Biblio

Found 909 results
Journal Article
Authors: Kletzing C A, Kurth W S, Acuna M, MacDowall R J, Torbert R B, et al.
Title: The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP
Abstract: The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation on the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (now named the Van Allen Probes) mission provides key wave and very low frequency magnetic field measurements to understand radiation belt acceleration, loss, and transport. The key science objectives and the contribution that EMFISIS makes to providing measurements as well as theory and modeling are described. The key components of the instruments suite, both electronics and sensors, including key functional parameters, calibration, and performance, demonstrate that EMFISIS provides the needed measurements for the science of the RBSP mission. The EMFISIS operational modes and data products, along with online availability and data tools provide the radiation bel. . .
Date: 11/2013 Publisher: Space Science Reviews DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9993-6 Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11214-013-9993-6
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Authors: Ali Ashar F., Malaspina David M., Elkington Scot R, Jaynes Allison N., Chan Anthony A, et al.
Title: Electric and Magnetic Radial Diffusion Coefficients Using the Van Allen Probes Data
Abstract: ULF waves are a common occurrence in the inner magnetosphere and they contribute to particle motion, significantly, at times. We used the magnetic and the electric field data from the EMFISIS and the EFW instruments on board the Van Allen Probes to estimate the ULF wave power in the compressional component of the magnetic field and the azimuthal component of the electric field, respectively. Using L∗, Kp, and MLT as parameters, we conclude that the noon sector contains higher ULF Pc-5 wave power compared with the other MLT sectors. The dawn, dusk, and midnight sectors have no statistically significant difference between them. The drift-averaged power spectral densities are used to derive the magnetic and the electric component of the radial diffusion coefficient. Both components exhibit . . .
Date: 08/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023002 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA023002
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Authors: Wygant J R, Bonnell J W, Goetz K, Ergun R E, Mozer F S, et al.
Title: The Electric Field and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission
Abstract: The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasi-static and low frequency electric fields and waves associated with the major mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. For this measurement, the instrument uses two pairs of spherical double probe sensors at the ends of orthogonal centripetally deployed booms in the spin plane with tip-to-tip separations of 100 meters. The third component of the electric field is measured by two spherical sensors separated by ∼15 m, deployed at the ends of two stacer booms oppositely directed along the spin axis of the spacecraft. The instrume. . .
Date: 11/2013 Publisher: Space Science Reviews DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0013-7 Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11214-013-0013-7
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Authors: Malaspina David M., Wygant John R., Ergun Robert E., Reeves Geoff D., Skoug Ruth M., et al.
Title: Electric field structures and waves at plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Recent observations by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft have demonstrated that a variety of electric field structures and nonlinear waves frequently occur in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere, including phase space holes, kinetic field line resonances, nonlinear whistler mode waves, and several types of double layer. However, it is unclear whether such structures and waves have a significant impact on the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere, including the radiation belts and ring current. To make progress toward quantifying their importance, this study statistically evaluates the correlation of such structures and waves with plasma boundaries. A strong correlation is found. These statistical results, combined with observations of electric field activity at propagating plasma boundaries, a. . .
Date: 05/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021137 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021137
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Authors: Reeves G D, Spence H E, Henderson M G, Morley S. K., Friedel R H W, et al.
Title: Electron Acceleration in the Heart of the Van Allen Radiation Belts
Abstract: The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth’s magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside the radiation belts (radial acceleration) or acceleration of lower-energy electrons to relativistic energies in situ in the heart of the radiation belts (local acceleration). We report measurements from NASA’s Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes that clearly distinguish between the two types of acceleration. The observed radial profiles of phase space density are characteristic of local acceleration in the heart of the radiation belt. . .
Date: 07/2013 Publisher: Science Pages: 991 - 994 DOI: 10.1126/science.1237743 Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1237743
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Authors: Maldonado Armando A., Chen Lunjin, Claudepierre Seth G., Bortnik Jacob, Thorne Richard M, et al.
Title: Electron butterfly distribution modulation by magnetosonic waves
Abstract: The butterfly pitch angle distribution is observed as a dip in an otherwise normal distribution of electrons centered about αeq=90°. During storm times, the formation of the butterfly distribution on the nightside magnetosphere has been attributed to L shell splitting combined with magnetopause shadowing and strong positive radial flux gradients. It has been shown that this distribution can be caused by combined chorus and magnetosonic wave scattering where the two waves work together but at different local times. Presented in our study is an event on 21 August 2013, using Van Allen Probe measurements, where a butterfly distribution formation is modulated by local magnetosonic coherent magnetosonic waves intensity. Transition from normal to butterfly distributions coincides with rising m. . .
Date: 04/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068161 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL068161http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2016GL068161http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/chorus/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2016GL068161
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Authors: Kurth W S, De Pascuale S., Faden J. B., Kletzing C A, Hospodarsky G B, et al.
Title: Electron Densities Inferred from Plasma Wave Spectra Obtained by the Waves Instrument on Van Allen Probes
Abstract: The twin Van Allen Probe spacecraft, launched in August 2012, carry identical scientific payloads. The Electric and Magnetic Fields Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) suite includes a plasma wave instrument (Waves) that measures three magnetic and three electric components of plasma waves in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 12 kHz using triaxial search coils and the Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) triaxial electric field sensors. The Waves instrument also measures a single electric field component of waves in the frequency range of 10 to 500 kHz. A primary objective of the higher frequency measurements is the determination of the electron density ne at the spacecraft, primarily inferred from the upper hybrid resonance frequency fuh. Considerable work has gone into developing . . .
