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Authors: Roederer Juan G., and Lejosne ène
Title: Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux
Abstract: Fifty years have passed since the parameter “L-star” was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like “distance to the equatorial point of a field line,” McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameter. . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025053 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA025053/full
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Authors: Rodriguez Juan V., Onsager Terrance G., Heynderickx Daniel, and Jiggens Piers T. A.
Title: Meeting Report: Solar Energetic Particle Measurements Intercalibration Workshop, 11 April 2014, Boulder, Colorado
Abstract: Following the conclusion of the 2014 Space Weather Week in Boulder, Colorado, the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center and Space Weather Prediction Center cohosted a 1 day workshop on the intercalibration of solar energetic particle (SEP) measurements. The overall purpose of this workshop was to discuss the intercalibration of SEP measurements from different instruments and different spacecraft, to foster new cooperative intercalibration efforts, and to identify a path forward for establishing a set of intercalibration guidelines. The detailed objectives of this workshop were described by Rodriguez and Onsager [2014]. Ten talks were given at the workshop (available at ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/STP/publications/spe_intercal/), interspersed with extensive discussions. One outcome of these . . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Space Weather Pages: 613 - 615 DOI: 10.1002/swe.v12.1110.1002/2014SW001134 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/swe.v12.11
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Authors: Rodger Craig J., Kavanagh Andrew J., Clilverd Mark A., and Marple Steve R.
Title: Comparison between POES energetic electron precipitation observations and riometer absorptions: Implications for determining true precipitation fluxes
Abstract: Energetic electron precipitation (EEP) impacts the chemistry of the middle atmosphere with growing evidence of coupling to surface temperatures at high latitudes. To better understand this link, it is essential to have realistic observations to properly characterize precipitation and which can be incorporated into chemistry-climate models. The Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) detectors measure precipitating particles but only integral fluxes and only in a fraction of the bounce loss cone. Ground-based riometers respond to precipitation from the whole bounce loss cone; they measure the cosmic radio noise absorption (CNA), a qualitative proxy with scant direct information on the energy flux of EEP. POES observations should have a direct relationship with ΔCNA and co. . .
Date: 12/2013 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7810 - 7821 DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019439 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2013JA019439
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Authors: Rodger Craig J., Hendry Aaron T., Clilverd Mark A., Kletzing Craig A., Brundell James B., et al.
Title: High-resolution in situ observations of electron precipitation-causing EMIC waves
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are thought to be important drivers of energetic electron losses from the outer radiation belt through precipitation into the atmosphere. While the theoretical possibility of pitch angle scattering-driven losses from these waves has been recognized for more than four decades, there have been limited experimental precipitation observations to support this concept. We have combined satellite-based observations of the characteristics of EMIC waves, with satellite and ground-based observations of the EMIC-induced electron precipitation. In a detailed case study, supplemented by an additional four examples, we are able to constrain for the first time the location, size, and energy range of EMIC-induced electron precipitation inferred from coincident pr. . .
Date: 11/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 9633 - 9641 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.2210.1002/2015GL066581 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/2015GL066581/full
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Authors: Ripoll J. F., Loridan V., Cunningham G. S., Reeves G D, and Shprits Y Y
Title: On the Time Needed to Reach an Equilibrium Structure of the Radiation Belts
Abstract: In this study, we complement the notion of equilibrium states of the radiation belts with a discussion on the dynamics and time needed to reach equilibrium. We solve for the equilibrium states obtained using 1D radial diffusion with recently developed hiss and chorus lifetimes at constant values of Kp = 1, 3 and 6. We find that the equilibrium states at moderately low Kp, when plotted vs L-shell (L) and energy (E), display the same interesting S-shape for the inner edge of the outer belt as recently observed by the Van Allen Probes. The S-shape is also produced as the radiation belts dynamically evolve toward the equilibrium state when initialized to simulate the buildup after a massive dropout or to simulate loss due to outward diffusion from a saturated state. Physically, this shape,. . .
