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2015
Authors: Ferradas C. P., Zhang J.-C., Kistler L. M., and Spence H E
Title: Heavy-ion dominance near Cluster perigees
Abstract: Time periods in which heavy ions dominate over H+ in the energy range of 1-40 keV were observed by the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS)/COmposition DIstribution Function (CODIF) instrument onboard Cluster Spacecraft 4 at L-values less than 4. The characteristic feature is a narrow flux peak at around 10 keV that extends into low L-values, with He+ and/or O+ dominating. In the present work we perform a statistical study of these events and examine their temporal occurrence and spatial distribution. The observed features, both the narrow energy range and the heavy-ion dominance, can be interpreted using a model of ion drift from the plasma sheet, subject to charge exchange losses. The narrow energy range corresponds to the only energy range that has direct drift access from the plasma sheet du. . .
Date: 10/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: n/a - n/a DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021063 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021063http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021063
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Authors: Shue Jih-Hong, Hsieh Yi-Kai, Tam Sunny W. Y., Wang Kaiti, Fu Hui Shan, et al.
Title: Local time distributions of repetition periods for rising tone lower band chorus waves in the magnetosphere
Abstract: Whistler mode chorus waves generally occur outside the plasmapause in the magnetosphere. The most striking feature of the waves is their occurrence in discrete elements. One of the parameters that describe the discrete elements is the repetition period (Trp), the time between consecutive elements. The Trp has not been studied statistically before. We use high-resolution waveform data to derive distributions of Trp for different local times. We find that the average Trp for the nightside (0.56 s) and dawnside (0.53 s) are smaller than those for the dayside (0.81 s) and duskside (0.97 s). Through a comparison with the background plasma and magnetic fields, we also find that the total magnetic field and temperature are the main controlling factors that affect the variability of Trp. These res. . .
Date: 10/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 8294 - 8301 DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066107 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL066107http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015GL066107
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Authors: Selesnick R. S.
Title: Measurement of inner radiation belt electrons with kinetic energy above 1 MeV
Abstract: Data from the Proton-Electron Telescope on the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite, taken during 1992–2009, are analyzed for evidence of inner radiation belt electrons with kinetic energy E > 1 MeV. It is found that most of the data from a detector combination with a nominal energy threshold of 1 MeV were, in fact, caused by a chance coincidence response to lower energy electrons or high-energy protons. In particular, there was no detection of inner belt or slot region electrons above 1 MeV following the 2003 Halloween storm injection, though they may have been present. However, by restricting data to a less-stable, low-altitude trapping region, a persistent presence of inner belt electrons in the energy range 1 to 1.6 MeV is demonstrated. Their soft. . .
Date: 10/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 8339 - 8349 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021387 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021387http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021387
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Authors: Vasko I. Y., Agapitov O. V., Mozer F S, and Artemyev A. V.
Title: Thermal electron acceleration by electric field spikes in the outer radiation belt: Generation of field-aligned pitch angle distributions
Abstract: Van Allen Probes observations in the outer radiation belt have demonstrated an abundance of electrostatic electron-acoustic double layers (DL). DLs are frequently accompanied by field-aligned (bidirectional) pitch angle distributions (PAD) of electrons with energies from hundred eVs up to several keV. We perform numerical simulations of the DL interaction with thermal electrons making use of the test particle approach. DL parameters assumed in the simulations are adopted from observations. We show that DLs accelerate thermal electrons parallel to the magnetic field via the electrostatic Fermi mechanism, i.e., due to reflections from DL potential humps. The electron energy gain is larger for larger DL scalar potential amplitudes and higher propagation velocities. In addition to the Fermi me. . .
Date: 10/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021644 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021644http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021644
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Authors: Zhang J.-C., Kistler L. M., Spence H E, Wolf R. A., Reeves G., et al.
Title: “Trunk-like” heavy ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Dynamic ion spectral features in the inner magnetosphere are the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. We report “trunk-like” ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes on 2 November 2012. This new type of ion structure looks like an elephant's trunk on an energy-time spectrogram, with the energy of the peak flux decreasing Earthward. The trunks are present in He+ and O+ ions but not in H+. During the event, ion energies in the He+ trunk, located at L = 3.6–2.6, MLT = 9.1–10.5, and MLAT = −2.4–0.09°, vary monotonically from 3.5 to 0.04 keV. The values at the two end points of the O+ trunk are: energy = 4.5–0.7 keV, L = 3.6–2.5, MLT = 9.1–10.7, and MLAT = −2.4–0.4°. Results from backward ion drift path tra. . .
Date: 10/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021822 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021822http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021822
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Authors: Chaston C. C., Bonnell J. W., Kletzing C A, Hospodarsky G B, Wygant J R, et al.
