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2017
Authors: Xiao Fuliang, Liu Si, Tao Xin, Su Zhenpeng, Zhou Qinghua, et al.
Title: Generation of extremely low frequency chorus in Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that chorus can efficiently accelerate the outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Chorus, previously often observed above 0.1 equatorial electron gyrofrequency fce, was generated by energetic electrons originating from Earth's plasma sheet. Chorus below 0.1 fce has seldom been reported until the recent data from Van Allen Probes, but its origin has not been revealed so far. Because electron resonant energy can approach the relativistic level at extremely low frequency, relativistic effects should be considered in the formula for whistler mode wave growth rate. Here we report high-resolution observations during the 14 October 2014 small storm and firstly demonstrate, using a fully relativistic simulation, that electrons with the high-energy tail p. . .
Date: Jan-01-2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023561 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA023561
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Authors: Kim Kyung-Chan, and Shprits Yuri
Title: Dependence of the amplitude of magnetosonic waves on the solar wind and AE index using Van Allen Probes
Abstract: We present the dependence of the magnetosonic wave amplitudes both outside and inside the plasmapause on the solar wind and AE index using Van Allen Probe-A spacecraft during the time period of 1 October 2012 to 31 December 2015, based on a correlation and regression analysis. Solar wind parameters considered are the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF BS), solar wind number density (NSW), and bulk speed (VSW). We find that the wave amplitudes outside (inside) the plasmapause are well correlated with the preceding AE, IMF BS, and NSW with time delays, each corresponding to 2–3 h (3–4 h), 4–5 h (3–4 h), and 2–3 h (8–9 h), while the correlation with VSW is ambiguous both inside and outside the plasmapause. As measured by the correlation coefficient, the IMF BS is the mos. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024094 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA024094/full
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Authors: Vasko I. Y., Agapitov O. V., Mozer F S, Bonnell J. W., Artemyev A. V., et al.
Title: Electron-acoustic solitons and double layers in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes observe generally two types of electrostatic solitary waves (ESW) contributing to the broadband electrostatic wave activity in the nightside inner magnetosphere. ESW with symmetric bipolar parallel electric field are electron phase space holes. The nature of ESW with asymmetric bipolar (and almost unipolar) parallel electric field has remained puzzling. To address their nature, we consider a particular event observed by Van Allen Probes to argue that during the broadband wave activity electrons with energy above 200 eV provide the dominant contribution to the total electron density, while the density of cold electrons (below a few eV) is less than a few tenths of the total electron density. We show that velocities of the asymmetric ESW are close to velocity of electron. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074026 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL074026/full
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Authors: Oyama S., Kero A., Rodger C. J., Clilverd M A, Miyoshi Y, et al.
Title: Energetic electron precipitation and auroral morphology at the substorm recovery phase
Abstract: It is well known that auroral patterns at the substorm recovery phase are characterized by diffuse or patch structures with intensity pulsation. According to satellite measurements and simulation studies, the precipitating electrons associated with these aurorae can reach or exceed energies of a few hundreds of keV through resonant wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. However, because of difficulty of simultaneous measurements, the dependency of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) on auroral morphological changes in the mesoscale has not been investigated to date. In order to study this dependency, we have analyzed data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar, the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) riometer, collocated cameras, ground-based m. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023484 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023484/full
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Authors: Zhou Qinghua, Xiao Fuliang, Yang Chang, Liu Si, He Yihua, et al.
Title: Generation of lower and upper bands of electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves in the Van Allen radiation belts
Abstract: Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves generated by the electron loss cone distribution can produce efficient scattering loss of plasma sheet electrons, which has a significant effect on the dynamics in the outer magnetosphere. Here we report two ECH emission events around the same location L≈ 5.7–5.8, MLT ≈ 12 from Van Allen Probes on 11 February (event A) and 9 January 2014 (event B), respectively. The spectrum of ECH waves was centered at the lower half of the harmonic bands during event A, but the upper half during event B. The observed electron phase space density in both events is fitted by the subtracted bi-Maxwellian distribution, and the fitting functions are used to evaluate the local growth rates of ECH waves based on a linear theory for homogeneous plasmas.. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073051 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL073051/full
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Authors: Min Kyungguk, Denton Richard E, Liu Kaijun, Gary Peter, and Spence Harlan E.
