudes at Athabasca (L=4.3), Canada. ELF/VLF waves were measured continuously with a sampling rate of 100 kHz to monitor daily variations in ELF/VLF emissions and derive their detailed structures. We found quasiperiodic (QP) emissions whose repetition period changes rapidly within a period of 1 h without corresponding magnetic pulsations. QP emissions showed positive correlation between amplitude and frequency sweep rate, similarly to rising-tone elements. We found an event of nearly simultaneous enhancements of QP emissions and Pc1/electromagnetic ion. . .
Date: 09/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7363 - 7379 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA020161 Available at:
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Authors: Foster J C
Title: Imaging the plasmasphere with ground based GPS TEC observations and comparisons with in situ plasmaspheric observations with Van Allen Probes
Abstract: For over a decade, incoherent scatter radar observations of the mid and auroral-latitude ionosphere combined with ground based GPS observations of total electron content (TEC) have been used to study the intense storm enhanced density (SED) plumes that form over the Americas during major geomagnetic storms [1]. Magnetic field mapping of the ionospheric observations to magnetospheric heights revealed close correspondence between the SED and plasmasphere erosion plumes observed from space in EUV imagery by the IMAGE satellite [2]. During the current solar cycle the global distribution of GPS receivers used in creating the TEC maps and movies has increased significantly providing near-continuous two-dimensional coverage of TEC morphology and dynamics over much the northern hemisphere mid and . . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929943 Available at:
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Authors: Baker D N, Jaynes A. N., Hoxie V C, Thorne R M, Foster J. C., et al.
Title: An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Early observations1, 2 indicated that the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts could be separated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies3, 4 showed that electrons of moderate energy (less than about one megaelectronvolt) often populate both zones, with a deep ‘slot’ region largely devoid of particles between them. There is a region of dense cold plasma around the Earth known as the plasmasphere, the outer boundary of which is called the plasmapause. The two-belt radiation structure was explained as arising from strong electron interactions with plasmaspheric hiss just inside the plasmapause boundary5, with the inner edge of the outer radiation zone corresponding to the minimum plasmapause location6. Re. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Nature Pages: 531 - 534 DOI: 10.1038/nature13956 Available at:
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Authors: Paulson K. W., Smith C W, Lessard M. R., Engebretson M. J., Torbert R B, et al.
Title: In situ observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: We present in situ observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations using the Van Allen Probes. These waves are often observed using ground-based magnetometers, but are rarely observed by orbiting satellites. With the Van Allen Probes, we have seen at least 14 different pearl pulsation events during the first year of operations. These new in situ measurements allow us to identify the wave classification based on local magnetic field conditions. Additionally, by using two spacecraft, we are able to observe temporal changes in the region of observation. The waves appear to be generated at an overall central frequency, as often observed on the ground, and change polarization from left- to right-handedness as they propagate into a region where they are resonant with the crossover frequency (where R- and L. . .
Date: 04/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1823 - 1829 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059187 Available at:
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Authors: Gerrard Andrew, Lanzerotti Louis, Gkioulidou Matina, Mitchell Donald, Manweiler Jerry, et al.
Title: Initial Measurements of O-ion and He-ion Decay Rates Observed from the Van Allen Probes RBSPICE Instrument
Abstract: H-ion (~45-keV to ~600-keV), He-ion (~65-keV to ~520-keV), and O-ion (~140-keV to ~1130-keV) integral flux measurements, from the Radiation Belt Storm Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument aboard the Van Allan Probes spacecraft B, are reported. These abundance data form a cohesive picture of ring current ions during the first nine months of measurements. Furthermore, the data presented herein are used to show injection characteristics via the He-ion/H-ion abundance ratio and the O-ion/H-ion abundance ratio. Of unique interest to ring current dynamics are the spatial-temporal decay characteristics of the two injected populations. We observe that He-ions decay more quickly at lower L-shells, on the orderof ~0.8-day at L-shells of 3–4, and decay more slowly with higher L-she. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020374 Available at:
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Authors: Foster John C, and Erickson Philip J.
Title: Initial observations of plasma waves in the sub-auroral polarization stream with the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a geospace boundary layer phenomenon associated with the interaction of the warm plasma of the magnetospheric ring current with the cold ions and electrons of the outer plasmasphere [1]. Driven by ring current enhancements during magnetospheric disturbances, SAPS location, intensity, and characteristics are greatly influenced by the underlying ionosphere. Strong M-I coupling by means of field-aligned currents creates a high-speed (>1000 m/s) westward plasma flow channel in the ionosphere at pre-midnight/post-noon local times which is readily observable by incoherent scatter [2] and HF radars and in plasma drift observations by low-altitude spacecraft (e.g. DMSP). The fast ionospheric flows generate E-region irregularities providing for addition. . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929852 Available at:
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Authors: Agapitov O. V., Artemyev A. V., Mourenas D., Kasahara Y., and Krasnoselskikh V.