Title: Broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: A prominent yet largely unrecognized feature of the inner magnetosphere associated with particle injections, and more generally geomagnetic storms, is the occurrence of broadband electromagnetic field fluctuations over spacecraft frame frequencies (fsc) extending from effectively zero to fsc ≳ 100 Hz. Using observations from the Van Allen Probes we show that these waves most commonly occur pre-midnight but are observed over a range of local times extending into the dayside magnetosphere. We find that the variation of magnetic spectral energy density with fsc obeys inline image over several decades with a spectral break-point at fb ≈1 Hz. The values for α are log normally distributed with α = 1.9 ± 0.6 for fsc < fb andα = 2.9 ± 0.6 for fsc > fb. A is . . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021690 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/2015JA021690/abstract
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Authors: Shprits Yuri Y, Kellerman Adam, Drozdov Alexander, Spense Harlan, Reeves Geoffrey, et al.
Title: Combined Convective and Diffusive Simulations: VERB-4D Comparison with March 17, 2013 Van Allen Probes Observations
Abstract: This study is focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the March 17, 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. Analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on the scale of ~100MeV/G may resemble ring current or relativistic electron trajectories depending on the level of geomagnetic activity. Simulations with the VERB-4D code including convection, radial diffusion, and energy diffusion are presented. Sensitivity simulations in. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065230 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL065230
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Authors: Katsavrias C., Daglis I. A., Li W, Dimitrakoudis S., Georgiou M., et al.
Title: Combined effects of concurrent Pc5 and chorus waves on relativistic electron dynamics
Abstract: We present electron phase space density (PSD) calculations as well as concurrent Pc5 and chorus wave activity observations during two intense geomagnetic storms caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) resulting in contradicting net effect. We show that, during the 17 March 2013 storm, the coincident observation of chorus and relativistic electron enhancements suggests that the prolonged chorus wave activity seems to be responsible for the enhancement of the electron population in the outer radiation belt even in the presence of pronounced outward diffusion. On the other hand, the significant depletion of electrons, during the 12 September 2014 storm, coincides with long-lasting outward diffusion driven by the continuous enhanced Pc5 activity since chorus wave a. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Annales Geophysicae Pages: 1173 - 1181 DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-1173-2015 Available at: http://www.ann-geophys.net/33/1173/2015/
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Authors: Valek P. W., Goldstein J, Jahn J -M, McComas D J, and Spence H E
Title: First joint in situ and global observations of the medium-energy oxygen and hydrogen in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: We present the first simultaneous observations of the in situ ions and global Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) images of the composition-separated, medium-energy (~1–50 keV) particle populations of the inner magnetosphere. The ENA emissions are mapped into L shell/magnetic local time space based on the exospheric density along the line of sight (LOS). The ENA measurement can then be scaled to determine an average ion flux along a given LOS. The in situ ion flux tends to be larger than the scaled ENAs at the same local time. This indicates that the ion population is more concentrated in the Van Allen Probes orbital plane than distributed along the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers LOS. For the large storm of 14 November 2012, we observe that the concentration of O (in situ i. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7615 - 7628 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021151 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021151http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021151
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Authors: Skov Mulligan, Fennell J.F., Roeder J.L., Blake J.B., and Claudepierre S.G.
Title: Internal Charging Hazards in Near-Earth Space during Solar Cycle 24 Maximum: Van Allen Probes Measurements
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes mission provides an unprecedented opportunity to make detailed measurements of electrons and protons in the inner magnetosphere during the weak solar maximum period of cycle 24. Data from the MagEIS suite of sensors measures energy spectra, fluxes, and yields electron deposition rates that can cause internal charging. We use omni-directional fluxes of electrons and protons to calculate the dose under varying materials and thicknesses of shielding (similar to Fennell et al., 2010). We show examples of charge deposition rates during times of nominal and high levels of penetrating fluxes in the inner magnetosphere covering the period from late 2012 through 2013. These charge deposition rates are related to charging levels quite possibly encountered. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: JPL DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2015.2468214 Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7247811/?reload=true&arnumber=7247811
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Authors: Skov Tamitha Mulligan, Fennell Joseph F., Roeder James L., Blake Bernard, and Claudepierre Seth G.
Title: Internal Charging Hazards in Near-Earth Space During Solar Cycle 24 Maximum: Van Allen Probes Measurements
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes mission provides an unprecedented opportunity to make detailed measurements of electrons and protons in the inner magnetosphere during the weak solar maximum period of cycle 24. The MagEIS suite of sensors measures energy spectra and fluxes of charged particles in the space environment. The calculations show that these fluxes result in electron deposition rates high enough to cause internal charging. We use omnidirectional fluxes of electrons and protons to calculate the dose under varying materials and thicknesses of shielding. We show examples of charge deposition rates during the times of nominal and high levels of penetrating fluxes in the inner magnetosphere covering the period from the beginning of 2013 through mid-2014. These charge deposition rates are related . . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Pages: 3070 - 3074 DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2015.2468214 Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=7247811http://xplorestaging.ieee.org/ielx7/27/7247791/07247811.pdf?arnumber=7247811
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Authors: Tejero E. M., Crabtree C., Blackwell D. D., Amatucci W. E., Mithaiwala M., et al.