Title: Ion Bernstein instability as a possible source for oxygen ion cyclotron harmonic waves
Abstract: This paper demonstrates that an ion Bernstein instability can be a possible source for recently reported electromagnetic waves with frequencies at or near the singly ionized oxygen ion cyclotron frequency, inline image, and its harmonics. The particle measurements during strong wave activity revealed a relatively high concentration of oxygen ions (∼15%) whose phase space density exhibits a local peak at energy ∼20 keV. Given that the electron plasma-to-cyclotron frequency ratio is inline image, this energy corresponds to the particle speed inline image, where vA is the oxygen Alfvén speed. Using the observational key plasma parameters, a simplified ion velocity distribution is constructed, where the local peak in the oxygen ion velocity distribution is represented by an isotropic s. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA023979 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA023979/full
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Authors: Tang C. L., Wang Y. X., Ni B, Zhang J.-C., Reeves G D, et al.
Title: Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study
Abstract: Using the particle data measured by Van Allen Probe A from October 2012 to March 2016, we investigate in detail the radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storms. The period of the storm recovery phase was limited to 72 h. The statistical study shows that geomagnetic storms and substorms play important roles in the radiation belt seed population (336 keV electrons) dynamics. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “large flux enhancement” and “small flux enhancement.” For large flux enhancement storm events, the correlation coefficients between the peak flux location of the seed population and those of relativistic electro. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2017JA023905 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JA023905/full
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Authors: Xiong Ying, Chen Lunjin, Xie Lun, Fu Suiyan, Xia Zhiyang, et al.
Title: Relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distribution modulated by localized background magnetic field perturbation driven by hot ring current ions
Abstract: Dayside modulated relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distributions (PADs) from ∼200 keV to 2.6 MeV were observed by Van Allen Probe B at L = 5.3 on 15 November 2013. They were associated with localized magnetic dip driven by hot ring current ion (60–100 keV proton and 60–200 keV helium and oxygen) injections. We reproduce the electron's butterfly PADs at satellite's location using test particle simulation. The simulation results illustrate that a negative radial flux gradient contributes primarily to the formation of the modulated electron's butterfly PADs through inward transport due to the inductive electric field, while deceleration due to the inductive electric field and pitch angle change also makes in part contribution. We suggest that localized magnetic field pertur. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL072558 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL072558/full
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Authors: Lanzerotti Louis J., and Baker Daniel N
Title: Space Weather Research: Earth's Radiation Belts
Abstract: Fundamental research on Earth's space radiation environment is essential for the design and the operations of modern technologies – for communications, weather, navigation, national security – that fly in the hostile space weather conditions above Earth's atmosphere. As the technologies become ever more advanced, more sophisticated understanding – and even predictability – of the environment is required for mission success
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Space Weather DOI: 10.1002/2017SW001654 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017SW001654/full
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Authors: Cho J.-H., Lee D.-Y., Noh S.-J., Kim H., Choi C. R., et al.
Title: Spatial dependence of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves triggered by solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements
Abstract: In this paper, using the multisatellite (the Van Allen Probes and two GOES satellites) observations in the inner magnetosphere, we examine two electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave events that are triggered by Pdyn enhancements under prolonged northward interplanetary magnetic field quiet time preconditions. For both events, the impact of enhanced Pdyn causes EMIC waves at multiple points. However, we find a strong spatial dependence that EMIC waves due to enhanced Pdyn impact can occur at multiple points (likely globally but not necessarily everywhere) but with different wave properties. For Event 1, three satellites situated at a nearly same dawnside zone but at slightly different L shells see occurrence of EMIC waves but in different frequencies relative to local ion gyrofrequencies. . .
Date: 05/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023827 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023827/full
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Authors: Crabtree Chris, Tejero Erik, Ganguli Gurudas, Hospodarsky George B., and Kletzing Craig A.
Title: Bayesian Spectral Analysis of Chorus Sub-Elements from the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: We develop a Bayesian spectral analysis technique that calculates the probability distribution functions of a superposition of wave-modes each described by a linear growth rate, a frequency and a chirp rate. The Bayesian framework has a number of advantages, including 1) reducing the parameter space by integrating over the amplitude and phase of the wave, 2) incorporating the data from each channel to determine the model parameters such as frequency which leads to high resolution results in frequency and time, 3) the ability to consider the superposition of waves where the wave-parameters are closely spaced, 4) the ability to directly calculate the expectation value of wave parameters without resorting to ensemble averages, 5) the ability to calculate error bars on model parameters. We exa. . .
Date: 04/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023547 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023547/full
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Authors: Le G., Chi P. J., Strangeway R J, Russell C. T., Slavin J. A., et al.
