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A
Authors: Ukhorskiy A. Y., Sitnov M. I., Merkin V. G., Gkioulidou M., and Mitchell D. G.
Title: Acceleration at Dipolarization Fronts in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: During geomagnetic storms plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere is controlled by energetic ions of tens to hundreds keV. Plasma pressure is the source of global storm-time currents, which control the distribution of magnetic field and couple the inner magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Recent analysis showed that the buildup of hot ion population in the inner magnetosphere largely occurs in the form of localized discrete injections associated with sharp dipolarizations of magnetic field, similar to dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail. Because of significant differences between the ambient magnetic field and the dipolarization front properties in the magnetotail and the inner magnetosphere, the physical mechanisms of ion acceleration at dipolarization fronts in these two regions ma. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016ja023304 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023304
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Authors: Malaspina David M., Ukhorskiy Aleksandr, Chu Xiangning, and Wygant John
Title: A census of plasma waves and structures associated with an injection front in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Now that observations have conclusively established that the inner magnetosphere is abundantly populated with kinetic electric field structures and nonlinear waves, attention has turned to quantifying the ability of these structures and waves to scatter and accelerate inner magnetospheric plasma populations. A necessary step in that quantification is determining the distribution of observed structure and wave properties (e.g. occurrence rates, amplitudes, spatial scales). Kinetic structures and nonlinear waves have broadband signatures in frequency space and consequently, high resolution time domain electric and magnetic field data is required to uniquely identify such structures and waves as well as determine their properties. However, most high resolution fields data is collected with a . . .
Date: 02/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025005 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA025005/full
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Authors: Turner D. L., Angelopoulos V, Li W, Bortnik J, Ni B, et al.
Title: Competing source and loss mechanisms due to wave-particle interactions in Earth's outer radiation belt during the 30 September to 3 October 2012 geomagnetic storm
Abstract: Drastic variations of Earth's outer radiation belt electrons ultimately result from various competing source, loss, and transport processes, to which wave-particle interactions are critically important. Using 15 spacecraft including NASA's Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and SAMPEX missions and NOAA's GOES and POES constellations, we investigated the evolution of the outer belt during the strong geomagnetic storm of 30 September to 3 October 2012. This storm's main phase dropout exhibited enhanced losses to the atmosphere at L* < 4, where the phase space density (PSD) of multi-MeV electrons dropped by over an order of magnitude in <4 h. Based on POES observations of precipitating >1 MeV electrons and energetic protons, SAMPEX >1 MeV electrons, and ground observations of band-limited Pc. . .
Date: 03/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 1960 - 1979 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.310.1002/2014JA019770 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jgra.v119.3http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA019770
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Authors: Hwang J., Choi E.-J., Park J.-S., Fok M.-C., Lee D.-Y., et al.
Title: Comprehensive analysis of the flux dropout during 7-8 November 2008 storm using multi-satellites observations and RBE model
Abstract: We investigate an electron flux dropout during a weak storm on 7–8 November 2008, with Dst minimum value being −37 nT. During this period, two clear dropouts were observed on GOES 11 > 2 MeV electrons. We also find a simultaneous dropout in the subrelativistic electrons recorded by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms probes in the outer radiation belt. Using the Radiation Belt Environment model, we try to reproduce the observed dropout features in both relativistic and subrelativistic electrons. We found that there are local time dependences in the dropout for both observation and simulation in subrelativistic electrons: (1) particle loss begins from nightside and propagates into dayside and (2) resupply starts from near dawn magnetic local time . . .
Date: 05/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021085 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021085
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D
Authors: Ukhorskiy A Y, and Sitnov M I
Title: Dynamics of Radiation Belt Particles
Abstract: This paper reviews basic concepts of particle dynamics underlying theoretical aspect of radiation belt modeling and data analysis. We outline the theory of adiabatic invariants of quasiperiodic Hamiltonian systems and derive the invariants of particle motion trapped in the radiation belts. We discuss how the nonlinearity of resonant interaction of particles with small-amplitude plasma waves, ubiquitous across the inner magnetosphere, can make particle motion stochastic. Long-term evolution of a stochastic system can be described by the Fokker-Plank (diffusion) equation. We derive the kinetic equation of particle diffusion in the invariant space and discuss its limitations and associated challenges which need to be addressed in forthcoming radiation belt models and data analysis.
Date: 11/2013 Publisher: Space Science Reviews Pages: 545-578 DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9938-5 Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11214-012-9938-5
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E
Authors: Usanova M. E., Drozdov A., Orlova K., Mann I. R., Shprits Y., et al.