Title: Laboratory studies of nonlinear whistler wave processes in the Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Important nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions that occur in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts are investigated in a laboratory experiment. Predominantly electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone with measured wave normal angle greater than 85° . When the pump amplitude exceeds a threshold ∼5×10−6 times the background magnetic field, wave power at frequencies below the pump frequency is observed at wave normal angles (∼55°) . The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the pump wave. Occasionally, the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into a magnetosonic wave and a whistler wave is simultaneously observed with a threshold of δB/B0∼7×10−7. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas Pages: 091503 DOI: 10.1063/1.4928944 Available at: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/22/9/10.1063/1.4928944
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Authors: Nikoukar Romina, Bust Gary, and Murr David
Title: A novel data assimilation technique for the plasmasphere
Abstract: We present a novel technique for imaging and data assimilation of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere. The methodology is based upon the 3 dimensional variational technique (3DVAR), where an empirical background model is utilized. However, to prevent non-physical vertical variation in density estimates, we devise statistical methods to enforce a roughness penalty in the traditional 3DVAR optimization. The upward looking total electron content (TEC) observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver onboard Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) satellites are utilized in the assimilation algorithm. The estimation results show reasonable agreement with in-situ density measurements of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021455 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/2015JA021455/abstract
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Authors: Saikin A. A., Zhang J.-C., Allen R.C., Smith C W, Kistler L. M., et al.
Title: The occurrence and wave properties of H + -, He + -, and O + -band EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: We perform a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected by the Van Allen Probes mission to investigate the spatial distribution of their occurrence, wave power, ellipticity, and normal angle. The Van Allen Probes have been used which allow us to explore the inner magnetosphere (1.1 to 5.8 Re). Magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science onboard the Van Allen Probes are used to identify EMIC wave events for the first 22 months of the mission operation (8 September 2012 – 30 June 2014). EMIC waves are examined in H+-, He+-, and O+-bands. Over 700 EMIC wave events have been identified over the three different wave bands (265 H+-band events, 438 He+-band events, and 68 O+-band events). EMIC wave events. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021358 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021358
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Authors: Xiao Fuliang, Zhou Qinghua, He Yihua, Yang Chang, Liu Si, et al.
Title: Penetration of magnetosonic waves into the plasmasphere observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: During the small storm on 14–15 April 2014, Van Allen Probe A measured a continuously distinct proton ring distribution and enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves along its orbit outside the plasmapause. Inside the plasmasphere, strong MS waves were still present but the distinct proton ring distribution was falling steeply with distance. We adopt a sum of subtracted bi-Maxwellian components to model the observed proton ring distribution and simulate the wave trajectory and growth. MS waves at first propagate toward lower L shells outside the plasmasphere, with rapidly increasing path gains related to the continuous proton ring distribution. The waves then gradually cross the plasmapause into the deep plasmasphere, with almost unchanged path gains due to the falling proton ring distribution an. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065745 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/2015GL065745/full
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Authors: Kanekal S G, Baker D N, Henderson M G, Li W, Fennell J. F., et al.
Title: Relativistic electron response to the combined magnetospheric impact of a coronal mass ejection overlapping with a high-speed stream: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: During early November 2013, the magnetosphere experienced concurrent driving by a coronal mass ejection (CME) during an ongoing high-speed stream (HSS) event. The relativistic electron response to these two kinds of drivers, i.e., HSS and CME, is typically different, with the former often leading to a slower buildup of electrons at larger radial distances, while the latter energizing electrons rapidly with flux enhancements occurring closer to the Earth.We present a detailed analysis of the relativistic electron response including radial profiles of phase space density as observed by both MagEIS and REPT instruments on the Van Allen Probes mission. Data from the MagEIS instrument establishes the behavior of lower energy (<1MeV) electrons which span both intermediary and seed populations du. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021395 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021395
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Authors: Ni Binbin, Cao Xing, Zou Zhengyang, Zhou Chen, Gu Xudong, et al.
Title: Resonant scattering of outer zone relativistic electrons by multiband EMIC waves and resultant electron loss time scales
Abstract: To improve our understanding of the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in radiation belt electron dynamics, we perform a comprehensive analysis of EMIC wave-induced resonant scattering of outer zone relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons and resultant electron loss time scales with respect to EMIC wave band, L shell, and wave normal angle model. The results demonstrate that while H+-band EMIC waves dominate the scattering losses of ~1–4 MeV outer zone relativistic electrons, it is He+-band and O+-band waves that prevail over the pitch angle diffusion of ultrarelativistic electrons at higher energies. Given the wave amplitude, EMIC waves at higher L shells tend to resonantly interact with a larger population of outer zone relativistic electrons and drive their pitch angle s. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7357 - 7373 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021466 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021466http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021466
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Authors: Li W, Thorne R M, Bortnik J, Baker D N, Reeves G D, et al.
