# Biblio

## Pages

**Authors:**Kennel C F

**Title:**

__Velocity Space Diffusion from Weak Plasma Turbulence in a Magnetic Field__

**Abstract**: The quasi‐linear velocity space diffusion is considered for waves of any oscillation branch propagating at an arbitrary angle to a uniform magnetic field in a spatially uniform plasma. The space‐averaged distribution function is assumed to change slowly compared to a gyroperiod and characteristic times of the wave motion. Nonlinear mode coupling is neglected. An H‐like theorem shows that both resonant and nonresonant quasi‐linear diffusion force the particle distributions towards marginal stablity. Creation of the marginally stable state in the presence of a sufficiently broad wave spectrum in general involves diffusing particles to infinite energies, and so the marginally stable plateau is not accessible physically, except in special cases. Resonant particles with velocities much . . .

**Date:**12/1966

**Publisher:**Physics of Fluids

**Pages:**2377

**DOI:**10.1063/1.1761629

**Available at:**http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pof1/9/12/10.1063/1.1761629

*More Details***Authors:**Kennel C, and Petschek H

**Title:**

__Limit on Stably Trapped Particle Fluxes__

**Abstract**: Whistler mode noise leads to electron pitch angle diffusion. Similarly, ion cyclotron noise couples to ions. This diffusion results in particle precipitation into the ionosphere and creates a pitch angle distributon of trapped particles that is unstable to further wave growth. Since excessive wave growth leads to rapid diffusion and particle loss, the requirement that the growth rate be limited to the rate at which wave energy is depleted by wave propagation permits an estimate of an upper limit to the trapped equatorial particle flux. Electron fluxes >40 kev and proton fluxes >120 kev observed on Explorers 14 and 12, respectively, obey this limit with occasional exceptions. Beyond L = 4, the fluxes are just below their limit, indicating that an unspecified acceleration source, sufficient . . .

**Date:**01/1966

**Publisher:**Journal Geophysical Research

**Pages:**1-28

**DOI:**10.1029/JZ071i001p00001

**Available at:**http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/JZ071i001p00001/full

*More Details***Authors:**Falthammar C -G

**Title:**

__Effects of time-dependent electric fields on geomagnetically trapped radiation.__

**Abstract**: Large-scale electric potential fields in the magnetosphere are generally invoked in theories of the aurora. It is shown in the present article that irregular fluctuations of such fields cause a random radial motion of trapped energetic particles by violating the third adiabatic invariant. When the first and second invariants are conserved, any radial motion of the particles is associated with a corresponding energy change. Some particles move outward and others inward; but, if there is a source in the outer magnetosphere and a sink farther in, there will be a net inward transport and an associated net energy gain. This mechanism supplements that of particle transport by magnetic disturbances, which has already been discussed in the literature. The transport and acceleration of energetic pa. . .

**Date:**06/1965

**Publisher:**Journal of Geophysical Research

**Pages:**2503–2516

**DOI:**10.1029/JZ070i011p02503

**Available at:**http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/JZ070i011p02503/full

*More Details*