Date: 01/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020857 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020857
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Authors: Khazanov G. V., Tripathi A. K., Sibeck D., Himwich E., Glocer A., et al.
Title: Electron distribution function formation in regions of diffuse aurora
Abstract: The precipitation of high-energy magnetospheric electrons (E ∼ 600 eV–10 KeV) in the diffuse aurora contributes significant energy flux into the Earth's ionosphere. To fully understand the formation of this flux at the upper ionospheric boundary, ∼700–800 km, it is important to consider the coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system. In the diffuse aurora, precipitating electrons initially injected from the plasma sheet via wave-particle interaction processes degrade in the atmosphere toward lower energies and produce secondary electrons via impact ionization of the neutral atmosphere. These precipitating electrons can be additionally reflected upward from the two conjugate ionospheres, leading to a series of multiple reflections through the magnetosphere. These reflections greatly in. . .
Date: 11/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 9891–9915 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021728 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021728http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021728
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Authors: Damiano P.A., Chaston C.C., Hull A.J., and Johnson J.R.
Title: Electron Distributions in Kinetic Scale Field Line Resonances: A Comparison of Simulations and Observations
Abstract: Observations in kinetic scale field line resonances, or eigenmodes of the geomagnetic field, reveal highly field‐aligned plateaued electron distributions. By combining observations from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft with a hybrid kinetic gyrofluid simulation we show how these distributions arise from the nonlocal self‐consistent interaction of electrons with the wavefield. This interaction is manifested as electron trapping in the standing wave potential. The process operates along most of the field line and qualitatively accounts for electron observations near the equatorial plane and at higher latitudes. In conjunction with the highly field‐aligned plateaus, loss cone features are also evident, which result from the action of the upward‐directed wave parallel electr. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077748 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL077748
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Authors: Hao Y. X., Zong Q.-G., Zhou X.-Z., Fu S. Y., Rankin R, et al.
Title: Electron dropout echoes induced by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: On 23 November 2012, a sudden dropout of the relativistic electron flux was observed after an interplanetary shock arrival. The dropout peaks at ∼1MeV and more than 80% of the electrons disappeared from the drift shell. Van Allen twin Probes observed a sharp electron flux dropout with clear energy dispersion signals. The repeating flux dropout and recovery signatures, or “dropout echoes”, constitute a new phenomenon referred to as a “drifting electron dropout” with a limited initial spatial range. The azimuthal range of the dropout is estimated to be on the duskside, from ∼1300 to 0100 LT. We conclude that the shock-induced electron dropout is not caused by the magnetopause shadowing. The dropout and consequent echoes suggest that the radial migration of relativistic electrons . . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069140 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL069140h
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Authors: Zhang X.-J., Mourenas D., Artemyev A. V., Angelopoulos V, and Thorne R M
Title: Electron flux enhancements at L  = 4.2 observed by Global Positioning System satellites: Relationship with solar wind and geomagnetic activity
Abstract: Determining solar wind and geomagnetic activity parameters most favorable to strong electron flux enhancements is an important step towards forecasting radiation belt dynamics. Using electron flux measurements from Global Positioning System satellites at L = 4.2 in 2009‐2016, we seek statistical relationships between flux enhancements at different energies and solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn, AE, and Kp, from hundreds of events inside and outside the plasmasphere. Most ⩾1 MeV electron flux enhancements occur during non‐storm (or weak storm) times. Flux enhancements of 4 MeV electrons outside the plasmasphere occur during periods of low Pdyn and high AE. We perform superposed epoch analyses of GPS electron fluxes, along with solar wind and geomagnetic indices, 40 keV electron flu. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025497 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1029/2018JA025497http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1029/2018JA025497/fullpdfhttps://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1029%2F2018JA025497
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Authors: Vasko I. Y., Agapitov O. V., Mozer F S, Artemyev A. V., Drake J. F., et al.
Title: Electron holes in the outer radiation belt: Characteristics and their role in electron energization
Abstract: Van Allen Probes have detected electron holes (EHs) around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. Presumably generated near equator, EHs propagate to higher latitudes potentially resulting in energization of electrons trapped within EHs. This process has been recently shown to provide electrons with energies up to several tens of keV and requires EH propagation up to rather high latitudes. We have analyzed more than 100 EHs observed around a particular injection to determine their kinetic structure and potential energy sources supporting the energization of trapped electrons. EHs propagate with velocities from 1000 to 20,000 km/s (a few times larger than the thermal velocity of the coldest background electron population). The parallel scale of observed EHs is from 0.3 to 3 km that i. . .
Date: 12/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023083 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023083/full
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Authors: Smirnov A. G., Kronberg E. A., Latallerie F., Daly P. W., Aseev N. A., et al.
