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Authors: Liu Nigang, Su Zhenpeng, Gao Zhonglei, Zheng Huinan, Wang Yuming, et al.
Title: Comprehensive Observations of Substorm‐Enhanced Plasmaspheric Hiss Generation, Propagation, and Dissipation
Abstract: Plasmaspheric hiss is an important whistler‐mode emission shaping the Van Allen radiation belt environment. How the plasmaspheric hiss waves are generated, propagate, and dissipate remains under intense debate. With the five spacecraft of Van Allen Probes, Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (Arase), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites missions at widely spaced locations, we present here the first comprehensive observations of hiss waves growing from the substorm‐injected electron instability, spreading within the plasmasphere, and dissipating over a large spatial scale. During substorms, hot electrons were injected energy‐dispersively into the plasmasphere near the dawnside and, probably through a combination of linear and nonlinear cyclotron res. . .
Date: 01/2020 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086040 Available at:
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Authors: Jahn J.‐M., Goldstein J, Kurth W.S., Thaller S., De Pascuale S., et al.
Title: Determining plasmaspheric density from the upper hybrid resonance and from the spacecraft potential: How do they compare?
Abstract: The plasmasphere is a critical region of the magnetosphere. It is important for the evolution of Earth's radiation belts. Waves in the plasmasphere interior (hiss) and vicinity (EMIC, chorus) help control the acceleration and loss of radiation belt particles. Thus, understanding the extent, structure, content, and dynamics of the plasmasphere is crucial to understanding radiation belt losses. The Van Allen Probes mission uses two methods to determine the total plasma density. First, the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) frequency can provide electron density; this determination is the most accurate and robust. However, it requires significant analysis and is challenging during geomagnetically active times: it becomes difficult to interpret the wave spectrum, and the amount of available data is . . .
Date: 01/2020 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026860 Available at:
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Authors: Zhu Hui, Chen Lunjin, Claudepierre Seth G., and Zheng Liheng
Title: Direct evidence of the pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons induced by EMIC waves
Abstract: In this study, we analyze an EMIC wave event of rising tone elements recorded by the Van Allen Probes. The pitch angle distributions of relativistic electrons exhibit a direct response to the two elements of EMIC waves: at the intermediate pitch angle the fluxes are lower and at the low pitch angle the fluxes are higher than those when no EMIC was observed. In particular, the observed changes in the pitch angle distributions are most likely to be caused by nonlinear wave particle interaction. The calculation of the minimum resonant energy and a test particle simulation based on the observed EMIC waves support the role of the nonlinear wave‐particle interaction in the pitch angle scattering. This study provides direct evidence for the nonlinear pitch angle scattering of electrons by EMIC . . .
Date: 01/2020 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL085637 Available at:
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Authors: Yue Chao, Bortnik Jacob, Zou Shasha, Nishimura Yukitoshi, Foster John C., et al.
Title: Episodic Occurrence of Field‐Aligned Energetic Ions on the Dayside
Abstract: The tens of kiloelectron volt ions observed in the ring current region at L ~ 3–7 generally have pancake pitch angle distributions, that is, peaked at 90°. However, in this study, by using the Van Allen Probe observations on the dayside, unexpectedly, we have found that about 5% time, protons with energies of ~30 to 50 keV show two distinct populations, having an additional field‐aligned population overlapping with the original pancake population. The newly appearing field‐aligned populations have higher occurrence rates at ~12–16 magnetic local time during geomagnetically active times. In particular, we have studied eight such events in detail and found that the source regions are located around 12 to 18 magnetic local time which coincides with our statistical result. Based on th. . .
Date: 01/2020 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086384 Available at:
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Authors: Zhao H., Baker D.N., Li X, Malaspina D.M., Jaynes A.N., et al.
Title: On the Acceleration Mechanism of Ultrarelativistic Electrons in the Center of the Outer Radiation Belt: A Statistical Study
Abstract: Using energetic particle and wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), the acceleration mechanism of ultrarelativistic electrons (>3 MeV) in the center of the outer radiation belt is investigated statistically. A superposed epoch analysis is conducted using 19 storms, which caused flux enhancements of 1.8–7.7 MeV electrons. The evolution of electron phase space density radial profile suggests an energy‐dependent acceleration of ultrarelativistic electrons in the outer belt. Especially, for electrons with very high energies (~7 MeV), prevalent positive phase space density radial gradients support inward radial diffusion being responsible for electron acceleration in the cente. . .
Date: 10/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027111 Available at:
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Authors: Chen Huayue, Gao Xinliang, Lu Quanming, and Wang Shui
Title: Analyzing EMIC Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere Using Long‐Term Van Allen Probes Observations
Abstract: With 64‐month magnetic data from Van Allen Probes, we have studied not only the global distribution, wave normal angle (θ), and ellipticity (ε) of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, but also the dependence of their occurrence rates and magnetic amplitudes on the AE* index (the mean value of AE index over previous 1 hr). Our results show that H+ band waves are preferentially detected at 5 ≤ L ≤ 6.5, in the noon sector. They typically have small θ (<30°) and weakly left‐hand polarization but become more oblique and linearly polarized at larger magnetic latitudes or L‐shells. With the increase of AE* index, their occurrence rate significantly increases in the noon sector, and their source region extends to dusk sector. He+ band waves usually occur in the predawn and mor. . .