Title: Effect of EMIC waves on relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron populations: Ground-based and Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: We study the effect of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on the loss and pitch angle scattering of relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons during the recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm on 11 October 2012. The EMIC wave activity was observed in situ on the Van Allen Probes and conjugately on the ground across the Canadian Array for Real-time Investigations of Magnetic Activity throughout an extended 18 h interval. However, neither enhanced precipitation of >0.7 MeV electrons nor reductions in Van Allen Probe 90° pitch angle ultrarelativistic electron flux were observed. Computed radiation belt electron pitch angle diffusion rates demonstrate that rapid pitch angle diffusion is confined to low pitch angles and cannot reach 90°. For the first time, from both obse. . .
Date: 03/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1375 - 1381 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059024 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2013GL059024
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Authors: Drozdov A. Y., Shprits Y Y, Usanova M. E., Aseev N. A., Kellerman A. C., et al.
Title: EMIC wave parameterization in the long-term VERB code simulation
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the dynamics of ultrarelativistic electron population in the radiation belts. However, as EMIC waves are very sporadic, developing a parameterization of such wave properties is a challenging task. Currently, there are no dynamic, activity-dependent models of EMIC waves that can be used in the long-term (several months) simulations, which makes the quantitative modeling of the radiation belt dynamics incomplete. In this study, we investigate Kp, Dst, and AE indices, solar wind speed, and dynamic pressure as possible parameters of EMIC wave presence. The EMIC waves are included in the long-term simulations (1 year, including different geomagnetic activity) performed with the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt code, and we co. . .
Date: 08/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024389 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024389/full
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Authors: Stephens G. K., Sitnov M I, Ukhorskiy A Y, Roelof E. C., Tsyganenko N A, et al.
Title: Empirical modeling of the storm-time innermost magnetosphere using Van Allen Probes and THEMIS data: Eastward and banana currents
Abstract: The structure of storm-time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4RE, is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and THEMIS missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at inline image and the eastward ring current concentrated at inline image resulting in a vortex current pattern. A simil. . .
Date: 01/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: n/a - n/a DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021700 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA021700
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Authors: Stephens G. K., Sitnov M I, Korth H., Tsyganenko N A, Ohtani S, et al.
Title: Global Empirical Picture of Magnetospheric Substorms Inferred From Multimission Magnetometer Data
Abstract: Magnetospheric substorms represent key explosive processes in the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind, and their understanding and modeling are critical for space weather forecasting. During substorms, the magnetic field on the nightside is first stretched in the antisunward direction and then it rapidly contracts earthward bringing hot plasmas from the distant space regions into the inner magnetosphere, where they contribute to geomagnetic storms and Joule dissipation in the polar ionosphere, causing impressive splashes of aurora. Here we show for the first time that mining millions of spaceborne magnetometer data records from multiple missions allows one to reconstruct the global 3‐D picture of these stretching and dipolarization processes. Stretching results i. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025843 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025843
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Authors: Ukhorskiy A Y, Sitnov M I, Millan R M, Kress B T, Fennell J. F., et al.
Title: Global Storm-Time Depletion of the Outer Electron Belt
Abstract: The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity, electron intensities in the belt can vary by ordersof magnitude at different spatial and temporal scale. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the main-phase depletions: adiabatic inflation of electron drift orbits caused by the ring current growth, electron loss into the atmosphere, and electron escape through the magnetopause boundary. In this paper we investigate the relative importance of the adiabatic effect and magnetopause . . .
Date: 03/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020645 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020645
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H
Authors: Funsten H O, Skoug R M, Guthrie A A, MacDonald E A, Baldonado J R, et al.
Title: Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) Mass Spectrometer for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission
Abstract: The HOPE mass spectrometer of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission (renamed the Van Allen Probes) is designed to measure the in situ plasma ion and electron fluxes over 4π sr at each RBSP spacecraft within the terrestrial radiation belts. The scientific goal is to understand the underlying physical processes that govern the radiation belt structure and dynamics. Spectral measurements for both ions and electrons are acquired over 1 eV to 50 keV in 36 log-spaced steps at an energy resolution ΔE FWHM/E≈15 %. The dominant ion species (H+, He+, and O+) of the magnetosphere are identified using foil-based time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry with channel electron multiplier (CEM) detectors. Angular measurements are derived using five polar pixels coplanar with the spacecraft spin. . .
Date: 08/2013 Publisher: Space Science Reviews DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9968-7 Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11214-013-9968-7
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I
Authors: Ukhorskiy A Y, Takahashi K, Anderson B. J., and Korth H.
Title: Impact of toroidal ULF waves on the outer radiation belt electrons
Abstract: Relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt exhibit highly variable complex behavior. Previous studies have established a strong correlation of electron fluxes and the inner magnetospheric ULF waves in the Pc 3–5 frequency range. Resonant interaction of ULF waves with the drift motion of radiation belt electrons violates their third adiabatic invariant and consequently leads to their radial transport. If the wave-particle interaction has a stochastic character, then the electron transport is diffusive. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of toroidal ULF waves on radiation belt electrons. The study is based on direct measurements of ULF electric fields on the CRRES spacecraft. We show that the electric fields of inner magnetospheric toroidal ULF waves exhibit high. . .