Date: 06/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022207 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA022207
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Authors: Ripoll J.‐F., Farges T., Lay E. H., and Cunningham G. S.
Title: Local and Statistical Maps of Lightning‐Generated Wave Power Density Estimated at the Van Allen Probes Footprints From the World‐Wide Lightning Location Network Database
Abstract: We propose a new method that uses the World‐Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) to estimate both the local and the drift lightning power density at the Van Allen Probes footprints during 4.3 years (~2 × 108 strokes.). The ratio of the drift power density to the local power density defines a time‐resolved WWLLN‐based model of lightning‐generated wave (LGW) power density ratio, RWWLLN. RWWLLNis computed every ~34 s. This ratio multiplied by the time‐resolved LGW intensity measured by the Probes allows direct computation of pitch angle diffusion coefficients used in radiation belt codes. Statistical analysis shows the median power density ratio is urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl58808:grl58808-math-0001 over the Americas. Elsewhere, urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl58808:grl58808-ma. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 4122 - 4133 DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081146 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL081146
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Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Chen Y., Fennell J, and Friedel R
Title: On long decays of electrons in the vicinity of the slot region observed by HEO3
Abstract: Long decay periods of electron counts, which follow abrupt rises and last from weeks to months, have been observed by the HEO3 spacecraft in the vicinity of the slot region between the years 1998 and 2007. During the most stable decay periods as selected, e-folding timescales are extracted and statistically analyzed from observations as a function of L-shell and electron energy. A challenge is to reproduce the observed timescales from simulations of pitch angle diffusion by three acting waves–the plasmaspheric hiss, lightning-generated whistlers, and VLF transmitter waves. We perform full numerical simulations to accurately compute electron lifetimes. We choose to use the method and wave parameters proposed by Abel & Thorne [1998] with the goal to assess whether they can reproduce lifeti. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020449 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020449
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Authors: Ripoll J. F., Reeves G., Cunningham G., Loridan V., Denton M., et al.
Title: Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model
Abstract: We present dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt " slot region" and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the March 1st storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally-resolved whistler mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L-shells (2 to 6) including (a) the strong energy-dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L-shells at lower energies and (c) an " S-shaped" energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial tran. . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068869 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL068869
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Authors: Ripoll ‐F., Loridan V., Denton M. H., Cunningham G., Reeves G., et al.
Title: Observations and Fokker‐Planck simulations of the L‐shell, energy, and pitch‐angle structure of Earth’s electron radiation belts during quiet times
Abstract: The evolution of the radiation belts in L‐shell (L), energy (E), and equatorial pitch‐angle (α0) is analyzed during the calm 11‐day interval (March 4 –March 15) following the March 1 storm 2013. Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) observations from Van Allen Probes are interpreted alongside 1D and 3D Fokker‐Planck simulations combined with consistent event‐driven scattering modeling from whistler mode hiss waves. Three (L, E, α0)‐regions persist through 11 days of hiss wave scattering; the pitch‐angle dependent inner belt core (L~<2.2 and E<700 keV), pitch‐angle homogeneous outer belt low‐energy core (L>~5 and E~<100 keV), and a distinct pocket of electrons (L~[4.5, 5.5] and E~[0.7, 2] MeV). The pitch‐angle homogeneous outer belt is explained by the diff. . .
Date: 12/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026111 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA026111
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Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Albert J M, and Cunningham G. S.
Title: Electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the systematic study of electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere. It relies on a new formulation of the bounce-averaged quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion coefficients parameterized by a single frequency, ω, and wave normal angle, θ. We first show that the diffusion coefficients scale with ω/Ωce, where Ωce is the equatorial electron gyrofrequency, and that maximal pitch angle diffusion occurs along the line α0 = π/2–θ, where α0 is the equatorial pitch angle. Lifetimes are computed for L shell values in the range [1.5, 3.5] and energies, E, in the range [0.1, 6] MeV as a function of frequency and wave normal angle. The maximal pitch angle associated with a given lifetime is also given, revealing the frequen. . .