Title: Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis
Abstract: Determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outer radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and . . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065342 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/2015GL065342/abstract
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Authors: Macek W. M., Wawrzaszek A., and Sibeck D G
Title: THEMIS observation of intermittent turbulence behind the quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks
Abstract: Turbulence is complex behavior that is ubiquitous in nature, but its mechanism is still not sufficiently clear. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is analysis of intermittent turbulence in magnetospheric and solar wind plasmas using a statistical approach based on experimental data acquired from space missions. The quintet spacecraft of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) allows us to investigate the details of turbulent plasma parameters behind the collisionless shocks. We investigate both the solar wind and magnetospheric data by using statistical probability distribution functions of Elsässer variables that can reveal the intermittent character of turbulence in space plasma. Our results suggest that turbulence behind the quasi-perpendicular s. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7466 - 7476 DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021656 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021656http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021656
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Authors: Cattell C. A., Breneman A. W., Thaller S. A., Wygant J R, Kletzing C A, et al.
Title: Van Allen Probes observations of unusually low frequency whistler mode waves observed in association with moderate magnetic storms: Statistical study
Abstract: We show the first evidence for locally excited chorus at frequencies below 0.1 fce (electron cyclotron frequency) in the outer radiation belt. A statistical study of chorus during geomagnetic storms observed by the Van Allen Probes found that frequencies are often dramatically lower than expected. The frequency at peak power suddenly stops tracking the equatorial 0.5 fce and f/fce decreases rapidly, often to frequencies well below 0.1 fce (in situ and mapped to equator). These very low frequency waves are observed both when the satellites are close to the equatorial plane and at higher magnetic latitudes. Poynting flux is consistent with generation at the equator. Wave amplitudes can be up to 20 to 40 mV/m and 2 to 4 nT. We conclude that conditions during moderate to large storms. . .
Date: 09/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 7273 - 7281 DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065565 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL065565http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015GL065565
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Authors: Mourenas D., Artemyev A. V., and Agapitov O.V.
Title: Approximate analytical formulation of radial diffusion and whistler-induced losses from a pre-existing flux peak in the plasmasphere
Abstract: Modeling the spatio-temporal evolution of relativistic electron fluxes trapped in the Earth's radiation belts in the presence of radial diffusion coupled with wave-induced losses should address one important question: how deep can relativistic electrons penetrate into the inner magnetosphere? However, a full modelling requires extensive numerical simulations solving the comprehensive quasi-linear equations describing pitch-angle and radial diffusion of the electron distribution, making it rather difficult to perform parametric studies of the flux behavior. Here, we consider the particular situation where a localized flux peak (or storage ring) has been produced at low L < 4 during a period of strong disturbances, through a combination of chorus-induced energy diffusion (or direct injection. . .
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021623 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021623
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Authors: Zhao H., Li X, Baker D N, Fennell J. F., Blake J B, et al.
Title: The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements
Abstract: Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the MagEIS, HOPE, and RBSPICE instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies < 50 keV contribute more significantly to the ring current than those with higher energies; while the higher energy protons dominate during the recovery phase and quiet times. The enhancements of higher energy proton fluxes as well as energy content generally occur later than those of lower. . .
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021533 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021533
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Authors: Shprits Y Y, and Spasojevic M.
Title: Global and comprehensive analysis of the inner magnetosphere as a coupled system: Physical understanding and applications
Abstract: The third Inner Magnetosphere Coupling (IMC III) workshop was held March 2015 at University of California, Los Angeles. The workshop included extensive discussion of space weather and applications bring together scientists from the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionospheric communities as well as space weather stakeholders and researchers focusing on translational research and applications in industry.
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001295 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015SW001295http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015SW001295
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Authors: Titova E. E., Kozelov B. V., Demekhov A. G., Manninen J., Santolik O, et al.
Title: Identification of the source of quasiperiodic VLF emissions using ground-based and Van Allen Probes satellite observations
Abstract: We report on simultaneous spacecraft and ground-based observations of quasiperiodic VLF emissions and related energetic-electron dynamics. Quasiperiodic emissions in the frequency range 2–6 kHz were observed during a substorm on 25 January 2013 by Van Allen Probe-A and a ground-based station in the Northern Finland. The spacecraft detected the VLF signals near the geomagnetic equator in the night sector at L = 3.0–4.2 when it was inside the plasmasphere. During the satellite motion toward higher latitudes, the time interval between quasiperiodic elements decreased from 6 min to 3 min. We find one-to-one correspondence between the quasiperiodic elements detected by Van Allen Probe-A and on the ground, which indicates the temporal nature of the observed variation in the time in. . .
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 6137 - 6145 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.1510.1002/2015GL064911 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL064911
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Authors: Zhou Xu-Zhi, Wang Zi-Han, Zong Qiu-Gang, Claudepierre Seth G., Mann Ian R., et al.
Title: Imprints of impulse-excited hydromagnetic waves on electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Ultralow frequency electromagnetic oscillations, interpreted as standing hydromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere, are a major energy source that accelerates electrons to relativistic energies in the Van Allen radiation belt. Electrons can rapidly gain energy from the waves when they resonate via a process called drift resonance, which is observationally characterized by energy-dependent phase differences between electron flux and electromagnetic oscillations. Such dependence has been recently observed and interpreted as spacecraft identifications of drift resonance electron acceleration. Here we show that in the initial wave cycles, the observed phase relationship differs from that characteristic of well-developed drift resonance. We further examine the differences and find that they are . . .