Date: 08/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7402 - 7412 DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026965 Available at:
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Authors: Yuan Zhigang, Yao Fei, Yu Xiongdong, Huang Shiyong, and Ouyang Zhihai
Title: An Automatic Detection Algorithm Applied to Fast Magnetosonic Waves With Observations of the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves can play an important role in the evolution of the inner magnetosphere. However, there is still not an effective method to quantitatively identify such waves for observations of the Van Allen Probes reasonably. In this paper, we used Van Allen Probes data from 18 September 2012 to 30 September 2014 to find a more comprehensive automatic detection algorithm for fast MS waves through statistical analysis of the major properties, including the planarity, ellipticity, and wave normal angle of whole fluctuations using the singular value decomposition method. According to a control variate method, we find an obvious difference between fast MS waves and other waves in the statistical distribution of their major properties. After eliminating the influence of background. . .
Date: Apr-05-2021 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026387 Available at:
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Authors: Teng Shangchun, Li Wen, Tao Xin, Ma Qianli, and Shen Xiaochen
Title: Characteristics and Generation of Low‐Frequency Magnetosonic Waves Below the Proton Gyrofrequency
Abstract: We report a Van Allen Probes observation of large‐amplitude magnetosonic waves with the peak intensity below the proton gyrofrequency (fcp), which may potentially be misinterpreted as electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The frequency spacing of the wave harmonic structure suggests that these magnetosonic waves are excited at a distant source region and propagate radially inward. We also conduct a statistical analysis of low‐frequency magnetosonic waves below fcp based on the Van Allen Probes data from October 2012 to December 2018. The spatial distribution shows that these low‐frequency magnetosonic emissions are dominantly observed inside the plasmasphere from the prenoon to the midnight sector within 5° of the geomagnetic equator and typically have modest‐to‐strong wave ampli. . .
Date: 10/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 11652 - 11660 DOI: 10.1029/2019GL085372 Available at:
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Authors: Xu Jiyao, He Zhaohai, Baker D.N., Roth Ilan, Wang C., et al.
Title: Characteristics of high energy proton responses to geomagnetic activities in the inner radiation belt observed by the RBSP satellite
Abstract: High energy trapped particles in the radiation belts constitute potential threats to the functionality of satellites as they enter into those regions. In the inner radiation belt, the characteristics of high‐energy (>20MeV) protons variations during geomagnetic activity times have been studied by implementing four‐year (2013‐2016) observations of the Van Allen probes. An empirical formula has been used to remove the satellite orbit effect, by which proton fluxes have been normalized to the geomagnetic equator. Case studies show that the region of L<1.7 is relatively stable, while L>1.7 is more dynamic and the most significant variation of proton fluxes occurs at L=2.0. The four‐year survey at L=2.0 indicates that for every geomagnetic storm, sharp descent in proton fluxes is accomp. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026205 Available at:
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Authors: Zhao H., Johnston W.R., Baker D.N., Li X, Ni B, et al.
Title: Characterization and Evolution of Radiation Belt Electron Energy Spectra Based on the Van Allen Probes Measurements
Abstract: Based on the measurements of ~100‐keV to 10‐MeV electrons from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) on the Van Allen Probes, the radiation belt electron energy spectra characterization and evolution have been investigated systematically. The results show that the majority of radiation belt electron energy spectra can be represented by one of three types of distributions: exponential, power law, and bump‐on‐tail (BOT). The exponential spectra are generally dominant in the outer radiation belt outside the plasmasphere, power law spectra usually appear at high L‐shells during injections of lower‐energy electrons, and BOT spectra commonly dominate inside the plasmasphere at L>2.5 during relatively quiet times. The. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026697 Available at:
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Authors: Ren Jie, Zong Q. G., Zhou X. Z., Spence H E, Funsten H O, et al.
Title: Cold Plasmaspheric Electrons Affected by ULF Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere: A Van Allen Probes Statistical Study
Abstract: Six years of Van Allen Probes data are used to investigate cold plasmaspheric electrons affected by ultralow‐frequency (ULF) waves in the inner magnetosphere (L<7) including spatial distributions, occurrence conditions, and resonant energy range. Events exhibit a global distribution within L= 4–7 but preferentially occur at L∼5.5–7 in the dayside, while there is higher occurrence rate in the duskside than dawnside. They can occur under different geomagnetic activities and solar wind velocities (VS), but the occurrence rates are increasing with larger AE, |SYMH|, and VS. These features are closely associated with the generation and propagation of ULF waves in Pc4 (45–150 s) and Pc5 (150–600 s) bands. Combined with electron observations from HOPE instrument, the resonant energies. . .
Date: 10/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7954 - 7965 DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027009 Available at:
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Authors: Ferradas C. P., Jordanova V K, Reeves G D, and Larsen B A
Title: Comparison of Electron Loss Models in the Inner Magnetosphere During the 2013 St. Patrick's Day Geomagnetic Storm
Abstract: Electrons with energies in the keV range play an important role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Therefore, accurately modeling electron fluxes in this region is of great interest. However, these calculations constitute a challenging task since the lifetimes of electrons that are available have limitations. In this study, we simulate electron fluxes in the energy range of 20 eV to 100 keV to assess how well different electron loss models can account for the observed electron fluxes during the Geospace Environment Modelling Challenge Event of the 2013 St. Patrick's Day storm. Three models (Case 1, Case 2, and Case 3) of electron lifetimes due to wave‐induced pitch angle scattering are used to compute the fluxes, which are compared with measurements from the Van Allen Probes. Th. . .
Date: 09/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 7872 - 7888 DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026649 Available at:
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Authors: Baker D.N., Zhao H., Li X, Kanekal S.G., Jaynes A.N., et al.