Title: Global observations of magnetospheric high- m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm
Abstract: We report global observations of high-m poloidal waves during the recovery phase of the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm from a constellation of widely spaced satellites of five missions including Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm (THEMIS), Cluster, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The combined observations demonstrate the global spatial extent of storm time poloidal waves. MMS observations confirm high azimuthal wave numbers (m ~ 100). Mode identification indicates the waves are associated with the second harmonic of field line resonances. The wave frequencies exhibit a decreasing trend as L increases, distinguishing them from the single-frequency global poloidal modes normally obs. . .
Date: 04/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073048 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL073048/full
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Authors: Wang Chih-Ping, Thorne Richard, Liu Terry Z., Hartinger Michael D., Nagai Tsugunobu, et al.
Title: A multi-spacecraft event study of Pc5 ultra low frequency waves in the magnetosphere and their external drivers
Abstract: We investigate a quiet-time event of magnetospheric Pc5 ultra low frequency (ULF) waves and their likely external drivers using multiple spacecraft observations. Enhancements of electric and magnetic field perturbations in two narrow frequency bands, 1.5-2 mHz and 3.5-4 mHz, were observed over a large radial distance range from r ~5 to 11 RE. During the first half of this event, perturbations were mainly observed in the transverse components and only in the 3.5-4 mHz band. In comparison, enhancements were stronger during the second half in both transverse and compressional components and in both frequency bands. No indication of field line resonances was found for these magnetic field perturbations. Perturbations in these two bands were also observed in the magnetosheath, but not in the so. . .
Date: 04/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023610 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023610/full
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Authors: Yu J., Li L. Y., Cao J. B., Chen L, Wang J., et al.
Title: Propagation characteristics of plasmaspheric hiss: Van Allen Probe observations and global empirical models
Abstract: Based on the Van Allen Probe A observations from 1 October 2012 to 31 December 2014, we develop two empirical models to respectively describe the hiss wave normal angle (WNA) and amplitude variations in the Earth's plasmasphere for different substorm activities. The long-term observations indicate that the plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes on the dayside increase when substorm activity is enhanced (AE index increases), and the dayside hiss amplitudes are greater than the nightside. However, the propagation angles (WNAs) of hiss waves in most regions do not depend strongly on substorm activity, except for the intense substorm-induced increase in WNAs in the nightside low L-region. The propagation angles of plasmaspheric hiss increase with increasing magnetic latitude or decreasing radial distan. . .
Date: 04/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023372 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023372/full
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Authors: Li L. Y., Yu J., Cao J. B., Yang J. Y., Li X, et al.
Title: Roles of whistler-mode waves and magnetosonic waves in changing the outer radiation belt and the slot region
Abstract: Using the Van Allen Probe long-term (2013 – 2015) observations and quasi-linear simulations of wave-particle interactions, we examine the combined or competing effects of whistler-mode waves (chorus or hiss) and magnetosonic (MS) waves on energetic (<0.5 MeV) and relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons inside and outside the plasmasphere. Although whistler-mode chorus waves and MS waves can singly or jointly accelerate electrons from the hundreds of keV energy to the MeV energy in the low-density trough, most of the relativistic electron enhancement events are best correlated with the chorus wave emissions outside the plasmapause. Inside the plasmasphere, intense plasmaspheric hiss can cause the net loss of relativistic electrons via persistent pitch angle scattering, regardless of whether. . .
Date: 04/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023634 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023634/full
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Authors: Anderson B. R., Shekhar S., Millan R M, Crew A. B., Spence H E, et al.
Title: Spatial Scale and Duration of One Microburst Region on 13 August 2015
Abstract: Prior studies of microburst precipitation have largely relied on estimates of the spatial scale and temporal duration of the microburst region in order to determine the radiation belt loss rate of relativistic electrons. These estimates have often relied on the statistical distribution of microburst events. However, few studies have directly observed the spatial and temporal evolution of a single microburst event. In this study, we combine BARREL balloon-borne X-ray measurements with FIREBIRD-II and AeroCube-6 CubeSat electron measurements to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of a microburst region in the morning MLT sector on 13 August 2015. The microburst region is found to extend across at least four hours in local time in the morning sector, from 09:00 to 13:00 MLT, and from. . .