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 6199 - 6204 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.1510.1002/2015GL064988 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/grl.v42.15http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL064988
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Authors: Tejero E. M., Crabtree C., Blackwell D. D., Amatucci W. E., Mithaiwala M., et al.
Title: Laboratory studies of nonlinear whistler wave processes in the Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Important nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions that occur in the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts are investigated in a laboratory experiment. Predominantly electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone with measured wave normal angle greater than 85º. When the pump amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 x10^6 times the back- ground magnetic field, wave power at frequencies below the pump frequency is observed at wave normal angles (~55º). The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the pump wave. Occasionally, the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into a magnetosonic wave and a whistler wave is simultaneously observed with a threshold of δB=B_0 ~7 x 10^-7. . .
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas DOI: 10.1063/1.4928944 Available at: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/22/9/10.1063/1.4928944
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Authors: Paral J., Hudson M K, Kress B T, Wiltberger M. J., Wygant J R, et al.
Title: Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of three Van Allen Probes storms in 2012 and 2013
Abstract: Coronal mass ejection (CME)-shock compression of the dayside magnetopause has been observed to cause both prompt enhancement of radiation belt electron flux due to inward radial transport of electrons conserving their first adiabatic invariant and prompt losses which at times entirely eliminate the outer zone. Recent numerical studies suggest that enhanced ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave activity is necessary to explain electron losses deeper inside the magnetosphere than magnetopause incursion following CME-shock arrival. A combination of radial transport and magnetopause shadowing can account for losses observed at radial distances into L = 4.5, well within the computed magnetopause location. We compare ULF wave power from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) electric field instrument on th. . .
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Annales Geophysicae Pages: 1037 - 1050 DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-1037-2015 Available at: http://www.ann-geophys.net/33/1037/2015/angeo-33-1037-2015.pdf
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Authors: Artemyev A. V., Mourenas D., Agapitov O. V., Vainchtein D. L., Mozer F S, et al.
Title: Stability of relativistic electron trapping by strong whistler or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves
Abstract: In the present paper, we investigate the trapping of relativistic electrons by intense whistler-mode waves or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the Earth's radiation belts. We consider the non-resonant impact of additional, lower amplitude magnetic field fluctuations on the stability of electron trapping. We show that such additional non-resonant fluctuations can break the adiabatic invariant corresponding to trapped electron oscillations in the effective wave potential. This destruction results in a diffusive escape of electrons from the trapped regime of motion and thus can lead to a significant reduction of the efficiency of electron acceleration. We demonstrate that when energetic electrons are trapped by intense parallel or very oblique whistler-mode waves, non-resonant magnetic . . .
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas Pages: 082901 DOI: 10.1063/1.4927774 Available at: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/22/8/10.1063/1.4927774
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Authors: Nakamura Satoko, Omura Yoshiharu, Shoji Masafumi, Nosé Masahito, Summers Danny, et al.
Title: Sub-packet structures in EMIC rising tone emissions observed by the THEMIS probes
Abstract: We report sub-packet structures found in electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) rising tone emissions observed by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probles. We investigate three typical cases in detail. The first case shows a continuous single rising tone with obvious four sub-packets, and the second case is characterized by a patchy emission with multiple sub-packets triggered in a broadband frequency. The third case looks like a smooth rising tone without any obvious sub-packet in the FFT spectrum, while its amplitude contains small peaks with increasing frequencies. The degree of polarization of each sub-packet is generally higher than 0.8 with a left-handed polarization, and the wave direction of the sub-packets is typically field-aligned. W. . .
Date: 08/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020764 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020764
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Authors: Jaynes A. N., Lessard M. R., Takahashi K., Ali A. F., Malaspina D. M., et al.
Title: Correlated Pc4-5 ULF waves, whistler-mode chorus and pulsating aurora observed by the Van Allen Probes and ground-based systems
Abstract: Theory and observations have linked equatorial VLF waves with pulsating aurora for decades, invoking the process of pitch-angle scattering of 10's keV electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere. Recently published satellite studies have strengthened this argument, by showing strong correlation between pulsating auroral patches and both lower-band chorus and 10's keV electron modulation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Additionally, a previous link has been made between Pc4-5 compressional pulsations and modulation of whistler-mode chorus using THEMIS. In the current study, we present simultaneous in-situ observations of structured chorus waves and an apparent field line resonance (in the Pc4-5 range) as a result of a substorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes, along with groun. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021380 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021380
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Authors: Walsh B. M., Thomas E. G., Hwang K.-J., Baker J. B. H., Ruohoniemi J. M., et al.