Date: 10/2005 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011017 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2005JA011017/abstract
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Authors: Ukhorskiy A Y, Sitnov M I, Merkin V. G., Gkioulidou M., and Mitchell D G
Title: Ion acceleration at dipolarization fronts in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: During geomagnetic storms plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere is controlled by energetic ions of tens to hundreds of keV. Plasma pressure is the source of global storm time currents, which control the distribution of magnetic field and couple the inner magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Recent analysis showed that the buildup of hot ion population in the inner magnetosphere largely occurs in the form of localized discrete injections associated with sharp dipolarizations of magnetic field, similar to dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail. Because of significant differences between the ambient magnetic field and the dipolarization front properties in the magnetotail and the inner magnetosphere, the physical mechanisms of ion acceleration at dipolarization fronts in these two regions. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023304 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA023304
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Authors: Ukhorskiy A Y, Sorathia K. A., Merkin V. G., Sitnov M I, Mitchell D G, et al.
Title: Ion Trapping and Acceleration at Dipolarization Fronts: High-Resolution MHD/Test-Particle Simulations
Abstract: Much of plasma heating and transport from the magnetotail into the inner magnetosphere occurs in the form of mesoscale discrete injections associated with sharp dipolarizations of magnetic field (dipolarization fronts). In this paper we investigate the role of magnetic trapping in acceleration and transport of the plasmasheet ions into the ring current. For this purpose we use high‐resolution global MHD and three‐dimensional test‐particle simulations. It is shown that trapping, produced by sharp magnetic field gradients at the interface between dipolarizations and the ambient plasma, affect plasmasheet protons with energies above approximately 10 keV, enabling their transport across more than 10 Earth radii and acceleration by a factor of 10. Our estimates show that trapping is impor. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025370 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025370
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Authors: Motoba T., Takahashi K., Ukhorskiy A., Gkioulidou M., Mitchell D G, et al.
Title: Link between pre-midnight second harmonic poloidal waves and auroral undulations: Conjugate observations with a Van Allen Probes spacecraft and a THEMIS all-sky imager
Abstract: We report, for the first time, an auroral undulation event on 1 May 2013 observed by an all-sky imager (ASI) at Athabasca (L = 4.6), Canada, for which in situ field and particle measurements in the conjugate magnetosphere were available from a Van Allen Probes spacecraft. The ASI observed a train of auroral undulation structures emerging spontaneously in the pre-midnight subauroral ionosphere, during the growth phase of a substorm. The undulations had an azimuthal wavelength of ~180 km and propagated westward at a speed of 3–4 km s−1. The successive passage over an observing point yielded quasi-periodic oscillations in diffuse auroral emissions with a period of ~40 s. The azimuthal wave number m of the auroral luminosity oscillations was found to be m ~ −103. During the event the spa. . .
Date: 02/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020863 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020863
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Authors: Neal Jason J., Rodger Craig J., Clilverd Mark A., Thomson Neil R., Raita Tero, et al.
Title: Long-term determination of energetic electron precipitation into the atmosphere from AARDDVARK subionospheric VLF observations
Abstract: We analyze observations of subionospherically propagating very low frequency (VLF) radio waves to determine outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation (EEP) flux magnitudes. The radio wave receiver in Sodankylä, Finland (Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory) observes signals from the transmitter with call sign NAA (Cutler, Maine). The receiver is part of the Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-belt Dynamic Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK). We use a near-continuous data set spanning November 2004 until December 2013 to determine the long time period EEP variations. We determine quiet day curves over the entire period and use these to identify propagation disturbances caused by EEP. Long Wave Propagation Code radio wave propagation modeling is used to estimate the p. . .
Date: 03/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020689 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020689
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Authors: Gkioulidou Matina, Ohtani S, Ukhorskiy A Y, Mitchell D G, Takahashi K., et al.
Title: Low-Energy (+ Ion Outflow Directly Into the Inner Magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes Observations
Abstract: The heavy ion component of the low‐energy (eV to hundreds of eV) ion population in the inner magnetosphere, also known as the O+ torus, is a crucial population for various aspects of magnetospheric dynamics. Yet even though its existence has been known since the 1980s, its formation remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study of a low‐energy (Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 405 - 419 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025862 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025862
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Authors: Sorathia K. A., Ukhorskiy A Y, Merkin V. G., Fennell J. F., and Claudepierre S G
Title: Modeling the Depletion and Recovery of the Outer Radiation Belt During a Geomagnetic Storm: Combined MHD and Test Particle Simulations
Abstract: During geomagnetic storms the intensities of the outer radiation belt electron population can exhibit dramatic variability. Deep depletions in intensity during the main phase are followed by increases during the recovery phase, often to levels that significantly exceed their pre‐storm values. To study these processes, we simulate the evolution of the outer radiation belt during the 17 March 2013 geomagnetic storm using our newly‐developed radiation belt model (CHIMP) based on test particle and coupled 3D ring current and global MHD simulations, and driven solely with solar wind and F10.7 flux data. Our approach differs from previous work in that we use MHD information to identify regions of strong, bursty, and azimuthally localized Earthward convection in the magnetotail where test. . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025506 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025506
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Authors: Turner D. L., Fennell J. F., Blake J B, Claudepierre S G, Clemmons J. H., et al.