Title: Inner belt and slot region electron lifetimes and energization rates based on AKEBONO statistics of whistler waves
Abstract: Global statistics of the amplitude distributions of hiss, lightning-generated, and other whistler mode waves from terrestrial VLF transmitters have been obtained from the EXOS-D (Akebono) satellite in the Earth's plasmasphere and fitted as functions of L and latitude for two geomagnetic activity ranges (Kp<3 and Kp>3). In particular, the present study focuses on the inner zone L∈[1.4,2] where reliable in situ measurements were lacking. Such statistics are critically needed for an accurate assessment of the role and relative dominance of each type of wave in the dynamics of the inner radiation belt. While VLF waves seem to propagate mainly in a ducted mode at L∼1.5–3 for Kp<3, they appear to be substantially unducted during more disturbed periods (Kp>3). Hiss waves are generally the m. . .
Date: 04/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 2876 - 2893 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.410.1002/2014JA019886 Available at:
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Authors: Su Zhenpeng, Zhu Hui, Xiao Fuliang, Zheng Huinan, Wang Yuming, et al.
Title: Intense duskside lower band chorus waves observed by Van Allen Probes: Generation and potential acceleration effect on radiation belt electrons
Abstract: Local acceleration driven by whistler mode chorus waves largely accounts for the enhancement of radiation belt relativistic electron fluxes, whose favored region is usually considered to be the plasmatrough with magnetic local time approximately from midnight through dawn to noon. On 2 October 2013, the Van Allen Probes recorded a rarely reported event of intense duskside lower band chorus waves (with power spectral density up to 10−3nT2/Hz) in the low-latitude region outside of L=5. Such chorus waves are found to be generated by the substorm-injected anisotropic suprathermal electrons and have a potentially strong acceleration effect on the radiation belt energetic electrons. This event study demonstrates the possibility of broader spatial regions with effective electron acceleration by. . .
Date: 06/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 4266 - 4273 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.610.1002/2014JA019919 Available at:
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Authors: Hao Y. X., Zong Q.-G., Wang Y. F., Zhou X.-Z., Zhang Hui, et al.
Title: Interactions of energetic electrons with ULF waves triggered by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations in the magnetotail
Abstract: We present in situ observations of a shock-induced substorm-like event on 13 April 2013 observed by the newly launched Van Allen twin probes. Substorm-like electron injections with energy of 30–500 keV were observed in the region from L∼5.2 to 5.5 immediately after the shock arrival (followed by energetic electron drift echoes). Meanwhile, the electron flux was clearly and strongly varying on the ULF wave time scale. It is found that both toroidal and poloidal mode ULF waves with a period of 150 s emerged following the magnetotail magnetic field reconfiguration after the interplanetary (IP) shock passage. The poloidal mode is more intense than the toroidal mode. The 90° phase shift between the poloidal mode Br and Ea suggests the standing poloidal waves in the Northern Hemisphere. F. . .
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020023 Available at:
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Authors: Li Zan, Millan Robyn M., Hudson Mary K, Woodger Leslie A., Smith David M., et al.
Title: Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL January 17, 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: a quantitative comparison of simulation with observations
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed at multiple observatory locations for several hours on 17 January 2013. During the wave activity period, a duskside relativistic electron precipitation (REP) event was observed by one of the BARREL balloons, and was magnetically mapped close to GOES-13. We simulate the relativistic electron pitch-angle diffusion caused by gyroresonant interactions with EMIC waves using wave and particle data measured by multiple instruments on board GOES-13 and the Van Allen Probes. We show that the count rate, the energy distribution and the time variation of the simulated precipitation all agree very well with the balloon observations, suggesting that EMIC wave scattering was likely the cause for the precipitation event. The event reported here is . . .
Date: 12/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062273 Available at:
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Authors: Mauk Barry H., Sibeck David G., and Kessel Ramona L.
Title: Journal Special Collection Explores Early Results From the Van Allen Probes Mission
Abstract: The processes governing the charged particle populations in the radiation belts encircling Earth have been the subject of intense interest and increasing concern since their discovery by James Van Allen and his team more than 50 years ago [Baker et al., 2013]. Intense interest continues because we still do not know how the various processes work in concert to enhance, remove, and transport particle radiation. Concern is ongoing because the Van Allen radiation belts pose hazards to astronauts and our ever-growing fleet of spacecraft with increasingly sensitive components.