Title: Dense plasma and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves at Earth's dayside magnetopause
Abstract: Spacecraft observations of boundary waves at the dayside terrestrial magnetopause and their ground-based signatures are presented. Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft measured boundary waves at the magnetopause while ground-based HF radar measured corresponding signatures in the ionosphere indicating a large-scale response and tailward propagating waves. The properties of the oscillations are consistent with linear phase Kelvin-Helmholtz waves along the magnetopause boundary. During this time period multiple THEMIS spacecraft also measured a plasmaspheric plume contacting the local magnetopause and mass loading the boundary. Previous work has demonstrated that increasing the density at the magnetopause can lower the efficiency of reconnec. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021014 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021014
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Authors: Turner D. L., O'Brien T P, Fennell J. F., Claudepierre S G, Blake J B, et al.
Title: The effects of geomagnetic storms on electrons in Earth's radiation belts
Abstract: We use Van Allen Probes data to investigate the responses of 10s of keV to 2 MeV electrons throughout a broad range of the radiation belts (2.5 ≤ L ≤ 6.0) during 52 geomagnetic storms from the most recent solar maximum. Electron storm-time responses are highly dependent on both electron energy and L-shell. 10s of keV electrons typically have peak fluxes in the inner belt or near-Earth plasma sheet and fill the inner magnetosphere during storm main phases. ~100 to ~600 keV electrons are enhanced in up to 87% of cases around L~3.7, and their peak flux location moves to lower L-shells during storm recovery phases. Relativistic electrons (≥~1 MeV) are nearly equally likely to produce enhancement, depletion, and no-change events in the outer belt. We also show that the L-shell of peak flu. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064747 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL064747
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Authors: Posch J. L, Engebretson M. J., Olson C. N., Thaller S. A., Breneman A. W., et al.
Title: Low-harmonic magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Purely compressional electromagnetic waves (fast magnetosonic waves), generated at multiple harmonics of the local proton gyrofrequency, have been observed by various types of satellite instruments (fluxgate and search coil magnetometers and electric field sensors), but most recent studies have used data from search coil sensors, and many have been restricted to high harmonics. We report here on a survey of low-harmonic waves, based on electric and magnetic field data from the EFW double probe and EMFISIS fluxgate magnetometer instruments, respectively, on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during its first full precession through all local times, from October 1, 2012 through July 13, 2014. These waves were observed both inside and outside the plasmapause (PP), at L shells from 2.4 to ~6 (the. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021179 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021179
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Authors: Dai Lei, Wang Chi, Duan Suping, He Zhaohai, Wygant John R., et al.
Title: Near-Earth Injection of MeV Electrons associated with Intense Dipolarization Electric Fields: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: Substorms generally inject 10s-100s keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the pre-midnight sector at L∼5.5, Van Allen Probes (RBSP)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50mV/m) over ∼40s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to ∼3 MeV. Pitch angle observations indicated betatron acceleration of MeV electrons at the dipolarization front. Corresponding signals of MeV electron injection were observed at LANL-GEO, THEMIS-D, and GOES at geosynchronous altitude. Through a series of dipolarizations, the in. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064955 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL064955
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Authors: Bonnell John, and Lanzerotti Louis J.
Title: Neutral Oxygen Effects at Low Earth Altitudes: A Critical Uncertainty for Spacecraft Operations and Space Weather Effects
Abstract: Space Weather sits at the intersection of natural phenomena interacting with modern technology—either in space or on Earth's surface. A key aspect of space weather is the interaction of Earth's extended neutral atmosphere with satellite surfaces [e.g., Samwel, 2014, and references therein]. Because neutral oxygen causes spacecraft surface erosion and oxidation, detailed knowledge of the atmosphere below 1000 km is essential for spacecraft design and operations.
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001229 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015SW001229
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Authors: Blum L. W., Halford A., Millan R., Bonnell J. W., Goldstein J, et al.
Title: Observations of coincident EMIC wave activity and duskside energetic electron precipitation on 18-19 January 2013
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been suggested to be a cause of radiation belt electron loss to the atmosphere. Here simultaneous, magnetically conjugate measurements are presented of EMIC wave activity, measured at geosynchronous orbit and on the ground, and energetic electron precipitation, seen by the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) campaign, on two consecutive days in January 2013. Multiple bursts of precipitation were observed on the duskside of the magnetosphere at the end of 18 January and again late on 19 January, concurrent with particle injections, substorm activity, and enhanced magnetospheric convection. The structure, timing, and spatial extent of the waves are compared to those of the precipitation during both days to det. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065245 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL065245
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Authors: Kataoka Ryuho, Shiota Daikou, Kilpua Emilia, and Keika Kunihiro
Title: Pileup accident hypothesis of magnetic storm on 17 March 2015
Abstract: We propose a “pileup accident” hypothesis, based on the solar wind data analysis and magnetohydrodynamics modeling, to explain unexpectedly geoeffective solar wind structure which caused the largest magnetic storm so far during the solar cycle 24 on 17 March 2015: First, a fast coronal mass ejection with strong southward magnetic fields both in the sheath and in the ejecta was followed by a high-speed stream from a nearby coronal hole. This combination resulted in less adiabatic expansion than usual to keep the high speed, strong magnetic field, and high density within the coronal mass ejection. Second, preceding slow and high-density solar wind was piled up ahead of the coronal mass ejection just before the arrival at the Earth to further enhance its magnetic field and density. Finall. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064816 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL064816
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Authors: Jaynes A.N., Baker D.N., Singer H.J., Rodriguez J.V., Loto'aniu T.M., et al.
