Found 830 results
Authors: Millan R M
Title: X-ray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloon-borne germanium spectrometer
Abstract: The high-resolution germanium detector aboard the MAXIS (MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy) balloon payload detected nine X-ray bursts with significant flux extending above 0.5 MeV during an 18 day flight over Antarctica. These minutes-to-hours-long events are characterized by an extremely flat spectrum (∼E−2) similar to the first MeV event discovered in 1996, indicating that the bulk of parent precipitating electrons is at relativistic energies. The MeV bursts were detected between magnetic latitudes 58°–68° (L-values of 3.8–6.7) but only in the late afternoon/dusk sectors (14:30–00:00 MLT), suggesting scattering by EMIC (electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves as a precipitation mechanism. We estimate the average flux of precipitating E ≥ 0.5 MeV electrons to be ∼36. . .
Date: 12/2002 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015922 Available at:
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Authors: Ingraham J C, Cayton T E, Belian R D, Christensen R A, Friedel R H W, et al.
Title: Substorm injection of relativistic electrons to geosynchronous orbit during the great magnetic storm of March 24, 1991
Abstract: The great March 1991 magnetic storm and the immediately preceding solar energetic particle event (SEP) were among the largest observed during the past solar cycle, and have been the object of intense study. We investigate here, using data from eight satellites, the very large delayed buildup of relativistic electron flux in the outer zone during a 1.5-day period beginning 2 days after onset of the main phase of this storm. A notable feature of the March storm is the intense substorm activity throughout the period of the relativistic flux buildup, and the good correlation between some temporal features of the lower-energy substorm-injected electron flux and the relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Velocity dispersion analysis of these fluxes between geosynchronous satellites . . .
Date: 11/2001 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 25759 - 25776 DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000458 Available at:
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Authors: Brautigam D H, and Albert J M
Title: Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm
Abstract: The response of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons to the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm is analyzed in detail using a radial diffusion model and data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) geosynchronous satellite 1989-046. Electron measurements are expressed in terms of phase space density as a function of the three adiabatic invariants determined from CRRES magnetic field data and the Tsyganenko 1989 Kp-dependent magnetic field model. The radial diffusion model is implemented with a time-dependent radial diffusion coefficient parameterized by Kp, and a time-dependent outer boundary condition scaled by geosynchronous electron data. The results show that radial diffusion propagates outer boundary variations. . .
Date: 01/2000 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 291 DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900344 Available at:
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Authors: Desorgher L, ühler P, Zehnder A, and ückiger E O
Title: Simulation of the outer radiation belt electron flux decrease during the March 26, 1995, magnetic storm
Abstract: In this paper we study the variation of the relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth's outer radiation belt during the March 26, 1995, magnetic storm. Using observations by the radiation environment monitor (REM) on board the space technology research vehicle (STRV-Ib), we discuss the flux decrease and possible loss of relativistic electrons during the storm main phase. In order to explain the observations we have performed fully adiabatic and guiding center simulations for relativistic equatorial electrons in the nonstationary Tsygarienko96 magnetospheric magnetic field model. In our simulations the drift of electrons through the magnetopause was considered as a loss process. We present our model results and discuss their dependence on the magnetospheric magnetic and electric field model. . .
Date: 09/2000 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 21211 DOI: 10.1029/2000JA900060 Available at:
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Authors: Meredith Nigel P, Horne Richard B, Johnstone Alan D, and Anderson Roger R
Title: The temporal evolution of electron distributions and associated wave activity following substorm injections in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: The temporal evolution of electron distributions and associated wave activity following substorm injections in the inner magnetosphere are investigated using data from the CRRES satellite. Equatorial electron distributions and concomitant wave spectra outside the plasmapause on the nightside of the Earth are studied as a function of time since injection determined from the auroral-electrojet index (AE). The electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) wave amplitudes are shown to be very sensitive to small modeling errors in the location of the magnetic equator. They are best understood at the ECH equator, defined by the local maximum in the ECH wave activity in the vicinity of the nominal magnetic equator, suggesting that the ECH equator is a better measure of the location of the true equator. Stron. . .