Date: 04/2014 Publisher: Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union Pages: 112 - 112 DOI: 10.1002/eost.v95.1310.1002/2014EO130007 Available at:
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Authors: Mazur J E, O'Brien T P, Looper M D, and Blake J B
Title: Large anisotropies of >60 MeV protons throughout the inner belt observed with the Van Allen Probes mission
Abstract: We report large directional anisotropies of >60 MeV protons using instrumentation on the Van Allen Probes. The combination of a spinning satellite and measurements from the Relativistic Proton Spectrometer instruments that are insensitive to protons outside the instrument field of view together yield a new look at proton radial gradients. The relatively large proton gyroradius at 60 MeV couples with the radial gradients to produce large (maximum ~10:1) flux anisotropies depending on (i) whether the proton guiding center was above or below the Van Allen Probes spacecraft and (ii) the sign of the local flux gradient. In addition to these newly measured anisotropies, below ~2000 km we report a new effect of systematically changing minimum altitude on some proton drift shells that furthe. . .
Date: 06/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 3738 - 3743 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v41.1110.1002/2014GL060029 Available at:
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Authors: Summers Danny, and Shi Run
Title: Limiting energy spectrum of an electron radiation belt
Abstract: To determine the Kennel-Petschek limiting particle flux in a planetary radiation belt in a fully relativistic regime, without assuming a predetermined form for the particle energy distribution, has been a long-standing challenge in space physics. In this paper, for the case of whistler mode wave-electron interaction, we meet this challenge. The limiting flux is determined by a steady state marginal stability criterion in which a convective wave gain condition is applied over all frequencies for which wave growth occurs. This condition produces an integral equation for the trapped flux. We find that in the relativistic regime the limiting electron energy spectrum varies asymptotically as 1/E, for large energy E, just as in the nonrelativistic case. However, the scaling coefficient in the re. . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 6313 - 6326 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020250 Available at:
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Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Chen Y., Fennell J, and Friedel R
Title: On long decays of electrons in the vicinity of the slot region observed by HEO3
Abstract: Long decay periods of electron counts, which follow abrupt rises and last from weeks to months, have been observed by the HEO3 spacecraft in the vicinity of the slot region between the years 1998 and 2007. During the most stable decay periods as selected, e-folding timescales are extracted and statistically analyzed from observations as a function of L-shell and electron energy. A challenge is to reproduce the observed timescales from simulations of pitch angle diffusion by three acting waves–the plasmaspheric hiss, lightning-generated whistlers, and VLF transmitter waves. We perform full numerical simulations to accurately compute electron lifetimes. We choose to use the method and wave parameters proposed by Abel & Thorne [1998] with the goal to assess whether they can reproduce lifeti. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020449 Available at:
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Authors: Kim Kyung-Chan, and Lee Dae-Young
Title: Magnetopause structure favorable for radiation belt electron loss
Abstract: Magnetopause shadowing is regarded as one of the major reasons for the loss of relativistic radiation belt electrons, although this has not yet been fully validated by observations. Previous simulations on this process assumed that all of the electrons encountering the magnetopause are simply lost into the magnetosheath just as ring current ions can be and did not examine details of the particle dynamics across and inside the magnetopause which has a finite thickness. In this paper, we perform test particle orbit calculations based on a simplified one-dimensional magnetopause model to demonstrate specifically how relativistic electrons arriving at the prenoon side of the magnetopause can be lost. The calculation results indicate that the loss process is determined by two factors: (i) a gra. . .
Date: 07/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 5495 - 5508 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019880 Available at:
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Authors: Ma Qianli, Li Wen, Chen Lunjin, Thorne Richard M, and Angelopoulos Vassilis
Title: Magnetosonic wave excitation by ion ring distributions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Combining Time History of Events and Macroscale Interaction during Substorms (THEMIS) wave and particle observations and a quantitative calculation of linear wave growth rate, we demonstrate that magnetosonic (MS) waves can be locally excited by ion ring distributions in the Earth's magnetosphere when the ion ring energy is comparable to the local Alfven energy. MS waves in association with ion ring distributions were observed by THEMIS A on 24 November 2010 in the afternoon sector, both outside the plasmapause where the wave spectrum varied with fLHR and inside the plasmapause where the wave frequency band remained nearly constant. Our plasma instability analysis in three different regions shows that higher and narrow frequency band MS waves are excited locally outside the plasmapause, an. . .
Date: 02/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 844 - 852 DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019591 Available at:
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Authors: Fuselier S. A., Lewis W. S., Schiff C., Ergun R., Burch J L, et al.
Title: Magnetospheric Multiscale Science Mission Profile and Operations
Abstract: The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission and operations are designed to provide the maximum reconnection science. The mission phases are chosen to investigate reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail. At the dayside, the MMS orbits are chosen to maximize encounters with the magnetopause in regions where the probability of encountering the reconnection diffusion region is high. In the magnetotail, the orbits are chosen to maximize encounters with the neutral sheet, where reconnection is known to occur episodically. Although this targeting is limited by engineering constraints such as total available fuel, high science return orbits exist for launch dates over most of the year. The tetrahedral spacecraft formation has variable spacing to determine the optimum se. . .