Date: 11/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020217 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020217
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Authors: Ripoll J.-F., Santol?k O., Reeves G., Kurth W S, Denton M., et al.
Title: Effects of whistler mode hiss waves in March 2013
Abstract: We present simulations of the loss of radiation belt electrons by resonant pitch angle diffusion caused by whistler mode hiss waves for March 2013. Pitch angle diffusion coefficients are computed from the wave properties and the ambient plasma data obtained by the Van Allen Probes with a resolution of 8 hours and 0.1 L-shell. Loss rates follow a complex dynamic structure, imposed by the wave and plasma properties. Hiss effects can be strong, with minimum lifetimes (of ~1 day) moving from energies of ~100 keV at L~5 up to ~2 MeV at L~2, and stop abruptly, similarly to the observed energy-dependent inner belt edge. Periods when the plasmasphere extends beyond L~5 favor long-lasting hiss losses from the outer belt. Such loss rates are embedded in a reduced Fokker-Planck code and validated aga. . .
Date: 06/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024139 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024139/full
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Authors: Ren Jie, Zong Q. G., Miyoshi Y, Zhou X. Z., Wang Y. F., et al.
Title: Low-energy (< 200 eV) electron acceleration by ULF waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer: Van Allen Probes observation
Abstract: We report observational evidence of cold plamsmaspheric electron (< 200 eV) acceleration by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer on 10 September 2015. Strongly enhanced cold electron fluxes in the energy spectrogram were observed along with second harmonic mode waves with a period of about 1 minute which lasted several hours during two consecutive Van Allen Probe B orbits. Cold electron (<200 eV) and energetic proton (10-20 keV) bi-directional pitch angle signatures observed during the event are suggestive of the drift-bounce resonance mechanism. The correlation between enhanced energy fluxes and ULF waves leads to the conclusions that plasmaspheric dynamics is strongly affected by ULF waves. Van Allen Probe A and B, GOES 13, GOES 15 and MMS 1 observations su. . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024316 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024316/full
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Authors: Ren Jie, Zong Qiu-Gang, Miyoshi Yoshizumi, Rankin Robert, Spence Harlan E, et al.
Title: A comparative study of ULF waves' role in the dynamics of charged particles in the plasmasphere: Van Allen Probes observation
Abstract: By analyzing observations from Van Allen Probes in its inbound and outbound orbits, we present evidence of coherent enhancement of cold plasmaspheric electrons and ions due to drift‐bounce resonance with ULF waves. From 18:00 UT on 28 May 2017 to 10:00 UT on 29 May 2017, newly formed poloidal mode standing ULF waves with significant electric field oscillations were observed in two consecutive orbits when Probe B was travelling inbound. In contrast to observations during outbound orbits, the cold (< 150 eV) electorns measured by the HOPE instrument were characterized by flux enhancements several times larger and bi‐directional pitch angle distributions during inbound orbits. The electron number density inferred from upper hybrid waves is twice as larger as during inbound orbits, which w. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025255 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025255
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Authors: Remya B., Sibeck D G, Halford A J, Murphy K. R., Reeves G D, et al.
Title: Ion Injection Triggered EMIC Waves in the Earth's Magnetosphere
Abstract: We present Van Allen Probe observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves triggered solely due to individual substorm‐injected ions in the absence of storms or compressions of the magnetosphere during 9 August 2015. The time at which the injected ions are observed directly corresponds to the onset of EMIC waves at the location of Van Allen Probe A (L = 5.5 and 18:06 magnetic local time). The injection was also seen at geosynchronous orbit by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft, and the westward(eastward) drift of ions(electrons) was monitored by Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft at different local times. The azimuthal location of the injection was determined by tracing the injection signatures backward in. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025354 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025354
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Authors: Reiff P. H., Daou A. G., Sazykin S. Y., Nakamura R, Hairston M. R., et al.