Date: 06/2000 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 12907 DOI: 10.1029/2000JA900010 Available at:
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Authors: Elkington Scot R, Hudson M K, and Chan Anthony A
Title: Acceleration of relativistic electrons via drift-resonant interaction with toroidal-mode Pc-5 ULF oscillations
Abstract: There has been increasing evidence that Pc-5 ULF oscillations play a fundamental role in the dynamics of outer zone electrons. In this work we examine the adiabatic response of electrons to toroidal-mode Pc-5 field line resonances using a simplified magnetic field model. We find that electrons can be adiabatically accelerated through a drift-resonant interaction with the waves, and present expressions describing the resonance condition and half-width for resonant interaction. The presence of magnetospheric convection electric fields is seen to increase the rate of resonant energization, and allow bulk acceleration of radiation belt electrons. Conditions leading to the greatest rate of acceleration in the proposed mechanism, a nonaxisymmetric magnetic field, superimposed toroidal oscillatio. . .
Date: 11/1999 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 3273 DOI: 10.1029/1999GL003659 Available at:
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Authors: Burch L, Carovillano L, Antiochos K, Hudson M K, Elkington S R, et al.
Title: Simulation of Radiation Belt Dynamics Driven by Solar Wind Variations
Abstract: The rapid rise of relativistic electron fluxes inside geosynchronous orbit during the January 10-11, 1997, CME-driven magnetic cloud event has been simulated using a relativistic guiding center test particle code driven by out-put from a 3D global MHD simulation of the event. A comparison can be made of this event class, characterized by a moderate solar wind speed (< 600 km/s), and those commonly observed at the last solar maximum with a higher solar wind speed and shock accelerated solar energetic proton component. Relativistic electron flux increase occurred over several hours for the January event, during a period of prolonged southward IMF Bz more rapidly than the 1-2 day delay typical of flux increases driven by solar wind high speed stream interactions. Simulations of th. . .
Date: Publisher: American Geophysical Union Pages: 171 - 182 DOI: 10.1029/GM10910.1029/GM109p0171 Available at:
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Authors: Abel Bob, and Thorne Richard M
Title: Electron scattering loss in Earth’s inner magnetosphere 1. Dominant physical processes
Abstract: Pitch angle diffusion rates due to Coulomb collisions and resonant interactions with plasmaspheric hiss, lightning-induced whistlers and anthropogenic VLF transmissions are computed for inner magnetospheric electrons. The bounce-averaged, quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion coefficients are input into a pure pitch angle diffusion equation to obtain L and energy dependent equilibrium distribution functions and precipitation lifetimes. The relative effects of each scattering mechanism are considered as a function of electron energy and L shell. Model calculations accurately describe the enhanced loss rates in the slot region, as well as reduced scattering in the heavily populated inner radiation belt. Predicted electron distribution function calculations in the slot region display a character. . .
Date: 02/1998 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 2385 - 2396 DOI: 10.1029/97JA02919 Available at:
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Authors: Summers D., Thorne Richard M, and Xiao Fuliang
Title: Relativistic theory of wave-particle resonant diffusion with application to electron acceleration in the magnetosphere
Abstract: Resonant diffusion curves for electron cyclotron resonance with field-aligned electromagnetic R mode and L mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are constructed using a fully relativistic treatment. Analytical solutions are derived for the case of a single-ion plasma, and a numerical scheme is developed for the more realistic case of a multi-ion plasma. Diffusion curves are presented, for plasma parameters representative of the Earth's magnetosphere at locations both inside and outside the plasmapause. The results obtained indicate minimal electron energy change along the diffusion curves for resonant interaction with L mode waves. Intense storm time EMIC waves are therefore ineffective for electron stochastic acceleration, although these waves could induce rapid pitch angle scat. . .