Title: Electron intensity measurements by the Cluster/RAPID/IES instrument in Earth's radiation belts and ring current
Abstract: The Cluster mission, launched in 2000, has produced a large database of electron flux intensity measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere by the Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detector (RAPID)/ Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) instrument. However, due to background contamination of the data with high‐energy electrons (<400 keV) and inner‐zone protons (230‐630 keV) in the radiation belts and ring current, the data have been rarely used for inner‐magnetospheric science. The current paper presents two algorithms for background correction. The first algorithm is based on the empirical contamination percentages by both protons and electrons. The second algorithm uses simultaneous proton observations. The efficiencies of these algorithms are demonstrated by comparison of the . . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2018SW001989 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018SW001989
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Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Albert J M, and Cunningham G. S.
Title: Electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the systematic study of electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere. It relies on a new formulation of the bounce-averaged quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion coefficients parameterized by a single frequency, ω, and wave normal angle, θ. We first show that the diffusion coefficients scale with ω/Ωce, where Ωce is the equatorial electron gyrofrequency, and that maximal pitch angle diffusion occurs along the line α0 = π/2–θ, where α0 is the equatorial pitch angle. Lifetimes are computed for L shell values in the range [1.5, 3.5] and energies, E, in the range [0.1, 6] MeV as a function of frequency and wave normal angle. The maximal pitch angle associated with a given lifetime is also given, revealing the frequen. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020217 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020217
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Authors: Kersten Tobias, Horne Richard B, Glauert Sarah A, Meredith Nigel P, Fraser Brian J., et al.
Title: Electron losses from the radiation belts caused by EMIC waves
Abstract: Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves cause electron loss in the radiation belts by resonating with high-energy electrons at energies greater than about 500 keV. However, their effectiveness has not been fully quantified. Here we determine the effectiveness of EMIC waves by using wave data from the fluxgate magnetometer on CRRES to calculate bounce-averaged pitch angle and energy diffusion rates for L*=3.5–7 for five levels of Kp between 12 and 18 MLT. To determine the electron loss, EMIC diffusion rates were included in the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt Model together with whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, and radial diffusion. By simulating a 100 day period in 1990, we show that EMIC waves caused a significant reduction in the electron flux for energies greater t. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020366 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020366
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Authors: Mourenas D., Zhang X.-J., Artemyev A. V., Angelopoulos V, Thorne R M, et al.
Title: Electron nonlinear resonant interaction with short and intense parallel chorus wave-packets
Abstract: One of the major drivers of radiation belt dynamics, electron resonant interaction with whistler‐mode chorus waves, is traditionally described using the quasi‐linear diffusion approximation. Such a description satisfactorily explains many observed phenomena, but its applicability can be justified only for sufficiently low intensity, long duration waves. Recent spacecraft observations of a large number of very intense lower band chorus waves (with magnetic field amplitudes sometimes reaching ∼1% of the background) therefore challenge this traditional description, and call for an alternative approach when addressing the global, long‐term effects of the nonlinear interaction of these waves with radiation belt electrons. In this paper, we first use observations from the Van Allen Probe. . .
Date: 05/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025417 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025417
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Authors: Clilverd Mark A., Duthie Roger, Hardman Rachael, Hendry Aaron T., Rodger Craig J., et al.
Title: Electron precipitation from EMIC waves: a case study from 31 May 2013
Abstract: On 31 May 2013 several rising-tone electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves with intervals of pulsations of diminishing periods (IPDP) were observed in the magnetic local time afternoon and evening sectors during the onset of a moderate/large geomagnetic storm. The waves were sequentially observed in Finland, Antarctica, and western Canada. Co-incident electron precipitation by a network of ground-based Antarctic Arctic Radiation-belt Dynamic Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK) and riometer instruments, as well as the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) electron telescopes, was also observed. At the same time POES detected 30-80 keV proton precipitation drifting westwards at locations that were consistent with the ground-based observations, i. . .
Date: 04/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021090 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021090
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Authors: Ma Qianli, Li Wen, Thorne Richard M, Bortnik Jacob, Kletzing C A, et al.
Title: Electron scattering by magnetosonic waves in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: We investigate the importance of electron scattering by magnetosonic waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. A statistical survey of the magnetosonic wave amplitude and wave frequency spectrum, as a function of geomagnetic activity, is performed using the Van Allen Probes wave measurements, and is found to be generally consistent with the wave distribution obtained from previous spacecraft missions. Outside the plasmapause the statistical frequency distribution of magnetosonic waves follows the variation of the lower hybrid resonance frequency, but this trend is not observed inside the plasmasphere. Drift and bounce averaged electron diffusion rates due to magnetosonic waves are calculated using a recently developed analytical formula. The resulting time scale of electron energization du. . .
Date: 12/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021992 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021992http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021992
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Authors: Zhang Wenxun, Fu Song, Gu Xudong, Ni Binbin, Xiang Zheng, et al.
Title: Electron Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss in a Nightside Plume
Abstract: Plasmaspheric hiss is known to play an important role in radiation belt electron dynamics in high plasma density regions. We present observations of two crossings of a plasmaspheric plume by the Van Allen Probes on 26 December 2012, which occurred unusually at the post‐midnight‐to‐dawn sector between L ~ 4–6 during a geomagnetically quiet period. This plume exhibited pronounced electron densities higher than those of the average plume level. Moderate hiss emissions accompanied the two plume crossings with the peak power at about 100 Hz. Quantification of quasi‐linear bounce‐averaged electron scattering rates by hiss in the plume demonstrates that the waves are efficient to pitch angle scatter ~10–100 keV electrons at rates up to ~10−4 s−1 near the loss cone but become gra. . .