Title: Source and Seed Populations for Relativistic Electrons: Their Roles in Radiation Belt Changes
Abstract: Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August-September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13-22 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward IMF, showed strong depletion of. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021234 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021234
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Authors: He Yihua, Xiao Fuliang, Zhou Qinghua, Yang Chang, Liu Si, et al.
Title: Van Allen Probes observation and modeling of chorus excitation and propagation during weak geomagnetic activities
Abstract: We report correlated data on nightside chorus waves and energetic electrons during two small storm periods: 1 November 2012 (Dst≈-45) and 14 January 2013 (Dst≈-18). The Van Allen Probes simultaneously observed strong chorus waves at locations L = 5.8 − 6.3, with a lower frequency band 0.1 − 0.5fce and a peak spectral density ∼[10−4 nT2/Hz. In the same period, the fluxes and anisotropy of energetic (∼ 10-300 keV) electrons were greatly enhanced in the interval of large negative interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Using a bi-Maxwellian distribution to model the observed electron distribution, we perform ray tracing simulations to show that nightside chorus waves are indeed produced by the observed electron distribution with a peak growth for a field-aligned propagation around bet. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021376 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021376
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Authors: Li Zhao, Hudson Mary, Kress Brian, and Paral Jan
Title: 3D test-particle simulation of the 17-18 March, 2013 CME-shock driven storm
Abstract: D test-particle simulation of energetic electrons (hundreds of keV to MeV), including both an initially trapped population and continuously injected population, driven by the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global MHD model coupled with Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupler/Solver (MIX) boundary conditions, is performed for the March 17, 2013 storm. The electron trajectories are calculated and weighted using the ESA model for electron flux vs. energy and L. The simulation captures the flux dropout at both GOES-13 and GOES-15 locations after a strong CME-shock arrival which produced a Dst=−132 nT storm, and recovery to the pre-storm value later, consistent with GOES satellite measurements. This study provides the first 3D test-particle simulation combining the trapped and injected populations. The r. . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064627 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL064627
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Authors: Claudepierre S G, O'Brien T P, Blake J B, Fennell J. F., Roeder J. L., et al.
Title: A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements
Abstract: We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30-500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-MeV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energy channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate me. . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021171 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021171
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Authors: Li Haimeng, Yuan Zhigang, Yu Xiongdong, Huang Shiyong, Wang Dedong, et al.
Title: The enhancement of cosmic radio noise absorption due to hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation during substorms
Abstract: The Van-Allen probes, low-altitude NOAA satellite, MetOp satellite and riometer are used to analyze variations of precipitating energetic electron fluxes and cosmic radio noise absorption (CNA) driven by plasmaspheric hiss with respect to geomagnetic activities. The hiss-driven energetic electron precipitations (at L~4.7-5.3, MLT~8-9) are observed during geomagnetic quiet condition and substorms, respectively. We find that the CNA detected by riometers increased very little in the hiss-driven event during quiet condition on September 06, 2012. The hiss-driven enhancement of riometer was still little during the first substorm on September 30, 2012. However, the absorption detected by the riometer largely increased while the energies of the injected electrons became higher during the second . . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021113 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021113
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Authors: Lugaz N., Farrugia C. J., Huang C.-L., and Spence H E
Title: Extreme geomagnetic disturbances due to shocks within CMEs
Abstract: We report on features of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling elicited by shocks propagating through coronal mass ejections (CMEs) by analyzing the intense geomagnetic storm of 6 August 1998. During this event, the dynamic pressure enhancement at the shock combined with a simultaneous increase in the southward component of the magnetic field resulted in a large earthward retreat of Earth's magnetopause, which remained close to geosynchronous orbit for more than 4 h. This occurred despite the fact that both shock and CME were weak and relatively slow. Another similar example of a weak shock inside a slow CME resulting in an intense geomagnetic storm is the 30 September 2012 event, which strongly depleted the outer radiation belt. We discuss the potential of shocks inside CMEs to cause large . . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064530 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL064530
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Authors: Breneman A. W., Halford A., Millan R., McCarthy M., Fennell J, et al.
Title: Global-scale coherence modulation of radiation-belt electron loss from plasmaspheric hiss
Abstract: Over 40 years ago it was suggested that electron loss in the region of the radiation belts that overlaps with the region of high plasma density called the plasmasphere, within four to five Earth radii1, 2, arises largely from interaction with an electromagnetic plasma wave called plasmaspheric hiss3, 4, 5. This interaction strongly influences the evolution of the radiation belts during a geomagnetic storm, and over the course of many hours to days helps to return the radiation-belt structure to its ‘quiet’ pre-storm configuration. Observations have shown that the long-term electron-loss rate is consistent with this theory but the temporal and spatial dynamics of the loss process remain to be directly verified. Here we report simultaneous measurements of structured radiation-belt electr. . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Nature Pages: 193 - 195 DOI: 10.1038/nature14515 Available at: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature14515
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Authors: Chen Lunjin, Maldonado Armando, Bortnik Jacob, Thorne Richard M, Li Jinxing, et al.