Date: 09/1998 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 20487 - 20500 DOI: 10.1029/98JA01740 Available at:
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Authors: Birn J, Thomsen M F, Borovsky J E, Reeves G D, McComas D J, et al.
Title: Substorm electron injections: Geosynchronous observations and test particle simulations
Abstract: We investigate electron acceleration and the flux increases associated with energetic electron injections on the basis of geosynchronous observations and test-electron orbits in the dynamic fields of a three-dimensional MHD simulation of neutral line formation and dipolarization in the magnetotail. This complements an earlier investigation of test protons [Birn et al., 1997b]. In the present paper we consider equatorial orbits only, using the gyrocenter drift approximation. It turns out that this approximation is valid for electrons prior to and during the flux rises observed in the near tail region of the model at all energies considered (∼ 100 eV to 1 MeV). The test particle model reproduces major observed characteristics: a fast flux rise, comparable to that of the ions, and the exist. . .
Date: 05/1998 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 9235 - 9248 DOI: 10.1029/97JA02635 Available at:
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Authors: Li Xinlin, Baker D N, Temerin M, Cayton T E, Reeves E G D, et al.
Title: Multisatellite observations of the outer zone electron variation during the November 3–4, 1993, magnetic storm
Abstract: The disappearance and reappearance of outer zone energetic electrons during the November 3–4, 1993, magnetic storm is examined utilizing data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the Global Positioning System (GPS) series, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sensors onboard geosynchronous satellites. The relativistic electron flux drops during the main phase of the magnetic storm in association with the large negative interplanetary Bz and rapid solar wind pressure increase late on November 3. Outer zone electrons with E > 3 MeV measured by SAMPEX disappear for over 12 hours at the beginning of November 4. This represents a 3 orders of magnitude decrease down to the cosmic ray background of the detector. GPS and LANL sensors show similar eff. . .
Date: 01/1997 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 14123 - 14140 DOI: 10.1029/97JA01101 Available at:
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Authors: Wygant J, Mozer F, Temerin M, Blake J, Maynard N, et al.
Title: Large amplitude electric and magnetic field signatures in the inner magnetosphere during injection of 15 MeV electron drift echoes
Abstract: Electric and magnetic fields were measured by the CRRES spacecraft at an L-value of 2.2 to 2.6 near 0300 magnetic local time during a strong storm sudden commencement (SSC) on March 24, 1991. The electric field signature at the spacecraft at the time of the SSC was characterized by a large amplitude oscillation (80 mV/m peak to peak) with a period corresponding to the 150 second drift echo period of the simultaneously observed 15 MeV electrons. Considerations of previous statistical studies of the magnitude of SSC electric and magnetic fields versus local time and analysis of the energization and cross-L transport of the particles imply the existence of 200 to 300 mV/m electric fields over much of the dayside magnetosphere. These observations also suggest that the 15 MeV drift echo electro. . .
Date: 08/1994 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1739–1742 DOI: 10.1029/94GL00375 Available at:
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Authors: Li Xinlin, Roth I, Temerin M, Wygant J R, Hudson M K, et al.
Title: Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC
Abstract: We model the rapid (∼ 1 min) formation of a new electron radiation belt at L ≃ 2.5 that resulted from the Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) of March 24, 1991 as observed by the CRRES satellite. Guided by the observed electric and magnetic fields, we represent the time-dependent magnetospheric electric field during the SSC by an asymmetric bipolar pulse that is associated with the compression and relaxation of the Earth's magnetic field. We follow the electrons using a relativistic guiding center code. The test-particle simulations show that electrons with energies of a few MeV at L > 6 were energized up to 40 MeV and transported to L ≃ 2.5 during a fraction of their drift period. The energization process conserves the first adiabatic invariant and is enhanced due to resonance of the el. . .