Date: 09/2014 Publisher: Space Science Reviews DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0087-x Available at:
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Authors: Posner A., Hesse M, and Cyr O. C. St.
Title: The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations
Abstract: Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not as. . .
Date: 04/2014 Publisher: Space Weather Pages: 257 - 276 DOI: 10.1002/swe.v12.410.1002/2013SW001007 Available at:
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Authors: Rodriguez Juan V., Onsager Terrance G., Heynderickx Daniel, and Jiggens Piers T. A.
Title: Meeting Report: Solar Energetic Particle Measurements Intercalibration Workshop, 11 April 2014, Boulder, Colorado
Abstract: Following the conclusion of the 2014 Space Weather Week in Boulder, Colorado, the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center and Space Weather Prediction Center cohosted a 1 day workshop on the intercalibration of solar energetic particle (SEP) measurements. The overall purpose of this workshop was to discuss the intercalibration of SEP measurements from different instruments and different spacecraft, to foster new cooperative intercalibration efforts, and to identify a path forward for establishing a set of intercalibration guidelines. The detailed objectives of this workshop were described by Rodriguez and Onsager [2014]. Ten talks were given at the workshop (available at, interspersed with extensive discussions. One outcome of these . . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Space Weather Pages: 613 - 615 DOI: 10.1002/swe.v12.1110.1002/2014SW001134 Available at:
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Authors: Gamayunov K. V., Engebretson M. J., Zhang M., and Rassoul H. K.
Title: Model of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: The evolution of He+-mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is studied inside the geostationary orbit using our global model of ring current (RC) ions, electric field, plasmasphere, and EMIC waves. In contrast to the approach previously used by Gamayunov et al. (2009), however, we do not use the bounce-averaged wave kinetic equation but instead use a complete, nonbounce-averaged, equation to model the evolution of EMIC wave power spectral density, including off-equatorial wave dynamics. The major results of our study can be summarized as follows. (1) The thermal background level for EMIC waves is too low to allow waves to grow up to the observable level during one pass between the “bi-ion latitudes” (the latitudes where the given wave frequency is equal to the O+–He+ bi-io. . .
Date: 09/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7541 - 7565 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA020032 Available at:
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Authors: Ozeke Louis G., Mann Ian R., Turner Drew L, Murphy Kyle R., Degeling Alex W., et al.
Title: Modeling cross L shell impacts of magnetopause shadowing and ULF wave radial diffusion in the Van Allen belts
Abstract: We present simulations of the outer electron radiation belt using a new ULF wave-driven radial diffusion model, including empirical representations of loss due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss. With an outer boundary condition constrained by in situ electron flux observations, we focus on the impacts of magnetopause shadowing and outward radial diffusion in the heart of the radiation belt. Third invariant conserving solutions are combined to simulate the L shell and time dependence of the differential flux at a fixed energy. Results for the geomagnetically quiet year of 2008 demonstrate not only remarkable cross L shell impacts from magnetopause shadowing but also excellent agreement with the in situ observations even though no internal acceleration source is included in the model. Our mod. . .
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 6556 - 6562 DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060787 Available at:
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Authors: Li Zhao, Hudson Mary, Jaynes Allison, Boyd Alexander, Malaspina David, et al.
Title: Modeling Gradual Diffusion Changes in Radiation Belt Electron Phase Space Density for the March 2013 Van Allen Probes Case Study
Abstract: March 2013 provided the first equinoctial period when all of the instruments on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft were fully operational. This interval was characterized by disturbances of outer zone electrons with two timescales of variation, diffusive and rapid dropout and restoration [Baker et al., 2014]. A radial diffusion model was applied to the month-long interval to confirm that electron phase space density is well described by radial diffusion for the whole month at low first invariant ≤400 MeV/G, but peaks in phase space density observed by the ECT instrument suite at higher first invariant are not reproduced by radial transport from a source at higher L. The model does well for much of the month-long interval, capturing three of four enhancements in phase space density which e. . .
Date: 10/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020359 Available at:
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Authors: Degeling A W, Rankin R, and Zong Q.-G.
Title: Modeling radiation belt electron acceleration by ULF fast mode waves, launched by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations
Abstract: We investigate the magnetospheric MHD and energetic electron response to a Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) and subsequent magnetopause buffeting, focusing on an interval following an SSC event on 25 November 2001. We find that the electron flux signatures observed by LANL, Cluster, and GOES spacecraft during this event can largely be reproduced using an advective kinetic model for electron phase space density, using externally prescribed electromagnetic field inputs, (herein described as a “test-kinetic model”) with electromagnetic field inputs provided by a 2-D linear ideal MHD model for ULF waves. In particular, we find modulations in electron flux phase shifted by 90° from the local azimuthal ULF wave electric field (Eφ) and a net enhancement in electron flux after 1.5 h for energ. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019672 Available at:
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