Date: 05/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077212 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL077212
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Authors: Abel Bob, and Thorne Richard M
Title: Electron scattering loss in Earth’s inner magnetosphere 1. Dominant physical processes
Abstract: Pitch angle diffusion rates due to Coulomb collisions and resonant interactions with plasmaspheric hiss, lightning-induced whistlers and anthropogenic VLF transmissions are computed for inner magnetospheric electrons. The bounce-averaged, quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion coefficients are input into a pure pitch angle diffusion equation to obtain L and energy dependent equilibrium distribution functions and precipitation lifetimes. The relative effects of each scattering mechanism are considered as a function of electron energy and L shell. Model calculations accurately describe the enhanced loss rates in the slot region, as well as reduced scattering in the heavily populated inner radiation belt. Predicted electron distribution function calculations in the slot region display a character. . .
Date: 02/1998 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 2385 - 2396 DOI: 10.1029/97JA02919 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/97JA02919/full
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Authors: Vasko I. Y., Agapitov O. V., Mozer F S, Bonnell J. W., Artemyev A. V., et al.
Title: Electron-acoustic solitons and double layers in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes observe generally two types of electrostatic solitary waves (ESW) contributing to the broadband electrostatic wave activity in the nightside inner magnetosphere. ESW with symmetric bipolar parallel electric field are electron phase space holes. The nature of ESW with asymmetric bipolar (and almost unipolar) parallel electric field has remained puzzling. To address their nature, we consider a particular event observed by Van Allen Probes to argue that during the broadband wave activity electrons with energy above 200 eV provide the dominant contribution to the total electron density, while the density of cold electrons (below a few eV) is less than a few tenths of the total electron density. We show that velocities of the asymmetric ESW are close to velocity of electron. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074026 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL074026/full
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Authors: Martinez-Calderon Claudia, Shiokawa Kazuo, Miyoshi Yoshizumi, Keika Kunihiro, Ozaki Mitsunori, et al.
Title: ELF/VLF wave propagation at subauroral latitudes: Conjugate observation between the ground and Van Allen Probes A
Abstract: We report simultaneous observation of ELF/VLF emissions, showing similar spectral and frequency features, between a VLF receiver at Athabasca (ATH), Canada, (L = 4.3) and Van Allen Probes A (Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) A). Using a statistical database from 1 November 2012 to 31 October 2013, we compared a total of 347 emissions observed on the ground with observations made by RBSP in the magnetosphere. On 25 February 2013, from 12:46 to 13:39 UT in the dawn sector (04–06 magnetic local time (MLT)), we observed a quasiperiodic (QP) emission centered at 4 kHz, and an accompanying short pulse lasting less than a second at 4.8 kHz in the dawn sector (04–06 MLT). RBSP A wave data showed both emissions as right-hand polarized with their Poynting vector earthward to the Northern Hemisp. . .
Date: 06/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 5384 - 5393 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.610.1002/2015JA022264 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA022264
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Authors: Engebretson M. J., Posch J. L., Braun D. J., Li W, Ma Q, et al.
Title: EMIC wave events during the four GEM QARBM challenge intervals
Abstract: This paper presents observations of EMIC waves from multiple data sources during the four GEM challenge events in 2013 selected by the GEM “Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling” focus group: March 17‐18 (Stormtime Enhancement), May 31‐June 2 (Stormtime Dropout), September 19‐20 (Non‐storm Enhancement), and September 23‐25 (Non‐storm Dropout). Observations include EMIC wave data from the Van Allen Probes, GOES, and THEMIS spacecraft in the near‐equatorial magnetosphere and from several arrays of ground‐based search coil magnetometers worldwide, as well as localized ring current proton precipitation data from low‐altitude POES spacecraft. Each of these data sets provides only limited spatial coverage, but their combination shows consistent occurrence patte. . .
Date: 07/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025505 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025505
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Authors: Drozdov A. Y., Shprits Y Y, Usanova M. E., Aseev N. A., Kellerman A. C., et al.
Title: EMIC wave parameterization in the long-term VERB code simulation
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the dynamics of ultrarelativistic electron population in the radiation belts. However, as EMIC waves are very sporadic, developing a parameterization of such wave properties is a challenging task. Currently, there are no dynamic, activity-dependent models of EMIC waves that can be used in the long-term (several months) simulations, which makes the quantitative modeling of the radiation belt dynamics incomplete. In this study, we investigate Kp, Dst, and AE indices, solar wind speed, and dynamic pressure as possible parameters of EMIC wave presence. The EMIC waves are included in the long-term simulations (1 year, including different geomagnetic activity) performed with the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt code, and we co. . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024389 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024389/full
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Title: EMIC wave scale size in the inner magnetosphere: Observations from the dual Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Estimating the spatial scales of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is critical for quantifying their overall scattering efficiency and effects on thermal plasma, ring current, and radiation belt particles. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes in 2013–2014, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of regions of EMIC wave activity and how these depend on local time and radial distance within the inner magnetosphere. Observations are categorized into three types—waves observed by only one spacecraft, waves measured by both spacecraft simultaneously, and waves observed by both spacecraft with some time lag. Analysis reveals that dayside (and H+ band) EMIC waves more frequently span larger spatial areas, while nightside (and He+ band) waves are more often loc. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072316 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL072316
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Authors: Blum L. W., Bonnell J. W., Agapitov O., Paulson K., and Kletzing C.