Title: Multipoint observations of energetic particle injections and substorm activity during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes
Abstract: This study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between MMS and Van Allen Probes on 07 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from THEMIS, Geotail, and LANL-GEO (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (max. AE < 300 nT) during quiet geomagnetic conditions in steady, below-average solar wind, a complex series of at least six different electron injections was observed throughout the system. Intriguingly, only one corresponding ion injection was clearly observed. All ion and electron injections were observed at < 600 keV only. MMS reveals detailed substructure within the lar. . .
Date: 09/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024554 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024554/full
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Authors: Ripoll ‐F., Loridan V., Denton M. H., Cunningham G., Reeves G., et al.
Title: Observations and Fokker‐Planck simulations of the L‐shell, energy, and pitch‐angle structure of Earth’s electron radiation belts during quiet times
Abstract: The evolution of the radiation belts in L‐shell (L), energy (E), and equatorial pitch‐angle (α0) is analyzed during the calm 11‐day interval (March 4 –March 15) following the March 1 storm 2013. Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) observations from Van Allen Probes are interpreted alongside 1D and 3D Fokker‐Planck simulations combined with consistent event‐driven scattering modeling from whistler mode hiss waves. Three (L, E, α0)‐regions persist through 11 days of hiss wave scattering; the pitch‐angle dependent inner belt core (L~<2.2 and E<700 keV), pitch‐angle homogeneous outer belt low‐energy core (L>~5 and E~<100 keV), and a distinct pocket of electrons (L~[4.5, 5.5] and E~[0.7, 2] MeV). The pitch‐angle homogeneous outer belt is explained by the diff. . .
Date: 12/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026111 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA026111
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Authors: Blum L. W., Halford A., Millan R., Bonnell J. W., Goldstein J, et al.
Title: Observations of coincident EMIC wave activity and duskside energetic electron precipitation on 18-19 January 2013
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been suggested to be a cause of radiation belt electron loss to the atmosphere. Here simultaneous, magnetically conjugate measurements are presented of EMIC wave activity, measured at geosynchronous orbit and on the ground, and energetic electron precipitation, seen by the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) campaign, on two consecutive days in January 2013. Multiple bursts of precipitation were observed on the duskside of the magnetosphere at the end of 18 January and again late on 19 January, concurrent with particle injections, substorm activity, and enhanced magnetospheric convection. The structure, timing, and spatial extent of the waves are compared to those of the precipitation during both days to det. . .
Date: 07/2015 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065245 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015GL065245
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Authors: Takahashi Kazue, Hartinger Michael D., Malaspina David M., Smith Charles W., Koga Kiyokazu, et al.
Title: Propagation of ULF waves from the upstream region to the midnight sector of the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Ultralow frequency (ULF) waves generated in the ion foreshock are a well-known source of Pc3-Pc4 waves (7–100 mHz) observed in the dayside magnetosphere. We use data acquired on 10 April 2013 by multiple spacecraft to demonstrate that ULF waves of upstream origin can propagate to the midnight sector of the inner magnetosphere. At 1130–1730 UT on the selected day, the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft and the geostationary ETS-VIII satellite detected compressional 20 to 40 mHz magnetic field oscillations between L ∼ 4 and L ∼ 7 in the midnight sector, along with other spacecraft located closer to noon. Upstream origin of the oscillations is concluded from the wave frequency that matches a theoretical model, globally coherent amplitude modulation, and duskward propagation that is consi. . .
Date: 08/2016 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022958 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA022958
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Authors: UKHORSKIY A, and SITNOV M
Title: Radial transport in the outer radiation belt due to global magnetospheric compressions
Abstract: Earth's outer radiation belt is populated by relativistic electrons that produce a complex dynamical response to varying geomagnetic activity. One fundamental process defining global state of the belt is radial transport of electrons across their drift shells. Radial transport is induced by resonant interaction of electron drift motion with ULF oscillations of electric and magnetic fields and is commonly believed to be a diffusive process. The goal of this paper is the analysis of radial transport due to typical ULF fluctuations in the inner magnetospheric fields. For this purpose a test-particle approach is used in the guiding center approximation. In particular we consider ULF oscillations due to global magnetospheric compressions. It is shown that typical pressure variations induce larg. . .