Title: Comparison of Van Allen Probes Energetic Electron Data with Corresponding GOES‐15 Measurements: 2012‐2018
Abstract: Electron fluxes (especially at energies E > 0.8 and >2 MeV) have been measured for many years by sensors on board the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These long‐term data (nominally at L~6.6) have become a mainstay for monitoring the Earth's radiation environment. We have carried out a study directly comparing the comprehensive radiation belt particle measurements from the NASA dual‐spacecraft Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) sensor systems with selected GOES operational data. The Van Allen Probes have measured the properties of radiation belt electrons virtually continuously from September 2012 through 2018. We make statistical comparisons of Van Allen Probes electron data near L=6 with concurrent daily averages of equivalent GOES‐15 flux . . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027331 Available at:
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Authors: Mager Olga V., Chelpanov Maksim A., Mager Pavel N., Klimushkin Dmitri Yu., and Berngardt Oleg I.
Title: Conjugate Ionosphere‐Magnetosphere Observations of a Sub‐Alfvénic Compressional Intermediate‐ m Wave: A Case Study Using EKB Radar and Van Allen Probes
Abstract: A Pc5 wave was simultaneously observed in the ionosphere by EKB radar and in the magnetosphere by both Van Allen Probe spacecraft within a substorm activity. The wave was located in the nightside, in 1.5‐ to 3‐hr magnetic local time sector, and in the region corresponding to the magnetic shells with maximal distances 4.6–7.8 Earth's radii. As it was found using both the radar and spacecraft data, the wave had frequency of about 1.8 mHz and azimuthal wave number m≈−10; that is, the wave was westward propagating. The EKB radar data revealed the equatorward wave propagating in the ionosphere, which corresponded to the earthward propagation in the magnetosphere. Furthermore, the field‐aligned magnetic component was approximately 2 times larger than both transverse components and ac. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026541 Available at:
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Authors: Da Silva L. A., Sibeck D., Alves L. R., Souza V. M., Jauer P. R., et al.
Title: Contribution of ULF wave activity to the global recovery of the outer radiation belt during the passage of a high-speed solar wind stream observed in September 2014
Abstract: Energy coupling between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere can affect the electron population in the outer radiation belt. However, the precise role of different internal and external mechanisms that leads to changes of the relativistic electron population is not entirely known. This paper describes how Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) wave activity during the passage of Alfvénic solar wind streams contributes to the global recovery of the relativistic electron population in the outer radiation belt. To investigate the contribution of the ULF waves, we searched the Van Allen Probes data for a period in which we can clearly distinguish the enhancement of electron fluxes from the background. We found that the global recovery that started on September 22, 2014, which coincides with the co. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026184 Available at:
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Authors: Omura Yoshiharu, Hsieh Yi‐Kai, Foster John C., Erickson Philip J., Kletzing Craig A., et al.
Title: Cyclotron Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons Through Landau Resonance With Obliquely Propagating Whistler‐Mode Chorus Emissions
Abstract: Efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons at Landau resonance with obliquely propagating whistler‐mode chorus emissions is confirmed by theory, simulation, and observation. The acceleration is due to the perpendicular component of the wave electric field. We first review theoretical analysis of nonlinear motion of resonant electrons interacting with obliquely propagating whistler‐mode chorus. We have derived formulae of inhomogeneity factors for Landau and cyclotron resonances to analyze nonlinear wave trapping of energetic electrons by an obliquely propagating chorus element. We performed test particle simulations to confirm that nonlinear wave trapping by both Landau and cyclotron resonances can take place for a wide range of energies. For an element of large amplitude chorus . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026374 Available at:
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Authors: Pinto V. A., Mourenas D., Bortnik J, Zhang X.‐J., Artemyev A. V., et al.
Title: Decay of Ultrarelativistic Remnant Belt Electrons Through Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss
Abstract: Ultrarelativistic electron remnant belts appear frequently following geomagnetic disturbances and are located in‐between the inner radiation belt and a reforming outer belt. As remnant belts are relatively stable, here we explore the importance of hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in controlling the observed decay rates of remnant belt ultrarelativistic electrons in a statistical way. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes inside the plasmasphere for 25 remnant belt events that occurred between 2012 and 2017 and that are located in the region 2.9Date: Dec-07-2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026509 Available at:
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Authors: Chen Margaret W., Lemon Colby L., Hecht James, Sazykin Stanislav, Wolf Richard A., et al.
Title: Diffuse Auroral Electron and Ion Precipitation Effects on RCM‐E Comparisons with Satellite Data During the March 17, 2013 Storm
Abstract: Effects of scattering of electrons from whistler chorus waves and of ions due to field line curvature on diffuse precipitating particle fluxes and ionospheric conductance during the large 17 March 2013 storm are examined using the self‐consistent Rice Convection Model Equilibrium (RCM‐E) model. Electrons are found to dominate the diffuse precipitating particle integrated energy flux, with large fluxes from ~21:00 magnetic local time (MLT) eastward to ~11:00 MLT during the storm main phase. Simulated proton and oxygen ion precipitation due to field line curvature scattering is sporadic and localized, occurring where model magnetic field lines are significantly stretched on the night side at equatorial geocentric radial distances r0 ≳8 RE and/or at r0 ~5.5 to 6.5 RE from dusk to midnig. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026545 Available at:
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Authors: Capannolo L., Li W, Ma Q, Chen L, Shen X.‐C., et al.