Title: EMIC wave scale size in the inner magnetosphere: Observations from the dual Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Estimating the spatial scales of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is critical for quantifying their overall scattering efficiency and effects on thermal plasma, ring current, and radiation belt particles. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes in 2013–2014, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of regions of EMIC wave activity and how these depend on local time and radial distance within the inner magnetosphere. Observations are categorized into three types—waves observed by only one spacecraft, waves measured by both spacecraft simultaneously, and waves observed by both spacecraft with some time lag. Analysis reveals that dayside (and H+ band) EMIC waves more frequently span larger spatial areas, while nightside (and He+ band) waves are more often loc. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1227 - 1233 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072316 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL072316
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Authors: Blum L. W., Agapitov O., Bonnell J. W., Kletzing C., and Wygant J
Title: EMIC wave spatial and coherence scales as determined from multipoint Van Allen Probe measurements
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can provide a strong source of energetic electron pitch angle scattering. These waves are often quite localized, thus their spatial extent can have a large effect on their overall scattering efficiency. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes, we examine four EMIC wave events observed simultaneously on the two probes at varying spacecraft separations. Correlation of both the wave amplitude and phase observed at both spacecraft is examined to estimate the active region and coherence scales of the waves. We find well-correlated wave amplitude and amplitude modulation across distances spanning hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Phase coherence persisting 30–60 s is observable during close conjunction events but is lost as spacecraft s. . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068799 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL068799
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Authors: Zhang Jichun, Halford Alexa J., Saikin Anthony A., Huang Chia-Lin, Spence Harlan E., et al.
Title: EMIC waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation on 25-26 January 2013
Abstract: Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes and the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), we perform a case study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation (REP) observed on 25–26 January 2013. Among all the EMIC wave and REP events from the two missions, the pair of the events is the closest both in space and time. The Van Allen Probe-B detected significant EMIC waves at L = 2.1–3.9 and magnetic local time (MLT) = 21.0–23.4 for 53.5 min from 2353:00 UT, 25 January 2013. Meanwhile, BARREL-1T observed clear precipitation of relativistic electrons at L = 4.2–4.3 and MLT = 20.7–20.8 for 10.0 min from 2358 UT, 25 January 2013. Local plasma and field conditions for the excitation of the. . .
Date: 10/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022918 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022918/full
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Authors: Halford A J, Fraser B. J., and Morley S. K.
Title: EMIC waves and plasmaspheric and plume density: CRRES results
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves frequently occur during geomagnetic storms, specifically during the main phase and 3–6 days following the minimum Sym − H value. EMIC waves contribute to the loss of ring current ions and radiation belt MeV electrons. Recent studies have suggested that cold plasma density structures found inside the plasmasphere and plasmaspheric plumes are important for the generation and propagation of EMIC waves. During the CRRES mission, 913 EMIC wave events and 124 geomagnetic storms were identified. In this study we compare the quiet time cold plasma density to the cold plasma density measured during EMIC wave events across different geomagnetic conditions. We found statistically that EMIC waves occurred in regions of enhanced densities. EMIC waves were,. . .
Date: 03/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 1974 - 1992 DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020338 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020338
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Authors: Miyoshi Y, Matsuda S., Kurita S., Nomura K., Keika K, et al.
Title: EMIC waves converted from equatorial noise due to M/Q=2 ions in the plasmasphere: Observations from Van Allen Probes and Arase
Abstract: Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are observed inside and outside the plasmapause. EN emissions are referred to as magnetosonic mode waves. Using data from Van Allen Probes and Arase, we found conversion from EN emissions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the plasmasphere and in the topside ionosphere. A low frequency part of EN emissions becomes EMIC waves through branch splitting of EN emissions, and the mode conversion from EN to EMIC waves occurs around the frequency of M/Q=2 (deuteron and/or alpha particles) cyclotron frequency. These processes result in plasmaspheric EMIC waves. We investigated the ion composition ratio by characteristic frequencies of EN emissions and EMIC waves and obtained ion composition ratios. We found that the maximum composition ratio of M/Q=2 io. . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083024 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2019GL083024
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Authors: Yu Xiongdong, Yuan Zhigang, Huang Shiyong, Wang Dedong, Li Haimeng, et al.
Title: EMIC waves covering wide L shells: MMS and Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: During 04:45:00–08:15:00 UT on 13 September in 2015, a case of Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves covering wide L shells (L = 3.6–9.4), observed by the Magnotospheric Multiscale 1 (MMS1) are reported. During the same time interval, EMIC waves observed by Van Allen Probes A (VAP-A) only occurred just outside the plasmapause. As the Van Allen Probes moved outside into a more tenuous plasma region, no intense waves were observed. Combined observations of MMS1 and VAP-A suggest that in the terrestrial magnetosphere, an appropriately dense background plasma would make contributions to the growth of EMIC waves in lower L shells, while the ion anisotropy, driven by magnetospheric compression, might play an important role in the excitation of EMIC waves in higher L shells. These EMIC w. . .