Date: 11/1993 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 2423–2426 DOI: 10.1029/93GL02701 Available at:
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Authors: Chiu Y T, Nightingale R W, and Rinaldi M A
Title: Simultaneous Radial and Pitch Angle Diffusion in the Outer Electron Radiation Belt
Abstract: A solution of the bimodal (radial and pitch angle) diffusion equation for the radiation belts is developed with special regard for the requirements of satellite radiation belt data analysis. In this paper, we use this solution to test the bimodal theory of outer electron belt diffusion by confronting it with satellite data. Satellite observations, usually over finite volumes of (L, t) space, are seldom sufficient in space-time duration to cover the relaxation to equilibrium of the entire radiation belt. Since time scales of continuous data coverage are often comparable to that of radiation belt disturbances, it is therefore inappropriate to apply impulsive semi-infinite time response solutions of diffusion theory to interpret data from a finite window of (L, t) space. Observational limitat. . .
Date: 04/1988 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 2619 - 2632 DOI: 10.1029/JA093iA04p02619 Available at:
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Authors: West H I, Buck R M, and Davidson G T
Title: The Dynamics of Energetic Electrons in the Earth’s Outer Radiation Belt During 1968 as Observed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Spectrometer on Ogo 5
Abstract: An account is given of measurements of electrons made by the LLNL magnetic electron spectrometer (60–3000 keV in seven differential energy channels) on the Ogo 5 satellite in the earth's outer-belt regions during 1968 and early 1969. The data were analyzed to identify those features dominated by pitch angle and radial diffusion; in doing so all aspects of phase space covered by the data were studied, including pitch angle distributions and spectral features, as well as decay rates. The pitch angle distributions are reported elsewhere. The spectra observed in the weeks after a storm at L ∼3–4.5 show the evolution of a peak at ∼1.5 MeV and pronounced minima at ∼0.5 MeV. The observed pitch angle diffusion lifetimes are identified as being the shortest decays observed and are found t. . .
Date: 04/1981 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 2111 - 2142 DOI: 10.1029/JA086iA04p02111 Available at:
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Authors: Holzworth R H, and Mozer F S
Title: Direct Evaluation of the Radial Diffusion Coefficient near L = 6 Due to Electric Field Fluctuations
Abstract: The radial diffusion coefficient for radiation belt particles near L=6 has been calculated from the measured electric field fluctuations. Simultaneous balloon flights in August 1974 from six auroral zone sites ranging 180° in magnetic longitude produced the electric field data. The large scale slowly varying ionospheric electric fields from these flights have been mapped to the equator during the quiet magnetic conditions of this campaign. These mapped equatorial electric fields were then Fourier transformed in space and time to produce power spectra of the first two terms of the global azimuthal electric field. From these power spectra the radial diffusion coefficient has been calculated.
Date: 06/1979 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 2559 - 2566 DOI: 10.1029/JA084iA06p02559 Available at:
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Authors: Lyons Lawrence R, and Thorne Richard Mansergh
Title: Equilibrium Structure of Radiation Belt Electrons
Abstract: The detailed quiet time structure of energetic electrons in the earth's radiation belts is explained on the basis of a balance between pitch angle scattering loss and inward radial diffusion from an average outer zone source. Losses are attributed to a combination of classical Coulomb scattering at low L and whistler mode turbulent pitch angle diffusion throughout the outer plasmasphere. Radial diffusion is driven by substorm associated fluctuations of the magnetospheric convection electric field.