Date: 11/2008 Publisher: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics Pages: 1714 - 1726 DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.018 Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682608001971
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Authors: Mitchell D G, Lanzerotti L J, Kim C K, Stokes M, Ho G, et al.
Title: Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE)
Abstract: The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft is the magnetosphere ring current instrument that will provide data for answering the three over-arching questions for the Van Allen Probes Program: RBSPICE will determine “how space weather creates the storm-time ring current around Earth, how that ring current supplies and supports the creation of the radiation belt populations,” and how the ring current is involved in radiation belt losses. RBSPICE is a time-of-flight versus total energy instrument that measures ions over the energy range from ∼20 keV to ∼1 MeV. RBSPICE will also measure electrons over the energy range ∼25 keV to ∼1 MeV in order to provide instrument background information in the radiation belts. A des. . .
Date: 11/2013 Publisher: Space Science Reviews Pages: 263-308 DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9965-x Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11214-013-9965-x
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Authors: Ukhorskiy Aleksandr Y., Mauk Barry H., Fox Nicola J., Sibeck David G., and Grebowsky Joseph M.
Title: Radiation belt storm probes: Resolving fundamental physics with practical consequences
Abstract: The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.
Date: 07/2011 Publisher: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics Pages: 1417 - 1424 DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2010.12.005 Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682610003688
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Authors: Ukhorskiy A Y, Sitnov M I, Merkin V. G., and Artemyev A. V.
Title: Rapid acceleration of protons upstream of earthward propagating dipolarization fronts
Abstract: [1] Transport and acceleration of ions in the magnetotail largely occurs in the form of discrete impulsive events associated with a steep increase of the tail magnetic field normal to the neutral plane (Bz), which are referred to as dipolarization fronts. The goal of this paper is to investigate how protons initially located upstream of earthward moving fronts are accelerated at their encounter. According to our analytical analysis and simplified two-dimensional test-particle simulations of equatorially mirroring particles, there are two regimes of proton acceleration: trapping and quasi-trapping, which are realized depending on whether the front is preceded by a negative depletion in Bz. We then use three-dimensional test-particle simulations to investigate how these acceleration processe. . .
Date: 01/2013 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 4952–4962, DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50452 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jgra.50452
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Authors: Ripoll J. F., Reeves G., Cunningham G., Loridan V., Denton M., et al.
Title: Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model
Abstract: We present dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt " slot region" and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the March 1st storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally-resolved whistler mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L-shells (2 to 6) including (a) the strong energy-dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L-shells at lower energies and (c) an " S-shaped" energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial tran. . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068869 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL068869
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Authors: Motoba T., Ohtani S, Gkioulidou M., Ukhorskiy A., Mitchell D G, et al.
Title: Response of Different Ion Species to Local Magnetic Dipolarization Inside Geosynchronous Orbit
Abstract: This paper examines how hydrogen, helium and oxygen (H, He and O) ion fluxes at 1–1000 keV typically respond to local magnetic dipolarization inside geosynchronous orbit (GEO). We extracted 144 dipolarizations which occurred at magnetic inclination > 30° from the 2012–2016 tail seasons' observations of the Van Allen Probes spacecraft and then defined typical flux changes of these ion species by performing a superposed epoch analysis. On average, the dipolarization inside GEO is accompanied by a precursory transient decrease in the northward magnetic field component, transient impulsive enhancement in the westward electric field component, and decrease (increase) in the proton density (temperature). The coincident ion species experience an energy‐dependent flux change, consisting of . . .
Date: 06/2018 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025557 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025557
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Authors: Gkioulidou Matina, Ukhorskiy A., Mitchell D G, Sotirelis T., Mauk B., et al.
Title: The role of small-scale ion injections in the buildup of Earth's ring current pressure: Van Allen Probes observations of the March 17 th , 2013 storm
Abstract: Energetic particle transport into the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms is responsible for significant plasma pressure enhancement, which is the driver of large-scale currents that control the global electrodynamics within the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Therefore, understanding the transport of plasma from the tail deep into the near-Earth magnetosphere, as well as the energization processes associated with this transport, is essential for a comprehensive knowledge of the near-Earth space environment. During the main phase of a geomagnetic storm on March 17th 2013 (minimum Dst ~ −137 nT), the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on the Van Allen Probes observed frequent, small-scale proton injections deep into the inner nightsi. . .
Date: 09/2014 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020096 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020096
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Authors: Ukhorskiy A Y, Sitnov M I, Mitchell D G, Takahashi K, Lanzerotti L J, et al.
Title: Rotationally driven ‘zebra stripes’ in Earth’s inner radiation belt
Abstract: Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity1, 2, 3, 4. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn5, 6, 7, 8, 9, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth’s rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1–2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth’s inner radiation belt are organize. . .