Date: 07/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA023982 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA023982/full
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Authors: Blum L.W., Artemyev A., Agapitov O., Mourenas D., Boardsen S., et al.
Title: EMIC Wave‐Driven Bounce Resonance Scattering of Energetic Electrons in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: While electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been long studied as a scattering mechanism for ultrarelativistic (megaelectron volt) electrons via cyclotron‐resonant interactions, these waves are also of the right frequency to resonate with the bounce motion of lower‐energy (approximately tens to hundreds of kiloelectron volts) electrons. Here we investigate the effectiveness of this bounce resonance interaction to better determine the effects of EMIC waves on subrelativistic electron populations in Earth's inner magnetosphere. Using wave and plasma parameters directly measured by the Van Allen Probes, we estimate bounce resonance diffusion coefficients for four different events, illustrative of wave and plasma parameters to be encountered in the inner magnetosphere. The range o. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026427 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA026427
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Authors: Denton M. H., Thomsen M F, Jordanova V K, Henderson M G, Borovsky J E, et al.
Title: An empirical model of electron and ion fluxes derived from observations at geosynchronous orbit
Abstract: Knowledge of the plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit is important to both scientific and operational investigations. We present a new empirical model of the ion flux and the electron flux at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV. The model is based on a total of 82 satellite years of observations from the magnetospheric plasma analyzer instruments on Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites at GEO. These data are assigned to a fixed grid of 24 local times and 40 energies, at all possible values of Kp. Bilinear interpolation is used between grid points to provide the ion flux and the electron flux values at any energy and local time, and for given values of geomagnetic activity (proxied by the 3 h Kp index), and also for given values of solar activity (proxied. . .
Date: 04/2015 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001168 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015SW001168
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Authors: Agapitov O. V., Artemyev A. V., Mourenas D., Mozer F S, and Krasnoselskikh V.
Title: Empirical model of lower band chorus wave distribution in the outer radiation belt
Abstract: Accurate modeling of wave-particle interactions in the radiation belts requires detailed information on wave amplitudes and wave-normal angular distributions over L shells, magnetic latitudes, magnetic local times, and for various geomagnetic activity conditions. In this work, we develop a new and comprehensive parametric model of VLF chorus waves amplitudes and obliqueness in the outer radiation belt using statistics of VLF measurements performed in the chorus frequency range during 10 years (2001–2010) aboard the Cluster spacecraft. We used data from the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations-Spectrum Analyzer experiment, which spans a total frequency range from 8 Hz to 4 kHz. The statistical model is presented in the form of an analytical function of latitude and Kp (or Dst) i. . .
Date: 12/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021829 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021829http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021829
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Authors: Zhao H., Friedel R H W, Chen Y., Reeves G D, Baker D N, et al.
Title: An empirical model of radiation belt electron pitch angle distributions based on Van Allen Probes measurements
Abstract: Based on over 4 years of Van Allen Probes measurements, an empirical model of radiation belt electron equatorial pitch angle distribution (PAD) is constructed. The model, developed by fitting electron PADs with Legendre polynomials, provides the statistical PADs as a function of L‐shell (L=1 – 6), magnetic local time (MLT), electron energy (~30 keV – 5.2 MeV), and geomagnetic activity (represented by the Dst index), and is also the first empirical PAD model in the inner belt and slot region. For MeV electrons, model results show more significant day‐night PAD asymmetry of electrons with higher energies and during disturbed times, which is caused by geomagnetic field configuration and flux radial gradient changes. Steeper PADs with higher fluxes around 90° pitch angle (PA) and lowe. . .
Date: 04/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025277 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025277
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Authors: Andreeva V. A., and Tsyganenko N A
Title: Empirical Modeling of the Geomagnetosphere for SIR and CME‐Driven Magnetic Storms
Abstract: During geomagnetic disturbances, the solar wind arrives in the form of characteristic sequences lasting from tens of hours to days. The most important magnetic storm drivers are the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the slow‐fast stream interaction regions (SIRs). Previous data‐based magnetic field models did not distinguish between these types of the solar wind driving. In the present work we retained the basic structure of the Tsyganenko and Andreeva (2015) model but fitted it to data samples corresponding to (1) SIR‐driven storms, (2) CME‐driven storms preceded with a shock ahead of the CME, and (3) CME‐driven storms without such shocks. The storm time dynamics of the model current systems has been represented using the parametrization method developed by Tsyganenko and Sitnov. . .
Date: 07/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 5641 - 5662 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026008 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA026008
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Authors: Zhelavskaya Irina S., Shprits Yuri Y, and ć Maria
Title: Empirical modeling of the plasmasphere dynamics using neural networks
Abstract: We propose a new empirical model for reconstructing the global dynamics of the cold plasma density distribution based only on solar wind data and geomagnetic indices. Utilizing the density database obtained using the NURD (Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination) algorithm for the period of October 1, 2012 - July 1, 2016, in conjunction with solar wind data and geomagnetic indices, we develop a neural network model that is capable of globally reconstructing the dynamics of the cold plasma density distribution for 2≤L≤6 and all local times. We validate and test the model by measuring its performance on independent datasets withheld from the training set and by comparing the model predicted global evolution with global images of He+ distribution in the Earth's plasmasph. . .