Date: 05/1973 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 2142 - 2149 DOI: 10.1029/JA078i013p02142 Available at:
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Authors: Lanzerotti L J, and Morgan Caroline G
Title: ULF Geomagnetic Power near L = 4, 2. Temporal Variation of the Radial Diffusion Coefficient for Relativistic Electrons
Abstract: Measurements at conjugate points on the ground near L = 4 of the power spectra of magnetic-field fluctuations in the frequency range 0.5 to 20 mHz are used as a means of estimating daily values for the relativistic-electron radial-diffusion coefficient DLL for two periods in December 1971 and January 1972. The values deduced for L−10 DLL show a strong variation with magnetic activity, as measured by the Fredricksburg magnetic index KFR. The radial-diffusion coefficient typically increases by a factor of ∼10 for a unit increase in KFR. When KFR ≲ 2, it is generally found that DLL ≲ 2 × 10−9 L10 day−1 for equatorially mirroring electrons having a first invariant M = 750 Mev/gauss; a value of DLL ∼4 × 10−7 L10 day−1 is deduced for one day on which the mean KFR was 4.5. The. . .
Date: 08/1973 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 4600 - 4610 DOI: 10.1029/JA078i022p04600 Available at:
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Authors: Tomassian Albert D, Farley Thomas A, and Vampola Alfred L
Title: Inner-Zone Energetic-Electron Repopulation by Radial Diffusion
Abstract: A quantitative study of the intrusion of natural electrons into the inner radiation zone during and after the geomagnetic storm of September 2, 1966, shows that the transport is consistent with a radial-diffusion mechanism in which the first two invariants are conserved. Except for the 3-day period of the storm main phase when data were missing, the radial-diffusion coefficient is D = 2.7 × 10−5 L7.9 μ−0.5 day−1 in the range 1.7 ≤ L ≤ 2.6 and 13.3 ≤ μ ≤ 27.4 Mev gauss−1. This value could be produced by variation of a large-scale electric field across the magnetosphere having an amplitude of 0.28 mv / m and a period of 1600 sec. Electric fields having approximately these characteristics have been inferred from previous observations of the motion of whistler ducts within t. . .
Date: 07/1972 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 3441 - 3454 DOI: 10.1029/JA077i019p03441 Available at:
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Authors: Lyons Lawrence R, and Thorne Richard Mansergh
Title: Parasitic Pitch Angle Diffusion of Radiation Belt Particles by Ion Cyclotron Waves
Abstract: The resonant pitch angle scattering of protons and electrons by ion cyclotron turbulence is investigated. The analysis is analogous to that recently performed for electron interactions with whistler mode waves. The role played by the intense band of ion cyclotron waves, predicted to be generated just within the plasmapause during the decay of the magnetospheric ring current, is evaluated in detail. Loss rates resulting from parasitic interactions with this turbulence are determined for energetic protons and relativistic electrons.
Date: 10/1972 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 5608 - 5616 DOI: 10.1029/JA077i028p05608 Available at:
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Authors: Lanzerotti L J, Maclennan C G, and Schulz Michael
Title: Radial Diffusion of Outer-Zone Electrons: An Empirical Approach to Third-Invariant Violation
Abstract: The near-equatorial fluxes of outer-zone electrons (E>0.5 Mev and E>1.9 Mev) measured by an instrument on the satellite Explorer 15 following the geomagnetic storm of December 17–18, 1962, are used to determine the electron radial diffusion coefficients and electron lifetimes as functions of L for selected values of the conserved first invariant µ. For each value of µ, the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be time-independent and representable in the form D = DnLn. The diffusion coefficients and lifetimes are then simultaneously obtained by requiring that the L-dependent reciprocal electron lifetime, as determined from the Fokker-Planck equation, deviate minimally from a constant in time. Applied to the data, these few assumptions yield a value of D that is smaller by approximately a. . .
Date: 10/1970 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 5351 - 5371 DOI: 10.1029/JA075i028p05351 Available at:
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Authors: Birmingham Thomas J
Title: Convection Electric Fields and the Diffusion of Trapped Magnetospheric Radiation
Abstract: We explore here the possible importance of time-dependent convection electric fields as an agent for diffusing trapped magnetospheric radiation inward toward the earth. By using a formalism (Birmingham, Northrop, and Fälthammar, 1967) based on first principles, and by adopting a simple model for the magnetosphere and its electric field, we succeed in deriving a one-dimensional diffusion equation to describe statistically the loss-free motion of mirroring particles with arbitrary but conserved values of the first two adiabatic invariants M and J. Solution of this equation bears out the fact that reasonable electric field strengths, correlated in time for no longer than the azimuthal drift period of an average particle, move particles toward the earth at a rate at least an order of magnitud. . .