Date: 01/2014 Publisher: Nature Pages: 338 - 340 DOI: 10.1038/nature13046 Available at: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature13046
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Authors: Mauk B H, Fox N J, Kanekal S G, Kessel R L, Sibeck D G, et al.
Title: Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission
Abstract: The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populations of high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments, and specifically within Earth’s magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominal launch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1×5.8 RE, 10∘). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales ranging from ∼0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fiel. . .
Date: 11/2013 Publisher: Space Science Reviews Pages: 3-27, DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9908-y Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11214-012-9908-y
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Authors: Min Kyungguk, Takahashi Kazue, Ukhorskiy Aleksandr Y., Manweiler Jerry W., Spence Harlan E., et al.
Title: Second harmonic poloidal waves observed by Van Allen Probes in the dusk-midnight sector
Abstract: This paper presents observations of ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves from Van Allen Probes. The event that generated the ULF waves occurred two days after a minor geomagnetic storm during a geomagnetically quiet time. Narrowband pulsations with a frequency of about 7 mHz with moderate amplitudes were registered in the pre-midnight sector when Probe A was passing through an enhanced density region near geosynchronous orbit. Probe B, which passed through the region earlier, did not detect the narrowband pulsations but only broadband noise. Despite the single-spacecraft measurements, we were able to determine various wave properties. We find that (1) the observed waves are a second harmonic poloidal mode propagating westward with an azimuthal wave number estimated to be ∼100; (2) the magneti. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023770 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023770/full
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Authors: Min Kyungguk, Takahashi Kazue, Ukhorskiy Aleksandr Y., Manweiler Jerry W., Spence Harlan E., et al.
Title: Second harmonic poloidal waves observed by Van Allen Probes in the dusk-midnight sector
Abstract: This paper presents observations of ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves from Van Allen Probes. The event that generated the ULF waves occurred 2 days after a minor geomagnetic storm during a geomagnetically quiet time. Narrowband pulsations with a frequency of about 7 mHz with moderate amplitudes were registered in the premidnight sector when Probe A was passing through an enhanced density region near geosynchronous orbit. Probe B, which passed through the region earlier, did not detect the narrowband pulsations but only broadband noise. Despite the single-spacecraft measurements, we were able to determine various wave properties. We find that (1) the observed waves are a second harmonic poloidal mode propagating westward with an azimuthal wave number estimated to be ∼100; (2) the magnetic fi. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 3013-3-39 DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023770 Available at: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023770/full
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Authors: Aseev N. A., Shprits Y Y, Drozdov A. Y., Kellerman A. C., Usanova M. E., et al.
Title: Signatures of Ultrarelativistic Electron Loss in the Heart of the Outer Radiation Belt Measured by Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Up until recently, signatures of the ultrarelativistic electron loss driven by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the Earth's outer radiation belt have been limited to direct or indirect measurements of electron precipitation or the narrowing of normalized pitch angle distributions in the heart of the belt. In this study, we demonstrate additional observational evidence of ultrarelativistic electron loss that can be driven by resonant interaction with EMIC waves. We analyzed the profiles derived from Van Allen Probe particle data as a function of time and three adiabatic invariants between 9 October and 29 November 2012. New local minimums in the profiles are accompanied by the narrowing of normalized pitch angle distributions and ground-based detection of EMIC waves. Such a cor. . .
Date: 09/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024485 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024485/full
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Authors: Desorgher L, ühler P, Zehnder A, and ückiger E O
Title: Simulation of the outer radiation belt electron flux decrease during the March 26, 1995, magnetic storm
Abstract: In this paper we study the variation of the relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth's outer radiation belt during the March 26, 1995, magnetic storm. Using observations by the radiation environment monitor (REM) on board the space technology research vehicle (STRV-Ib), we discuss the flux decrease and possible loss of relativistic electrons during the storm main phase. In order to explain the observations we have performed fully adiabatic and guiding center simulations for relativistic equatorial electrons in the nonstationary Tsygarienko96 magnetospheric magnetic field model. In our simulations the drift of electrons through the magnetopause was considered as a loss process. We present our model results and discuss their dependence on the magnetospheric magnetic and electric field model. . .
Date: 09/2000 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 21211 DOI: 10.1029/2000JA900060 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2000JA900060/full
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Authors: Desorgher L, ühler P, Zehnder A, and ückiger E O
Title: Simulation of the outer radiation belt electron flux decrease during the March 26, 1995, magnetic storm
Abstract: In this paper we study the variation of the relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth's outer radiation belt during the March 26, 1995, magnetic storm. Using observations by the radiation environment monitor (REM) on board the space technology research vehicle (STRV-Ib), we discuss the flux decrease and possible loss of relativistic electrons during the storm main phase. In order to explain the observations we have performed fully adiabatic and guiding center simulations for relativistic equatorial electrons in the nonstationary Tsygarienko96 magnetospheric magnetic field model. In our simulations the drift of electrons through the magnetopause was considered as a loss process. We present our model results and discuss their dependence on the magnetospheric magnetic and electric field model. . .