Title: Direct Observation of Subrelativistic Electron Precipitation Potentially Driven by EMIC Waves
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are known to typically cause electron losses into Earth's upper atmosphere at >~1 MeV, while the minimum energy of electrons subject to efficient EMIC‐driven precipitation loss is unresolved. This letter reports electron precipitation from subrelativistic energies of ~250 keV up to ~1 MeV observed by the Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range and Dynamics (FIREBIRD‐II) CubeSats, while two Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) observed proton precipitation nearby. Van Allen Probe A detected EMIC waves (~0.7–2.0 nT) over the similar L shell extent of electron precipitation observed by FIREBIRD‐II, albeit with a ~1.6 magnetic local time (MLT) difference. Although plasmaspheric hiss and magnetosonic . . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084202 Available at:
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Authors: Shprits Yuri Y, Horne Richard B, Kellerman Adam C., and Drozdov Alexander Y.
Title: The dynamics of Van Allen belts revisited
Abstract: N/A
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Nature Physics Pages: 102 - 103 DOI: 10.1038/nphys4350 Available at:
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Authors: Li W, and Hudson M.K.
Title: Earth's Van Allen Radiation Belts: From Discovery to the Van Allen Probes Era
Abstract: Discovery of the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts by instruments flown on Explorer 1 in 1958 was the first major discovery of the Space Age. The observation of distinct inner and outer zones of trapped megaelectron volt (MeV) particles, primarily protons at low altitude and electrons at high altitude, led to early models for source and loss mechanisms including Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay for inner zone protons, radial diffusion for outer zone electrons and loss to the atmosphere due to pitch angle scattering. This scattering lowers the mirror altitude for particles in their bounce motion parallel to the Earth's magnetic field until they suffer collisional loss. A view of the belts as quasi‐static inner and outer zones of energetic particles with different sources was modified by ob. . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025940 Available at:
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Authors: Yamamoto K., Nosé M., Keika K, Hartley D.P., Smith C.W., et al.
Title: Eastward Propagating Second Harmonic Poloidal Waves Triggered by Temporary Outward Gradient of Proton Phase Space Density: Van Allen Probe A Observation
Abstract: Two wave packets of second harmonic poloidal Pc 4 waves with a wave frequency of ~7 mHz were detected by Van Allen Probe A at a radial distance of ~5.8 RE and magnetic local time of 13 hr near the magnetic equator, where plasmaspheric refilling was in progress. Proton butterfly distributions with energy dispersions were also measured at the same time; the proton fluxes at 10‐30 keV oscillated with the same frequency as the Pc 4 waves. Using the ion sounding technique, we find that the Pc 4 waves propagated eastward with an azimuthal wave number (m number) of ~220 and ~260 for each wave packet, respectively. Such eastward propagating high‐m (m > 100) waves were seldom reported in previous studies. The condition of drift‐bounce resonance is well satisfied for the estimated m numbers in. . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027158 Available at:
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Authors: Yu J., Li L. Y., Cui J., Cao J. B., and Wang J.
Title: Effect of Low‐Harmonic Magnetosonic Waves on the Radiation Belt Electrons Inside the Plasmasphere
Abstract: In this paper, we presented two observational cases and simulations to indicate the relationship between the formation of butterfly‐like electron pitch angle distributions and the emission of low‐harmonic (LH) fast magnetosonic (MS) waves inside the high‐density plasmasphere. In the wave emission region, the pitch angle of relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons becomes obvious butterfly‐like distributions for both events (near‐equatorially mirroring electrons are transported to lower pitch angles). Unlike relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons, energetic electrons (<1 MeV) change slightly, except that relatively low‐energy electrons (<~150 keV) show butterfly‐like distributions in the 21 August 2013 event. In theory, the LH MS waves can affect different‐energy electrons through the bounc. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026328 Available at:
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Authors: Menz A.M., Kistler L.M., Mouikis C.G., Spence H.E., and Henderson M.G.
Title: Effects of a Realistic O + Source on Modeling the Ring Current
Abstract: We use the UNH‐IMEF electric field model to simulate the convection of O+ from the near‐earth plasma sheet into the ring current during the March 17, 2015 storm. Using Van Allen Probes data from the night side apogee, we reconstruct a realistic O+ source. Modeling this storm using the UNH‐IMEF electric field and a dipole magnetic field has previously been found to have good agreement. Using the realistic source along with drift times and charge exchange loss from these results, we model an inbound pass near the peak of the storm where O+ is increasingly dominant over H+. We find that the time‐varying realistic O+ source is necessary to reproduce the observed spectral features and the O+ pressure enhancements at low L‐shells, while our previous results showed that the H+ was able . . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026859 Available at:
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Authors: Zhao H., Baker D N, Li X, Jaynes A. N., and Kanekal S G
Title: The Effects of Geomagnetic Storms and Solar Wind Conditions on the Ultrarelativistic Electron Flux Enhancements
Abstract: Using data from the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope on the Van Allen Probes, the effects of geomagnetic storms and solar wind conditions on the ultrarelativistic electron (E > ~3 MeV) flux enhancements in the outer radiation belt, especially regarding their energy dependence, are investigated. It is showed that, statistically, more intense geomagnetic storms are indeed more likely to cause flux enhancements of ~1.8‐ to 7.7‐MeV electrons, though large variations exist. As the electron energy gets higher, the probability of flux enhancement gets lower. To shed light on which conditions of the storms are preferred to cause ultrarelativistic electron flux enhancement, detailed superposed epoch analyses of solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices during moderate and intense stor. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 1948 - 1965 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026257 Available at:
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Authors: Li L.Y., Yang S.S., Cao J.B., Yu J., Luo X.Y., et al.