Date: 10/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024406 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024406/full
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Authors: Andreeva V. A., and Tsyganenko N A
Title: Empirical modeling of the quiet and storm-time geosynchronous magnetic field
Abstract: A dynamical empirical model of the near-geosynchronous magnetic field has been constructed, based on a recently developed RBF approach and a multi-year set of spacecraft data taken by THEMIS, Polar, Cluster, and Van Allen Probes missions including 133 geomagnetic storms in the time interval between 1996 and 2016. The model describes the field as a function of Cartesian solar-magnetic coordinates, dipole tilt angle, solar wind ram pressure, and of a set of dynamic variables representing the response of the magnetosphere to the external driving/loading during the active phase of a space weather event, followed by the internal relaxation/dissipation during the storm recovery. In terms of the disturbance level, the model's validity range extends to intense storms with peak Sym-H values down to. . .
Date: 12/2017 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2017SW001684 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017SW001684/full
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Authors: Stephens G. K., Sitnov M I, Ukhorskiy A Y, Roelof E. C., Tsyganenko N A, et al.
Title: Empirical modeling of the storm-time innermost magnetosphere using Van Allen Probes and THEMIS data: Eastward and banana currents
Abstract: The structure of storm-time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4RE, is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and THEMIS missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at inline image and the eastward ring current concentrated at inline image resulting in a vortex current pattern. A simil. . .
Date: 01/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: n/a - n/a DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021700 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021700
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Authors: Pich Maria de Soria-S, Jun Insoo, and Evans Robin
Title: Empirical radiation belt models: Comparison with in-situ data and implications for environment definition
Abstract: The empirical AP8/AE8 model has been the de-facto Earth's radiation belts engineering reference for decades. The need from the community for a better model incubated the development of AP9/AE9/SPM, which addresses several shortcomings of the old model. We provide additional validation of AP9/AE9 by comparing in-situ electron and proton data from Jason-2, POES, and the Van Allen Probes spacecraft with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles from AE9/AP9 and with the model outputs from AE8/AP8. The relatively short duration of Van Allen Probes and Jason-2 missions means that their measurements are most certainly the result of specific climatological conditions. In LEO, the Jason-2 proton flux is better reproduced by AP8 compared to AP9, while the POES electron data are well enveloped by AE9 5th . . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2017SW001612 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017SW001612/full
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Authors: O'Brien T P, Claudepierre S G, Blake J B, Fennell J. F., Clemmons J. H., et al.
Title: An empirically observed pitch-angle diffusion eigenmode in the Earth's electron belt near L *  = 5.0
Abstract: Using data from NASA's Van Allen Probes, we have identified a synchronized exponential decay of electron flux in the outer zone, near L* = 5.0. Exponential decays strongly indicate the presence of a pure eigenmode of a diffusion operator acting in the synchronized dimension(s). The decay has a time scale of about 4 days with no dependence on pitch angle. While flux at nearby energies and L* is also decaying exponentially, the decay time varies in those dimensions. This suggests the primary decay mechanism is elastic pitch angle scattering, which itself depends on energy and L*. We invert the shape of the observed eigenmode to obtain an approximate shape of the pitch angle diffusion coefficient and show excellent agreement with diffusion by plasmaspheric hiss. Our results suggest that e. . .
Date: 01/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 251 - 258 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058713 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2013GL058713
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Authors: Bin Kang Suk-, Fok Mei-Ching, Komar Colin, Glocer Alex, Li Wen, et al.
Title: An energetic electron flux dropout due to magnetopause shadowing on 1 June 2013
Abstract: We examine the mechanisms responsible for the dropout of energetic electron flux during 31 May – 1 June 2013, using Van Allen Probe (RBSP) electron flux data and simulations with the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model. During storm main phase, L-shells at RBSP locations are greater than ~ 8, which are connected to open drift shells. Consequently, diminished electron fluxes were observed over a wide range of energies. The combination of drift shell splitting, magnetopause shadowing and drift loss all result in butterfly electron pitch-angle distributions (PADs) at the nightside. During storm sudden commencement, RBSP observations display electron butterfly PADs over a wide range of energies. However, it is difficult to determine whether there are butterfly PADs duri. . .
Date: 01/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024879 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024879/full
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Authors: Lejosne ène, Kunduri B. S. R., Mozer F S, and Turner D. L.
Title: Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere: a result of the subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) potential drop
Abstract: It has been reported that the dynamics of energetic (tens to hundreds of keV) electrons and ions is inconsistent with the theoretical picture in which the large‐scale electric field is a superposition of corotation and convection electric fields. Combining one year of measurements by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network, DMSP F‐18 and the Van Allen Probes, we show that subauroral polarization streams are observed when energetic electrons have penetrated below L = 4. Outside the plasmasphere in the premidnight region, potential energy is subtracted from the total energy of ions and added to the total energy of electrons during SAPS onset. This potential energy is converted into radial motion as the energetic particles drift around Earth and leave the SAPS azimuthal sector. As a result, . . .
Date: 04/2018 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077969 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL077969
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Authors: Turner D. L., Claudepierre S G, Fennell J. F., O'Brien T P, Blake J B, et al.