Date: 04/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023752 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023752/full
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Authors: Crabtree Chris, Ganguli Gurudas, and Tejero Erik
Title: Analysis of self-consistent nonlinear wave-particle interactions of whistler waves in laboratory and space plasmas
Abstract: Whistler mode chorus is one of the most important emissions affecting the energization of the radiation belts. Recent laboratory experiments that inject energetic electron beams into a cold plasma have revealed several spectral features in the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities that have also been observed in high-time resolution in situ wave-form data. These features include (1) a sub-element structure which consists of an amplitude modulation on time-scales slower than the bounce time, (2) closely spaced discrete frequency hopping that results in a faster apparent frequency chirp rate, (3) fast frequency changes near the sub-element boundaries, and (4) harmonic generation. In this paper, we develop a finite dimensional self-consistent Hamiltonian model for the evolution of the re. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas Pages: 056501 DOI: 10.1063/1.4977539 Available at: http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4977539
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Authors: Agapitov O., Blum L. W., Mozer F S, Bonnell J. W., and Wygant J
Title: Chorus whistler wave source scales as determined from multipoint Van Allen Probe measurements
Abstract: Whistler mode chorus waves are particularly important in outer radiation belt dynamics due to their key role in controlling the acceleration and scattering of electrons over a very wide energy range. The key parameters for both nonlinear and quasi-linear treatment of wave-particle interactions are the temporal and spatial scales of the wave source region and coherence of the wave field perturbations. Neither the source scale nor the coherence scale is well established experimentally, mostly because of a lack of multipoint VLF waveform measurements. We present an unprecedentedly long interval of coordinated VLF waveform measurements (sampled at 16384 s−1) aboard the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft—9 h (0800–1200 UT and 1700–2200 UT) during two consecutive apogees on 15 July . . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL072701 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2017GL072701
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Authors: Kronberg E. A., Grigorenko E. E., Turner D. L., Daly P. W., Khotyaintsev Y., et al.
Title: Comparing and contrasting dispersionless injections at geosynchronous orbit during a substorm event
Abstract: Particle injections in the magnetosphere transport electrons and ions from the magnetotail to the radiation belts. Here we consider generation mechanisms of “dispersionless” injections, namely, those with simultaneous increase of the particle flux over a wide energy range. In this study we take advantage of multisatellite observations which simultaneously monitor Earth's magnetospheric dynamics from the tail toward the radiation belts during a substorm event. Dispersionless injections are associated with instabilities in the plasma sheet during the growth phase of the substorm, with a dipolarization front at the onset and with magnetic flux pileup during the expansion phase. They show different spatial spread and propagation characteristics. Injection associated with the dipolarization. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023551 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023551/full
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Authors: Vasko I. Y., Agapitov O. V., Mozer F S, Artemyev A. V., Krasnoselskikh V. V., et al.
Title: Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts
Abstract: Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify them via test particle simulations. We show that the most efficiently scattered are gyroresonant electrons (crossing EH on a time scale comparable to the local electron gyroperiod). We compute bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the . . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023337 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023337/full
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Authors: Claudepierre S G, O'Brien T P, Fennell J. F., Blake J B, Clemmons J. H., et al.
Title: The hidden dynamics of relativistic electrons (0.7-1.5 MeV) in the inner zone and slot region
Abstract: We present measurements of relativistic electrons (0.7–1.5 MeV) in the inner zone and slot region obtained by the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument on Van Allen Probes. The data presented are corrected for background contamination, which is primarily due to inner-belt protons in these low-L regions. We find that ∼1 MeV electrons were transported into the inner zone following the two largest geomagnetic storms of the Van Allen Probes era to date, the March and June 2015 events. As ∼1 MeV electrons were not observed in Van Allen Probes data in the inner zone prior to these two events, the injections created a new inner belt that persisted for at least 1.5 years. In contrast, we find that electrons injected into the slot region decay on much faster timescales, a. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023719 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA023719http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/2016JA023719
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Authors: Claudepierre S G, O'Brien T P, Fennell J. F., Blake J B, Clemmons J. H., et al.
Title: The hidden dynamics of relativistic electrons (0.7-1.5 MeV) in the inner zone and slot region
Abstract: We present measurements of relativistic electrons (0.7–1.5 MeV) in the inner zone and slot region obtained by the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument on Van Allen Probes. The data presented are corrected for background contamination, which is primarily due to inner-belt protons in these low-L regions. We find that ∼1 MeV electrons were transported into the inner zone following the two largest geomagnetic storms of the Van Allen Probes era to date, the March and June 2015 events. As ∼1 MeV electrons were not observed in Van Allen Probes data in the inner zone prior to these two events, the injections created a new inner belt that persisted for at least 1.5 years. In contrast, we find that electrons injected into the slot region decay on much faster timescales, a. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023719 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA023719
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Authors: Hartley D. P., Kletzing C A, Kurth W S, Hospodarsky G B, Bounds S R, et al.