Title: Effects of Solar Wind Plasma Flow and Interplanetary Magnetic Field on the Spatial Structure of Earth's Radiation Belts
Abstract: Based on the statistical data measured by Van Allen Probes from 2012 to 2016, we analyzed the effects of solar wind plasma flow and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the spatial distribution of Earth's radiation belt electrons (>100 keV). The statistical results indicate that the increases in solar wind plasma density and flow speed can exert different effects on the spatial structure of the radiation belts. The high solar wind plasma density (>6 cm−3)/flow pressure (>2.5 nPa) and a large southward IMF (Bz < −6 nT) usually appear in the front of high‐speed solar wind streams (> 450 km/s), and they tend to narrow the outer radiation belt but broaden the slot region. In contrast, the increase in solar wind flow speed can broaden the outer radiation belt but narrows the slot region. . .
Date: 12/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 10332 - 10344 DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027284 Available at:
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Authors: Menz A.M., Kistler L.M., Mouikis C.G., Matsui H., Spence H.E., et al.
Title: Efficacy of Electric Field Models in Reproducing Observed Ring Current Ion Spectra During Two Geomagnetic Storms
Abstract: We use the UNH‐IMEF, Weimer 1996, and Volland‐Stern electric field models along with a dipole magnetic field to calculate drift paths for particles that reach the Van Allen Probes' orbit for two inbound passes during two large geomagnetic storms. We compare the particle access in the models with the observed particle access using both realistic and enhanced solar wind model parameters. To test the accuracy of the drift paths, we estimate the H+ charge exchange loss along these drift paths. While increasing the strength of the model electric field drives particles further inward, improving agreement, energy‐dependent cutoffs in the spectra do not agree, indicating that potential patterns for highly disturbed times are inaccurate. While none of the mod. . .
Date: 09/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026683 Available at:
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Authors: Smirnov A. G., Kronberg E. A., Latallerie F., Daly P. W., Aseev N. A., et al.
Title: Electron intensity measurements by the Cluster/RAPID/IES instrument in Earth's radiation belts and ring current
Abstract: The Cluster mission, launched in 2000, has produced a large database of electron flux intensity measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere by the Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detector (RAPID)/ Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) instrument. However, due to background contamination of the data with high‐energy electrons (<400 keV) and inner‐zone protons (230‐630 keV) in the radiation belts and ring current, the data have been rarely used for inner‐magnetospheric science. The current paper presents two algorithms for background correction. The first algorithm is based on the empirical contamination percentages by both protons and electrons. The second algorithm uses simultaneous proton observations. The efficiencies of these algorithms are demonstrated by comparison of the . . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2018SW001989 Available at:
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Authors: Miyoshi Y, Matsuda S., Kurita S., Nomura K., Keika K, et al.
Title: EMIC waves converted from equatorial noise due to M/Q=2 ions in the plasmasphere: Observations from Van Allen Probes and Arase
Abstract: Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are observed inside and outside the plasmapause. EN emissions are referred to as magnetosonic mode waves. Using data from Van Allen Probes and Arase, we found conversion from EN emissions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the plasmasphere and in the topside ionosphere. A low frequency part of EN emissions becomes EMIC waves through branch splitting of EN emissions, and the mode conversion from EN to EMIC waves occurs around the frequency of M/Q=2 (deuteron and/or alpha particles) cyclotron frequency. These processes result in plasmaspheric EMIC waves. We investigated the ion composition ratio by characteristic frequencies of EN emissions and EMIC waves and obtained ion composition ratios. We found that the maximum composition ratio of M/Q=2 io. . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083024 Available at:
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Authors: Blum L.W., Artemyev A., Agapitov O., Mourenas D., Boardsen S., et al.
Title: EMIC Wave‐Driven Bounce Resonance Scattering of Energetic Electrons in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: While electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been long studied as a scattering mechanism for ultrarelativistic (megaelectron volt) electrons via cyclotron‐resonant interactions, these waves are also of the right frequency to resonate with the bounce motion of lower‐energy (approximately tens to hundreds of kiloelectron volts) electrons. Here we investigate the effectiveness of this bounce resonance interaction to better determine the effects of EMIC waves on subrelativistic electron populations in Earth's inner magnetosphere. Using wave and plasma parameters directly measured by the Van Allen Probes, we estimate bounce resonance diffusion coefficients for four different events, illustrative of wave and plasma parameters to be encountered in the inner magnetosphere. The range o. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026427 Available at:
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Authors: Andreeva V. A., and Tsyganenko N A
Title: Empirical Modeling of the Geomagnetosphere for SIR and CME‐Driven Magnetic Storms
Abstract: During geomagnetic disturbances, the solar wind arrives in the form of characteristic sequences lasting from tens of hours to days. The most important magnetic storm drivers are the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the slow‐fast stream interaction regions (SIRs). Previous data‐based magnetic field models did not distinguish between these types of the solar wind driving. In the present work we retained the basic structure of the Tsyganenko and Andreeva (2015) model but fitted it to data samples corresponding to (1) SIR‐driven storms, (2) CME‐driven storms preceded with a shock ahead of the CME, and (3) CME‐driven storms without such shocks. The storm time dynamics of the model current systems has been represented using the parametrization method developed by Tsyganenko and Sitnov. . .
Date: 07/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 5641 - 5662 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026008 Available at:
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Authors: Capannolo L., Li W, Ma Q, Shen X.‐C., Zhang X.‐J., et al.