Title: Nonlinear Bounce Resonances between Magnetosonic Waves and Equatorially Mirroring Electrons
Abstract: Equatorially mirroring energetic electrons pose an interesting scientific problem, since they generally cannot resonate with any known plasma waves and hence cannot be scattered down to lower pitch angles. Observationally it is well known that the fluxof these equatorial particles does not simply continue to build up indefinitely, and so a mechanism must necessarily exist that transports these particles from a equatorial pitch angle of 90 degrees down to lower values. However this mechanism has not been uniquely identified yet. Here, we investigate the mechanism of bounce resonance with equatorial noise (or fast magnetosonic waves). A test particle simulation is used to examine the effects of monochromatic magnetosonic waves on the equatorially mirroring energetic electrons, with a special. . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021174 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021174
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Authors: Kurita Satoshi, Kadokura Akira, Miyoshi Yoshizumi, Morioka Akira, Sato Yuka, et al.
Title: Relativistic electron precipitations in association with diffuse aurora: Conjugate observation of SAMPEX and the all sky TV camera at Syowa Station
Abstract: It has been believed that whistler mode waves can cause relativistic electron precipitations. It has been also pointed out that pitch angle scattering of ~keV electrons by whistler mode waves results in diffuse auroras. Thus, it is natural to expect relativistic electron precipitations associated with diffuse auroras. Based on a conjugate observation between the SAMPEX spacecraft and the all-sky TV camera at Syowa Station, we report, for the first time, a case in which relativistic electron precipitations are associated with diffuse aurora. The SAMPEX observation shows that the precipitations of >1 MeV electrons are well accompanied with those of >150 and >400 keV electrons. This indicates that electrons in the energy range from several keV to >1 MeV precipitate into the atmosphere s. . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064564 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL064564
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Authors: Artemyev A. V., Mourenas D., Agapitov O. V., and Krasnoselskikh V. V.
Title: Relativistic electron scattering by magnetosonic waves: Effects of discrete wave emission and high wave amplitudes
Abstract: In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasi-linear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles theta (i.e., when the dispersion delta theta >= 0.5 degrees), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in well-separated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasi-linear theory show that for delta theta > 0.5 degrees, the quasi-linear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narr. . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas Pages: 062901 DOI: 10.1063/1.4922061 Available at: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/22/6/10.1063/1.4922061
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Authors: Allen R. C., Zhang J. -C., Kistler L. M., Spence H E, Lin R. -L., et al.
Title: A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 1. Wave properties
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, as well as local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the MLT-L frame within a limited MLAT range. In this study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using ten years (2001–2010) of data from Cluster, totaling 25,431 minutes of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs. . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021333 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021333
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Authors: Engebretson M. J., Posch J. L., Wygant J R, Kletzing C A, Lessard M. R., et al.
Title: Van Allen probes, NOAA, GOES, and ground observations of an intense EMIC wave event extending over 12 hours in MLT
Abstract: Although most studies of the effects of EMIC waves on Earth's outer radiation belt have focused on events in the afternoon sector in the outer plasmasphere or plume region, strong magnetospheric compressions provide an additional stimulus for EMIC wave generation across a large range of local times and L shells. We present here observations of the effects of a wave event on February 23, 2014 that extended over 8 hours in UT and over 12 hours in local time, stimulated by a gradual 4-hour rise and subsequent sharp increases in solar wind pressure. Large-amplitude linearly polarized hydrogen band EMIC waves (up to 25 nT p-p) appeared for over 4 hours at both Van Allen Probes, from late morning through local noon, when these spacecraft were outside the plasmapause, with densities ~5-20 cm-3. W. . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021227 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021227
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Authors: Moya Pablo. S., Pinto Víctor A., Viñas Adolfo F., Sibeck David G., Kurth William S., et al.
Title: Weak Kinetic Alfvén Waves Turbulence during the November 14th 2012 geomagnetic storm: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: n the dawn sector, L~ 5.5 and MLT~4-7, from 01:30 to 06:00 UT during the November 14th 2012 geomagnetic storm, both Van Allen Probes observed an alternating sequence of locally quiet and disturbed intervals with two strikingly different power fluctuation levels and magnetic field orientations: either small (~10−2 nT2) total power with strong GSM Bx and weak By, or large (~10 nT2) total power with weak Bx, and strong By and Bz components. During both kinds of intervals the fluctuations occur in the vicinity of the local ion gyro-frequencies (0.01-10 Hz) in the spacecraft frame, propagate oblique to the magnetic field, (θ ~ 60°) and have magnetic compressibility C = |δB|||/|δB⊥| ∼ 1, where δB|| (δB⊥) are the average amplitudes of the fluctuations parallel (perpendicular) to the. . .
Date: 06/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020281 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020281
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