Title: Multispacecraft Observations and Modeling of the June 22/23, 2015 Geomagnetic Storm
Abstract: The magnetic storm of June 22-23, 2015 was one of the largest in the current solar cycle. We present in situ observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) and the Van Allen Probes (VAP) in the magnetotail, field-aligned currents from AMPERE, and ionospheric flow data from DMSP. Our real-time space weather alert system sent out a “red alert”, correctly predicting Kp indices greater than 8. We show strong outflow of ionospheric Oxygen, dipolarizations in the MMS magnetometer data, and dropouts in the particle fluxes seen by the MMS FPI instrument suite. At ionospheric altitudes, the AMPERE data show highly variable currents exceeding 20 MA. We present numerical simulations with the BATS-R-US global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model linked with the Rice Convection Model (RCM. . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069154 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL069154
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Authors: Reid Mark, and Ottman Geffrey
Title: Software controlled memory scrubbing for the Van Allen Probes Solid State Recorder (SSR) memory
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes mission which was designed and built by the Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) is also being operated by the APL mission operations team in Laurel, Maryland. The two Van Allen Probes spacecraft have been successfully collecting data on orbit since they were launched on August 30, 2012. These twin probes are providing unprecedented insight into the physical dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts and are giving scientists the data they need to make predictions of changes in this critical region of space, by sampling the harsh radiation belt environment where major space weather activity occurs and many spacecraft operate.[1] Shortly after launch, radiation induced anomalies were reported on both spacecraft and investigated by the hardware and sof. . .
Date: 03/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2014.6836406 Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6836406
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Authors: Reeves G D, Spence H E, Henderson M G, Tu W., Cunningham G. S., et al.
Title: Acceleration and loss driven by VLF chorus: Van Allen Probes observations and DREAM model results
Abstract: For over a decade now we have understood the response of the Earth's radiation belts to solar wind driving are a delicate balance of acceleration and loss processes. Theory has shown that the interaction of relativistic electrons with VLF whistler mode chorus can produce both energization through momentum diffusion and loss through pitch angle diffusion. Recent results from the Van Allen Probes mission has confirmed observationally that chorus can produce both acceleration and loss. The Van Allen Probes satellites are able to measure all the critical particle populations and wave fields with unprecedented precision and resolution but only at the two spacecraft locations. Those spatially-localized observations can be extended globally using three-dimensional diffusion codes such as the DREA. . .
Date: 08/2014 Publisher: IEEE DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929879 Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=6929879
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Authors: Reeves G. D., and Daglis I. A.
Title: Geospace Magnetic Storms and the Van Allen Radiation Belts
Abstract: N/A
Date: Publisher: Oxford University Press DOI: N/A
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Authors: Reeves Geoffrey D, Friedel Reiner H W, Larsen Brian A., Skoug Ruth M., Funsten Herbert O., et al.
Title: Energy dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions.
Abstract: We present observations of the radiation belts from the HOPE and MagEIS particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy-dependence and L-shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on March 1 in more detail. The observations show: (a) At all L-shells, lower-energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) Events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) Enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are more common at lower energies; and (d) Even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower-energies tend to extend to lower L-shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L-shells at lower energie. . .
Date: 12/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021569 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021569http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2015JA021569
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Authors: Reeves G D, Spence H E, Henderson M G, Morley S. K., Friedel R H W, et al.
Title: Electron Acceleration in the Heart of the Van Allen Radiation Belts
Abstract: The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth’s magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside the radiation belts (radial acceleration) or acceleration of lower-energy electrons to relativistic energies in situ in the heart of the radiation belts (local acceleration). We report measurements from NASA’s Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes that clearly distinguish between the two types of acceleration. The observed radial profiles of phase space density are characteristic of local acceleration in the heart of the radiation belt. . .
Date: 07/2013 Publisher: Science Pages: 991 - 994 DOI: 10.1126/science.1237743 Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1237743
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Authors: Reeves Geoffrey D
Title: Radiation Belt Storm Probes: The Next Generation of Space Weather Forecasting
Abstract: N/A
Date: 11/2007 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2007SW000341 Available at: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2007/2007SW000341.shtml
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