Title: Energetic Electron Precipitation: Multievent Analysis of Its Spatial Extent During EMIC Wave Activity
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can drive precipitation of tens of keV protons and relativistic electrons, and are a potential candidate for causing radiation belt flux dropouts. In this study, we quantitatively analyze three cases of EMIC‐driven precipitation, which occurred near the dusk sector observed by multiple Low‐Earth‐Orbiting (LEO) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites/Meteorological Operational satellite programme (POES/MetOp) satellites. During EMIC wave activity, the proton precipitation occurred from few tens of keV up to hundreds of keV, while the electron precipitation was mainly at relativistic energies. We compare observations of electron precipitation with calculations using quasi‐linear theory. For all cases, we consider the effects of other magn. . .
Date: 03/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026291 Available at:
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Authors: Goldstein J, De Pascuale S., and Kurth W S
Title: Epoch‐Based Model for Stormtime Plasmapause Location
Abstract: The output of a plasmapause test particle (PTP) code is used to formulate a new epoch‐based plasmapause model. The PTP simulation is run for an ensemble of 60 storms spanning 3 September 2012 to 28 September 2017 and having peak Dst of −60 nT or less, yielding over 7 million model plasmapause locations. Events are automatically identified and epoch times calculated relative to the respective storm peaks. Epoch analysis of the simulated plasmapause is demonstrated to be an effective method to reveal the dynamical phases of plume formation and evolution. The plasmapause radius is found to be strongly correlated with positive solar wind electric field. The epoch‐binned PTP data are used to create the first analytical model of the plasmapause that explicitly includes plumes. We obtain th. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025996 Available at:
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Authors: Juhász Lilla, Omura Yoshiharu, Lichtenberger János, and Friedel Reinhard H.
Title: Evaluation of Plasma Properties From Chorus Waves Observed at the Generation Region
Abstract: In this study we present an inversion method which provides thermal plasma population parameters from characteristics of chorus emissions only. Our ultimate goal is to apply this method to ground‐based data in order to derive the lower‐energy boundary condition for many radiation belt models. The first step is to test the chorus inversion method on in situ data of the Van Allen Probes in the generation region. The density and thermal velocity of energetic electrons (few kiloelectron volts to 100 keV) are derived from frequency sweep rate and starting frequencies of chorus emissions through analysis of wave data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science on board the Van Allen Probes. The nonlinear wave growth theory of Omura and Nunn (2011, https://doi. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026337 Available at:
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Authors: Bingley L., Angelopoulos V, Sibeck D., Zhang X., and Halford A.
Title: The Evolution of a Pitch‐Angle “Bite‐Out” Scattering Signature Caused by EMIC Wave Activity: A Case Study
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are understood to be one of the dominant drivers of relativistic electron loss from Earth's radiation belts. Theory predicts that the associated gyroresonant wave‐particle interaction results in a distinct energy‐dependent “bite‐out” signature in the normalized flux distribution of electrons as they are scattered into the loss cone. We identify such signatures along with the responsible EMIC waves captured in situ by the Van Allen Probes on 15–16 February 2017. Using the cold plasma approximation, we predict the pitch‐angle cutoffs for the scattering signature for the captured EMIC wave and find it in good agreement with the observed electron bite‐out scattering signature. Employing the close conjunction between the Van Allen Probe. . .
Date: 06/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026292 Available at:
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Authors: Pandya Megha, Bhaskara Veenadhari, Ebihara Yusuke, Kanekal Shrikanth G, and Baker Daniel N
Title: Evolution of Pitch Angle‐Distributed Megaelectron Volt Electrons During Each Phase of the Geomagnetic Storm
Abstract: Using Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope measurements onboard Van Allen Probes, the evolution of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) during the different phases of magnetic storms is studied. Electron fluxes are sorted in terms of storm phase, urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0001 value, energy, and magnetic local time (MLT) sectors for 55 magnetic storms from October 2012 through May 2017. To understand the potential mechanisms for the evolution of electron PADs, we fit PADs to a sinusoidal function urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0002, where urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0003 is the equatorial pitch angle and n is a real number. The major inferences from our study are (i) at L urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-00045. . .
Date: 12/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027086 Available at:
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Authors: Yu Xiongdong, Yuan Zhigang, Huang Shiyong, Yao Fei, Qiao Zheng, et al.
Title: Excitation of extremely low-frequency chorus emissions: The role of background plasma density
Abstract: Low‐frequency chorus emissions have recently attracted much attention due to the suggestion that they may play important roles in the dynamics of the Van Allen Belts. However, the mechanism (s) generating these low‐frequency chorus emissions have not been well understood. . In this letter, we report an interesting case in which background plasma density lowered the lower cutoff frequency of chorus emissions from above 0.1 f ce (typical ordinary chorus) to 0.02 f ce (extremely low‐frequency chorus). Those extremely low‐frequency chorus waves were observed in a rather dense plasma, where the number density N e was found to be several times larger than has been associated with observations of ordinary chorus waves. For suprathermal electrons whose free energy is supplied by anisotropi. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Earth and Planetary Physics Pages: 1 - 7 DOI: 10.26464/epp2019001 Available at:
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Authors: Lotekar Ajay, Kakad Amar, and Kakad Bharati
Title: Formation of Asymmetric Electron Acoustic Double Layers in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes have observed both symmetric and asymmetric bipolar electric field structures in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. In general, the symmetric bipolar structures are identified as electron‐phase space holes, whereas the asymmetric structures are interpreted as electron acoustic double layers (EADLs). The generation mechanism of these EADLs is not entirely understood yet. We have modeled the EADLs observed on 13 November 2012 by Van Allen Probe‐B. We performed a fluid simulation of the EADLs and tracked their formation and evolution in the simulation. We found that the localized depletion and enhancement in the electron populations act as a perturbation to excite the symmetric bipolar electron acoustic solitary waves, which later evolve into the EADLs. The Ponderomotiv. . .