Date: 05/1969 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 2169 - 2181 DOI: 10.1029/JA074i009p02169 Available at:
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Authors: Schulz Michael, and Eviatar Aharon
Title: Diffusion of Equatorial Particles in the Outer Radiation Zone
Abstract: Expansions and contractions of the permanently compressed magnetosphere lead to the diffusion of equatorially trapped particles across drift shells. A general technique for obtaining the electric fields induced by these expansions and contractions is described and applied to the Mead geomagnetic field model. The resulting electric drifts are calculated and are superimposed upon the gradient drift executed by a particle that conserves its first (μ) and second (J = 0) adiabatic invariants. The noon-midnight asymmetry of the unperturbed drift trajectory (resulting from gradient drift alone) is approximated by means of a simple model. In this model the angular drift frequency is found to be the geometric mean of a particle's angular drift velocities at noon and midnight. The radial diffusion . . .
Date: 05/1969 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 2182 - 2192 DOI: 10.1029/JA074i009p02182 Available at:
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Authors: Vernov S N, Gorchakov E V, Kuznetsov S N, Logachev Yu. I, Sosnovets E N, et al.
Title: Particle fluxes in the outer geomagnetic field
Abstract: The outer geomagnetic field comprises the outer radiation belt, consisting of electrons with energies of 104–107 ev, and the unstable radiation zone. The outer radiation belt is bounded on its inner side by a gap, which is at various times located at a distance of 2.2–3.5 RE and in which a considerable precipitation of electrons from radiation belts occurs, possibly owing to a high intensity of electromagnetic waves. The boundary separating the outer radiation belt from the unstable radiation zone is at λ ∼ 71° and ∼9 RE in the equatorial plane on the sunlit side, and at 7–8 RE in the equatorial plane on the nightside. Beyond this, the unstable radiation zone extends out to the magnetosphere boundary and up to λ ∼ 77° on the sunlit side, and out to 14–15 RE on the nightsi. . .
Date: 02/1969 Publisher: Reviews of Geophysics Pages: 257-280 DOI: 10.1029/RG007i001p00257 Available at:
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Authors: Farley Thomas A
Title: Radial Diffusion of Starfish Electrons
Abstract: A study of the change in electron intensities in the Starfish electron belt from January 1, 1963, to November 3, 1965, indicates that radial diffusion, both inward and outward from L of 1.40, was a significant loss mechanism for these electrons during this period. For L values of 1.20 and below, the indicated steepening of the pitch-angle distributions during this period has been interpreted as the result of a radial diffusion source for each L shell concentrated near the geomagnetic equator. Since pitch-angle diffusion lifetimes are not well known for 1.20 < L < 1.65, a definitive radial diffusion coefficient cannot be computed from these data. A maximum reasonable diffusion coefficient (mean square displacement per unit time) computed for this range of L for this period has a minimum at . . .
Date: 07/1969 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 3591 - 3600 DOI: 10.1029/JA074i014p03591 Available at:
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Authors: Newkirk L L, and Walt M
Title: Radial Diffusion Coefficient for Electrons at 1.76 < L < 5
Abstract: Radial diffusion by nonconservation of the third adiabatic invariant of particle motion is assumed in analyzing experiments in which electrons appeared to move across field lines. Time-dependent solutions of the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation are obtained numerically and fitted to the experimental results by adjusting the diffusion coefficient. Values deduced for the diffusion coefficient vary from 1.3 × 10−5 RE²/day at L = 1.76 to 0.10 RE²/day at L = 5. In the interval 2.6 < L < 5, the coefficient varies as L10±1. Assuming a constant electron source of arbitrary magnitude at L = 6 and the above diffusion coefficients, the equatorial equilibrium distribution is calculated for electrons with energies above 1.6 Mev. The calculation yields an outer belt of electrons whose radial distr. . .