Date: 09/2000 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research Pages: 21211 DOI: 10.1029/2000JA900060 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2000JA900060/full
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Authors: Brito T, Hudson M K, Kress B., Paral J., Halford A., et al.
Title: Simulation of ULF wave modulated radiation belt electron precipitation during the 17 March 2013 storm
Abstract: Balloon-borne instruments detecting radiation belt precipitation frequently observe oscillations in the mHz frequency range. Balloons measuring electron precipitation near the poles in the 100 keV to 2.5 MeV energy range, including the MAXIS, MINIS, and most recently the BARREL balloon experiments, have observed this modulation at ULF wave frequencies [e.g. Foat et al., 1998; Millan et al., 2002; Millan, 2011]. Although ULF waves in the magnetosphere are seldom directly linked to increases in electron precipitation since their oscillation periods are much larger than the gyroperiod and the bounce period of radiation belt electrons, test particle simulations show that this interaction is possible [Brito et al., 2012]. 3D simulations of radiation belt electrons were performed to investigate . . .
Date: 03/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020838 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020838
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Authors: Lee Jongkil, Kim Kyung-Chan, Giuseppe Romeo, Ukhorskiy Sasha, Sibeck David, et al.
Title: Space Weather Operation at KASI with Van Allen Probes Beacon Signals
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes (VAPs) are the only modern NASA spacecraft broadcasting real-time data on the Earth's radiation belts for space weather operations. Since 2012, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has contributed to the receipt of this data via a 7-m satellite tracking antenna and used these data for space weather operations. An approximately 15-min period is required from measurement to acquisition of Level-1 data. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of VAP data for monitoring space weather conditions at geostationary orbit (GEO) by highlighting the Saint Patrick's Day storm of 2015. During that storm, Probe-A observed a significant increase in the relativistic electron flux at 3 RE. Those electrons diffused outward resulting in a large increase of the electron fl. . .
Date: 01/2018 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2017SW001726 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017SW001726/full
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Authors: Mann I. R., Usanova M. E., Murphy K., Robertson M. T., Milling D. K., et al.
Title: Spatial localization and ducting of EMIC waves: Van Allen Probes and ground-based observations
Abstract: On 11 October 2012, during the recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm, an extended interval (> 18 h) of continuous electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves was observed by Canadian Array for Real-time Investigations of Magnetic Activity and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Program induction coil magnetometers in North America. At around 14:15 UT, both Van Allen Probes B and A (65° magnetic longitude apart) in conjunction with the ground array observed very narrow (ΔL ~ 0.1–0.4) left-hand polarized EMIC emission confined to regions of mass density gradients at the outer edge of the plasmasphere at L ~ 4. EMIC waves were seen with complex polarization patterns on the ground, in good agreement with model results from Woodroffe and Lysak (2012) and consistent with Earth's . . .
Date: 02/2014 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 785 - 792 DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058581 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2013GL058581
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Authors: Gkioulidou Matina, Ohtani S, Mitchell D G, Ukhorskiy A., Reeves G D, et al.
Title: Spatial structure and temporal evolution of energetic particle injections in the inner magnetosphere during the 14 July 2013 substorm event.
Abstract: Recent results by the Van Allen Probes mission showed that the occurrence of energetic ion injections inside geosynchronous orbit could be very frequent throughout the main phase of a geomagnetic storm. Understanding, therefore, the formation and evolution of energetic particle injections is critical in order to quantify their effect in the inner magnetosphere. We present a case study of a substorm event that occurred during a weak storm (Dst ~ - 40 nT) on 14 July 2013. Van Allen Probe B, inside geosynchronous orbit, observed two energetic proton injections within ten minutes, with different dipolarization signatures and duration. The first one is a dispersionless, short timescale injection pulse accompanied by a sharp dipolarization signature, while the second one is a dispersed, longer t. . .
Date: 02/2015 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020872 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JA020872
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Authors: Wang Hui, He Yangfan, ühr Hermann, Kistler Lynn, Saikin Anthony, et al.