Date: 08/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 6896 - 6905 DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026303 Available at:
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Authors: Lessard Marc R., Paulson Kristoff, Spence Harlan E., Weaver Carol, Engebretson Mark J, et al.
Title: Generation of EMIC Waves and Effects on Particle Precipitation During a Solar Wind Pressure Intensification with B z >
Abstract: During geomagnetic storms, some fraction of the solar wind energy is coupled via reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, a process that requires a southward interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Through a complex sequence of events, some of this energy ultimately drives the generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which can then scatter energetic electrons and ions from the radiation belts. In the event described in this paper, the interplanetary magnetic field remained northward throughout the event, a condition unfavorable for solar wind energy coupling through low‐latitude reconnection. While this resulted in SYM/H remaining positive throughout the event (so this may not be considered a storm, in spite of the very high solar wind densities), pressure fluctuations were d. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026477 Available at:
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Authors: Stephens G. K., Sitnov M I, Korth H., Tsyganenko N A, Ohtani S, et al.
Title: Global Empirical Picture of Magnetospheric Substorms Inferred From Multimission Magnetometer Data
Abstract: Magnetospheric substorms represent key explosive processes in the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind, and their understanding and modeling are critical for space weather forecasting. During substorms, the magnetic field on the nightside is first stretched in the antisunward direction and then it rapidly contracts earthward bringing hot plasmas from the distant space regions into the inner magnetosphere, where they contribute to geomagnetic storms and Joule dissipation in the polar ionosphere, causing impressive splashes of aurora. Here we show for the first time that mining millions of spaceborne magnetometer data records from multiple missions allows one to reconstruct the global 3‐D picture of these stretching and dipolarization processes. Stretching results i. . .
Date: 01/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025843 Available at:
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Authors: Zhao Wanli, Liu Si, Zhang Sai, Zhou Qinghua, Yang Chang, et al.
Title: Global Occurrences of Auroral Kilometric Radiation Related to Suprathermal Electrons in Radiation Belts
Abstract: Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) can potentially produce serious damage to space‐borne systems by accelerating trapped radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Here we examine the global occurrences of AKR emissions in radiation belts based on Van Allen Probes observations from 1 October 2012 to 31 December 2016. The statistical results (1,848 events in total) show that AKR covers a broad region of L= 3–6.5 and 00–24 magnetic local time (MLT), with a higher occurrence on the nightside (20–24 MLT and 00–04 MLT) within L= 5–6.5. All the AKR events are observed to be accompanied with suprathermal (∼1 keV) electron flux enhancements. During active geomagnetic periods, both AKR occurrences and electron injections tend to be more distinct, and AKR emission extends to th. . .
Date: 07/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083944 Available at:
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Authors: Chen Yaru, Zhou Qinghua, He Yihua, Yang Chang, Liu Si, et al.
Title: Global occurrences of electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves associated with radiation belt electron distributions
Abstract: Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves can yield diffuse aurora primarily at higher L‐shells by driving efficient precipitation loss of plasma sheet electrons. Here using the Van Allen Probes high resolution data, we examine in detail the global occurrences of ECH waves during the period from October 1, 2012 to June 30, 2017 and find that there are totally 419 events of enhanced ECH waves. The statistical results demonstrate that ECH waves can be present over a broad region of L=4‐6 and 00‐24 MLT, with a higher occurrence in the region of L=5‐6 and 06‐19 MLT. The electron phase space density exhibits a distinct ring distribution (∂f/∂v⊥ >0) with the peak energy around a few keV. Both ECH wave events and the electron ring distributions are closely related and . . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082668 Available at:
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Authors: Ma Q, Li W, Bortnik J, Kletzing C A, Kurth W S, et al.
Title: Global Survey and Empirical Model of Fast Magnetosonic Waves Over Their Full Frequency Range in Earth's Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: We investigate the global distribution and provide empirical models of fast magnetosonic waves using the combined observations by the magnetometer and waveform receiver on board Van Allen Probes. The magnetometer measurements of magnetosonic waves indicate a significant wave power within the frequency range from the helium gyrofrequency to 20 Hz at L ≥ 4 in the afternoon sector, both inside and outside the plasmapause. The waveform receiver measurements indicate a significant wave power from 20 Hz to the lower hybrid resonance frequency at L ≤ 5.5 near the dayside outside the plasmapause or in the afternoon sector inside the plasmapause. The sum of the wave powers from the two instruments provides the wave power distribution over the complete frequency range. The most significant root. . .
Date: 12/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 10270 - 10282 DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027407 Available at:
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Authors: Khoo L.‐Y., Li X, Zhao H., Chu X., Xiang Z., et al.
Title: How Sudden, Intense Energetic Electron Enhancements Correlate With the Innermost Plasmapause Locations Under Various Solar Wind Drivers and Geomagnetic Conditions
Abstract: In this report, the relationship between innermost plasmapause locations (Lpp) and initial electron enhancements during both storm and nonstorm (Dst > −30 nT) periods are examined using data from the Van Allen Probes. The geomagnetic storms are classified into coronal mass ejection (CME)‐driven and corotating interaction region (CIR)‐driven storms to explore their influences on the initial electron enhancements, respectively. We also study nonstorm time electron enhancements and observe frequent, sudden (within two consecutive orbital passes) <400‐keV electron enhancements during quiet periods. Our analysis reveals an incredibly cohesive observation that holds regardless of electron energies (~30 keV–2.5 MeV) or geomagnetic conditions: the innermost Lpp is the innermost boundary . . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027412 Available at:
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Authors: Chu Xiangning, Malaspina David, Gallardo‐Lacourt Bea, Liang Jun, Andersson Laila, et al.