Date: 12/1968 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 7231 - 7236 DOI: 10.1029/JA073i023p07231 Available at:
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Authors: Newkirk L L, and Walt M
Title: Radial Diffusion Coefficient for Electrons at Low L Values
Abstract: An empirical evaluation of the diffusion coefficient for trapped electrons diffusing across low L shells is obtained by adjusting the coefficient to account for the observed radial profile and the long-term decay rate of the trapped electron flux. The diffusion mechanism is not identified, but it is assumed that the adiabatic invariants µ and J are conserved. The average value of the coefficient for electrons > 1.6 Mev energy is found to decrease monotonically from ∼4 × 10−6 RE²/day at L = 1.16 to ∼2 × 10−7 RE²/day at L = 1.20.
Date: 02/1968 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 1013 - 1017 DOI: 10.1029/JA073i003p01013 Available at:
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Authors: Kennel C, and Petschek H
Title: Limit on Stably Trapped Particle Fluxes
Abstract: Whistler mode noise leads to electron pitch angle diffusion. Similarly, ion cyclotron noise couples to ions. This diffusion results in particle precipitation into the ionosphere and creates a pitch angle distributon of trapped particles that is unstable to further wave growth. Since excessive wave growth leads to rapid diffusion and particle loss, the requirement that the growth rate be limited to the rate at which wave energy is depleted by wave propagation permits an estimate of an upper limit to the trapped equatorial particle flux. Electron fluxes >40 kev and proton fluxes >120 kev observed on Explorers 14 and 12, respectively, obey this limit with occasional exceptions. Beyond L = 4, the fluxes are just below their limit, indicating that an unspecified acceleration source, sufficient . . .
Date: 01/1966 Publisher: Journal Geophysical Research Pages: 1-28 DOI: 10.1029/JZ071i001p00001 Available at:
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Authors: Kennel C F
Title: Velocity Space Diffusion from Weak Plasma Turbulence in a Magnetic Field
Abstract: The quasi‐linear velocity space diffusion is considered for waves of any oscillation branch propagating at an arbitrary angle to a uniform magnetic field in a spatially uniform plasma. The space‐averaged distribution function is assumed to change slowly compared to a gyroperiod and characteristic times of the wave motion. Nonlinear mode coupling is neglected. An H‐like theorem shows that both resonant and nonresonant quasi‐linear diffusion force the particle distributions towards marginal stablity. Creation of the marginally stable state in the presence of a sufficiently broad wave spectrum in general involves diffusing particles to infinite energies, and so the marginally stable plateau is not accessible physically, except in special cases. Resonant particles with velocities much . . .
Date: 12/1966 Publisher: Physics of Fluids Pages: 2377 DOI: 10.1063/1.1761629 Available at:
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Authors: Falthammar C -G
Title: Effects of time-dependent electric fields on geomagnetically trapped radiation.
Abstract: Large-scale electric potential fields in the magnetosphere are generally invoked in theories of the aurora. It is shown in the present article that irregular fluctuations of such fields cause a random radial motion of trapped energetic particles by violating the third adiabatic invariant. When the first and second invariants are conserved, any radial motion of the particles is associated with a corresponding energy change. Some particles move outward and others inward; but, if there is a source in the outer magnetosphere and a sink farther in, there will be a net inward transport and an associated net energy gain. This mechanism supplements that of particle transport by magnetic disturbances, which has already been discussed in the literature. The transport and acceleration of energetic pa. . .
Date: 06/1965 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 2503–2516 DOI: 10.1029/JZ070i011p02503 Available at:
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