Title: Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity
Abstract: From a survey of the first nightside season of NASA's Van Allen Probes mission (Dec/2012 – Sep/2013), 47 energetic (10s to 100s of keV) electron injection events were found at L-shells ≤ 4, all of which are deeper than any previously reported substorm-related injections. Preliminary details from these events are presented, including how: all occurred shortly after dipolarization signatures and injections were observed at higher L-shells; the deepest observed injection was at L~2.5; and, surprisingly, L≤4 injections are limited in energy to ≤250 keV. We present a detailed case study of one example event revealing that the injection of electrons down to L~3.5 was different from injections observed at higher L and likely resulted from drift resonance with a fast magnetosonic wave in t. . .
Date: 02/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL063225
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Authors: Oyama S., Kero A., Rodger C. J., Clilverd M A, Miyoshi Y, et al.
Title: Energetic electron precipitation and auroral morphology at the substorm recovery phase
Abstract: It is well known that auroral patterns at the substorm recovery phase are characterized by diffuse or patch structures with intensity pulsation. According to satellite measurements and simulation studies, the precipitating electrons associated with these aurorae can reach or exceed energies of a few hundreds of keV through resonant wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. However, because of difficulty of simultaneous measurements, the dependency of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) on auroral morphological changes in the mesoscale has not been investigated to date. In order to study this dependency, we have analyzed data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar, the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) riometer, collocated cameras, ground-based m. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023484 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023484/full
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Authors: Miyoshi Y, Oyama S., Saito S., Kurita S., Fujiwara H., et al.
Title: Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations
Abstract: Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also sub-relativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler-mode wave–particle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Tromsø VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements were clearly identified at altitudes >68 km in association with the pulsating aurora, suggesting precipitation of electrons with a broadband energy range from ~10 keV up to at least 200 keV. The riometer and network of subionospheric radio wave observations also showed the energ. . .
Date: 03/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020690 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020690
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Authors: Capannolo L., Li W, Ma Q, Shen X.‐C., Zhang X.‐J., et al.
Title: Energetic Electron Precipitation: Multievent Analysis of Its Spatial Extent During EMIC Wave Activity
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can drive precipitation of tens of keV protons and relativistic electrons, and are a potential candidate for causing radiation belt flux dropouts. In this study, we quantitatively analyze three cases of EMIC‐driven precipitation, which occurred near the dusk sector observed by multiple Low‐Earth‐Orbiting (LEO) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites/Meteorological Operational satellite programme (POES/MetOp) satellites. During EMIC wave activity, the proton precipitation occurred from few tens of keV up to hundreds of keV, while the electron precipitation was mainly at relativistic energies. We compare observations of electron precipitation with calculations using quasi‐linear theory. For all cases, we consider the effects of other magn. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026291 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA026291
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Authors: Meredith Nigel P, Horne Richard B, Glauert Sarah A, Thorne Richard M, Summers D., et al.
Title: Energetic outer zone electron loss timescales during low geomagnetic activity
Abstract: Following enhanced magnetic activity the fluxes of energetic electrons in the Earth's outer radiation belt gradually decay to quiet-time levels. We use CRRES observations to estimate the energetic electron loss timescales and to identify the principal loss mechanisms. Gradual loss of energetic electrons in the region 3.0 ≤ L ≤ 5.0 occurs during quiet periods (Kp < 3−) following enhanced magnetic activity on timescales ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 days for 214 keV electrons to 5.5 to 6.5 days for 1.09 MeV electrons. The intervals of decay are associated with large average values of the ratio fpe/fce (>7), indicating that the decay takes place in the plasmasphere. We compute loss timescales for pitch-angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss using the PADIE code with wave properties based on C. . .
Date: 05/2006 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011516 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2005JA011516/abstract
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Authors: Mauk B H, Blake J B, Baker D N, Clemmons J. H., Reeves G D, et al.
Title: The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation and the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission
Abstract: The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of 5 fields-and-particles investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. MMS comprises 4 spacecraft flying in close formation in highly elliptical, near-Earth-equatorial orbits targeting understanding of the fundamental physics of the important physical process called magnetic reconnection using Earth’s magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory. EPD comprises two sensor types, the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) with one instrument on each of the 4 spacecraft, and the Fly’s Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) with 2 instruments on each of the 4 spacecraft. EIS measures energetic ion energy, angle and elemental compositional distributions from a required low energy limit of 20 keV for protons and 45 keV for o. . .
Date: 06/2014 Publisher: Space Science Reviews DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0055-5 Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11214-014-0055-5http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11214-014-0055-5
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Authors: Summers Danny, Shi Run, Engebretson Mark J, Oksavik Kjellmar, Manweiler Jerry W., et al.
Title: Energetic proton spectra measured by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: We test the hypothesis that pitch-angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can limit ring current proton fluxes. For two chosen magnetic storms, during March 17-20, 2013 and March 17-20, 2015, we measure proton energy spectra in the region 3 ≤ L ≤ 6 using the RBSPICE B instrument on the Van Allen Probes. The most intense proton spectra are observed to occur during the recovery periods of the respective storms. Using proton precipitation data from the POES (NOAA and MetOp) spacecraft, we deduce that EMIC wave action was prevalent at the times and L-shell locations of the most intense proton spectra. We calculate limiting ring current proton energy spectra from recently developed theory. Comparisons between the observed proton energy spectra and the theoreti. . .
Date: 09/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024484 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024484/full
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