Title: Identifying STEVE's Magnetospheric Driver Using Conjugate Observations in the Magnetosphere and on the Ground
Abstract: The magnetospheric driver of strong thermal emission velocity enhancement (STEVE) is investigated using conjugate observations when Van Allen Probes' footprint directly crossed both STEVE and stable red aurora (SAR) arc. In the ionosphere, STEVE is associated with subauroral ion drift features, including electron temperature peak, density gradient, and westward ion flow. The SAR arc at lower latitudes corresponds to regions inside the plasmapause with isotropic plasma heating, which causes redline‐only SAR emission via heat conduction. STEVE corresponds to the sharp plasmapause boundary containing quasi‐static subauroral ion drift electric field and parallel‐accelerated electrons by kinetic Alfvén waves. These parallel electrons could precipitate and be accelerated via auroral accel. . .
Date: 11/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082789 Available at:
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Authors: Yu Yiqun, ätter Lutz, Jordanova Vania K., Zheng Yihua, Engel Miles, et al.
Title: Initial Results From the GEM Challenge on the Spacecraft Surface Charging Environment
Abstract: Spacecraft surface charging during geomagnetically disturbed times is one of the most important causes of satellite anomalies. Predicting the surface charging environment is one prevalent task of the geospace environment models. Therefore, the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Focus Group “Inner Magnetosphere Cross‐energy/Population Interactions” initiated a community‐wide challenge study to assess the capability of several inner magnetosphere ring current models in determining surface charging environment for the Van Allen Probes orbits during the 17 March 2013 storm event. The integrated electron flux between 10 and 50 keV is used as the metrics. Various skill scores are applied to quantitatively measure the modeling performance against observations. Results indicate that no mo. . .
Date: 02/2019 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1029/2018SW002031 Available at:
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Authors: Qin Murong, Hudson Mary, Li Zhao, Millan Robyn, Shen Xiaochen, et al.
Title: Investigating Loss of Relativistic Electrons Associated With EMIC Waves at Low L Values on 22 June 2015
Abstract: In this study, rapid loss of relativistic radiation belt electrons at low L* values (2.4–3.2) during a strong geomagnetic storm on 22 June 2015 is investigated along with five possible loss mechanisms. Both the particle and wave data are obtained from the Van Allen Probes. Duskside H+ band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed during a rapid decrease of relativistic electrons with energy above 5.2 MeV occurring outside the plasmasphere during extreme magnetopause compression. Lower He+ composition and enriched O+ composition are found compared to typical values assumed in other studies of cyclotron resonant scattering of relativistic electrons by EMIC waves. Quantitative analysis demonstrates that even with the existence of He+ band EMIC waves, it is the H+ band EMIC w. . .
Date: 05/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025726 Available at:
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Authors: Qin Murong, Hudson Mary, Kress Brian, Selesnick Richard, Engel Miles, et al.
Title: Investigation of Solar Proton Access into the inner magnetosphere on 11 September 2017
Abstract: In this study, access of solar energetic protons to the inner magnetosphere on 11 September 2017 is investigated by computing the reverse particle trajectories with the Dartmouth geomagnetic cutoff code [Kress et al., 2010]. The maximum and minimum cutoff rigidity at each point along the orbit of Van Allen Probe A is numerically computed by extending the code to calculate cutoff rigidity for particles coming from arbitrary direction. Pulse‐height analyzed (PHA) data has the advantage of providing individual particle energies and effectively excluding background high energy proton contamination. This technique is adopted to study the cutoff locations for solar protons with different energy. The results demonstrate that cutoff latitude is lower for solar protons with higher energy, consist. . .
Date: 04/2019 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026380 Available at:
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Authors: Ma Q, Li W, Yue C., Thorne R M, Bortnik J, et al.
Title: Ion Heating by Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves and Magnetosonic Waves in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and magnetosonic waves are commonly observed in the Earth's magnetosphere associated with enhanced ring current activity. Using wave and ion measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we identify clear correlations between the hydrogen‐ and helium‐band EMIC waves with the enhancement of trapped helium and oxygen ion fluxes, respectively. We calculate the diffusion coefficients of different ion species using quasi‐linear theory to understand the effects of resonant scattering by EMIC waves. Our calculations indicate that EMIC waves can cause pitch angle scattering loss of several keV to hundreds of keV ions, and heating of tens of eV to several keV helium and oxygen ions by hydrogen‐ and helium‐band EMIC waves, respectively. Moreover, we fou. . .
Date: 06/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 6258 - 6267 DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083513 Available at:
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Authors: Záhlava J., Němec F., Santolik O, Kolmašová I., Hospodarsky G B, et al.
Title: Lightning Contribution to Overall Whistler Mode Wave Intensities in the Plasmasphere
Abstract: Electromagnetic waves generated by lightning propagate into the plasmasphere as dispersed whistlers. They can therefore influence the overall wave intensity in space, which, in turn, is important for dynamics of the Van Allen radiation belts. We analyze spacecraft measurements in low‐Earth orbit as well as in high‐altitude equatorial region, together with a ground‐based estimate of lightning activity. We accumulate wave intensities when the spacecraft are magnetically connected to thunderstorms and compare them with measurements obtained when thunderstorms are absent. We show that strong lightning activity substantially affects the wave intensity in a wide range of L‐shells and altitudes. The effect is observed mainly between 500 Hz and 4 kHz, but its frequency range strongly varie. . .
Date: 07/2019 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 8607 - 8616 DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083918 Available at:
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