Title: Storm Time EMIC Waves Observed by Swarm and Van Allen Probe Satellites
Abstract: The temporal and spatial evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves during the magnetic storm of 21–29 June 2015 was investigated using high‐resolution magnetic field observations from Swarm constellation in the ionosphere and Van Allen Probes in the magnetosphere. Magnetospheric EMIC waves had a maximum occurrence frequency in the afternoon sector and shifted equatorward during the expansion phase and poleward during the recovery phase. However, ionospheric waves in subauroral regions occurred more frequently in the nighttime than during the day and exhibited less obvious latitudinal movements. During the main phase, dayside EMIC waves occurred in both the ionosphere and magnetosphere in response to the dramatic increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure. Waves were abse. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 293 - 312 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026299 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA026299
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Authors: Ukhorskiy A Y, Anderson B J, Brandt P C, and Tsyganenko N A
Title: Storm time evolution of the outer radiation belt: Transport and losses
Abstract: During geomagnetic storms the magnetic field of the inner magnetosphere exhibits large-scale variations over timescales from minutes to days. Being mainly controlled by the magnetic field the motion of relativistic electrons of the outer radiation belt can be highly susceptible to its variations. This paper investigates evolution of the outer belt during the 7 September 2002 storm. Evolution of electron phase space density is calculated with the use of a test-particle simulation in storm time magnetic and electric fields. The results show that storm time intensification of the ring current produces a large impact on the belt. In contrast to the conventional Dst effect the dominant effects are nonadiabatic and lead to profound and irreversible transformations of the belt. The diamagnetic in. . .
Date: 11/2006 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011690 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2006JA011690/abstract
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Authors: Gkioulidou Matina, Ukhorskiy A., Mitchell D G, and Lanzerotti L J
Title: Storm-time dynamics of ring current protons: Implications for the long-term energy budget in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Our investigation of the long-term ring current proton pressure evolution in Earth's inner magnetosphere based on Van Allen Probes data shows drastically different behavior of the low- and high- energy components of the ring current proton population with respect to the Sym-H index variation. We found that while the low-energy component of the protons (<80 keV) is strongly governed by convective timescales and is very well correlated with the absolute value of Sym-H index, the high-energy component (>100 keV) varies on much longer timescales and shows either no or anti-correlation with the absolute value of Sym-H index. Our study also shows that the contributions of the low- and high- energy protons to the inner magnetosphere energy content are comparable. Thus, our results conclusivel. . .
Date: 03/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: n/a - n/a DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068013 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL068013http://api.wiley.com/onlinelibrary/tdm/v1/articles/10.1002%2F2016GL068013
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Authors: Gkioulidou Matina, Ukhorskiy A., Mitchell D G, and Lanzerotti L J
Title: Storm-time dynamics of ring current protons: Implications for the long-term energy budget in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Our investigation of the long-term ring current proton pressure evolution in Earth's inner magnetosphere based on Van Allen Probes data shows drastically different behavior of the low- and high- energy components of the ring current proton population with respect to theSYM-H index variation. We found that while the low-energy component of the protons (<80 keV) is strongly governed by convective timescales and is very well correlated with the absolute value of SYM-H index, the high-energy component (>100 keV) varies on much longer timescales and shows either no correlation or anticorrelation with the absolute value of SYM-H index. Our study also shows that the contributions of the low- and high- energy protons to the inner magnetosphere energy content are comparable. Thus, our results c. . .
Date: 05/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: n/a - n/a DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068013 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL068013
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Authors: Shprits Yuri Y, Subbotin Dmitriy, Drozdov Alexander, Usanova Maria E., Kellerman Adam, et al.
Title: Unusual stable trapping of the ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Radiation in space was the first discovery of the space age. Earth’s radiation belts consist of energetic particles that are trapped by the geomagnetic field and encircle the planet1. The electron radiation belts usually form a two-zone structure with a stable inner zone and a highly variable outer zone, which forms and disappears owing to wave–particle interactions on the timescale of a day, and is strongly influenced by the very-low-frequency plasma waves. Recent observations revealed a third radiation zone at ultrarelativistic energies2, with the additional medium narrow belt (long-lived ring) persisting for approximately 4 weeks. This new ring resulted from a combination of electron losses to the interplanetary medium and scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves to the Ear. . .
Date: 11/2013 Publisher: Nature Physics Pages: 699 - 703 DOI: 10.1038/nphys2760 Available at: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nphys2760
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Authors: Usanova M. E., Malaspina D. M., Jaynes A. N., Bruder R. J., Mann I. R., et al.
Title: Van Allen Probes observations of oxygen cyclotron harmonic waves in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Waves with frequencies in the vicinity of the oxygen cyclotron frequency and its harmonics have been regularly observed on the Van Allen Probes satellites during geomagnetic storms. We focus on properties of these waves and present events from the main phase of two storms on 1 November 2012 and 17 March 2013 and associated dropouts of a few MeV electron fluxes. They are electromagnetic, in the frequency range ~0.5 to several Hz, and amplitude ~0.1 to a few nT in magnetic and ~0.1 to a few mV/m in electric field, with both the wave velocity and the Poynting vector directed almost parallel to the background magnetic field. These properties are very similar to those of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, which are believed to contribute to loss of ring current ions and radiation belt electro. . .
Date: 09/2016 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 8827 - 8834 DOI: 10.1002/grl.v43.1710.1002/2016GL070233 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL070233/abstract
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