Title: An improved sheath impedance model for the Van Allen probes EFW instrument: Effects of the spin axis antenna
Abstract: A technique to quantitatively determine the sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument is presented. This is achieved, for whistler mode waves, through a comparison between the total electric field wave power spectra calculated from magnetic field observations and cold plasma theory, and the total electric field wave power measured by the EFW spherical double probes instrument. In a previous study, a simple density-dependent sheath impedance model was developed in order to account for the differences between the observed and calculated wave electric field. The current study builds on this previous work by investigating the remaining discrepancies, identifying their cause, and developing an improved sheath impedance correction. Analysis reveals that a. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023597 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA023597
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Authors: Zhang Yang, Shi Run, Ni Binbin, Gu Xudong, Zhang Xianguo, et al.
Title: Inferring electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensity from low altitude POES proton flux measurements: A detailed case study with conjugate Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: N/A
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Advances in Space Research Pages: 1568 - 1576 DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2016.12.035 Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117716307578
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Authors: Ukhorskiy A Y, Sitnov M I, Merkin V. G., Gkioulidou M., and Mitchell D G
Title: Ion acceleration at dipolarization fronts in the inner magnetosphere
Abstract: During geomagnetic storms plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere is controlled by energetic ions of tens to hundreds of keV. Plasma pressure is the source of global storm time currents, which control the distribution of magnetic field and couple the inner magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Recent analysis showed that the buildup of hot ion population in the inner magnetosphere largely occurs in the form of localized discrete injections associated with sharp dipolarizations of magnetic field, similar to dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail. Because of significant differences between the ambient magnetic field and the dipolarization front properties in the magnetotail and the inner magnetosphere, the physical mechanisms of ion acceleration at dipolarization fronts in these two regions. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023304 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA023304
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Authors: Tetrick S. S., Engebretson M. J., Posch J. L., Olson C. N., Smith C W, et al.
Title: Location of intense electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave events relative to the plasmapause: Van Allen Probes observations
Abstract: We have studied the spatial location relative to the plasmapause (PP) of the most intense electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed on Van Allen Probes A and B during their first full precession in local time. Most of these waves occurred over an L range of from -1 to +2 RE relative to the PP. Very few events occurred only within 0.1 RE of the PP, and events with a width in L of < 0.2 REoccurred both inside and outside the PP. Wave occurrence was always associated with high densities of ring current ions; plasma density gradients or enhancements were associated with some events but were not dominant factors in determining the sites of wave generation. Storm main and recovery phase events in the dusk sector were often inside the PP, and dayside events during quiet times and co. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023392 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA023392
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Authors: Xiongdong Yu, Zhigang Yuan, Dedong Wang, Shiyong Huang, Haimeng Li, et al.
Title: Oxygen cyclotron harmonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Fine structured multiple-harmonic electromagnetic emissions at frequencies around the equatorial oxygen cyclotron harmonics are observed by Van Allen Probe A outside the core plasmasphere (L~5) off the magnetic equator (MLAT~-7.5°) during a magnetic storm. We find that the multiple-harmonic emissions have their PSD peaks at 2~8 equatorial oxygen gyro-harmonics (f~nfO+, n=2~8) while the fundamental mode (n=1) is absent, implying that the harmonic waves are generated near the equator and propagate into the observation region. Additionally these electromagnetic emissions are linear polarized. Different from the equatorial noise emission propagating very obliquely, these emissions have moderate wave normal angles (about 40°~60°) which predominately become larger as the harmonic number incre. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Science China: Earth Sciences DOI: 10.1007/s11430-016-9024-3 Available at: http://engine.scichina.com/publisher/scp/journal/SCES/doi/10.1007/s11430-016-9024-3
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Authors: Yang Chang, Su Zhenpeng, Xiao Fuliang, Zheng Huinan, Wang Yuming, et al.
Title: A positive correlation between energetic electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves in the radiation belt slot region
Abstract: Energetic (hundreds of keV) electrons in the radiation belt slot region have been found to exhibit the butterfly pitch angle distributions. Resonant interactions with magnetosonic and whistler-mode waves are two potential mechanisms for the formation of these peculiar distributions. Here we perform a statistical study of energetic electron pitch angle distribution characteristics measured by Van Allen Probes in the slot region during a three-year period from May 2013 to May 2016. Our results show that electron butterfly distributions are closely related to magnetosonic waves rather than to whistler-mode waves. Both electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves occur more frequently at the geomagnetically active times than at the quiet times. In a statistical sense, more distinct . . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073116 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2017GL073116
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Authors: Schiller Q., Tu W., Ali A. F., Li X, Godinez H. C., et al.
Title: Simultaneous event-specific estimates of transport, loss, and source rates for relativistic outer radiation belt electrons
Abstract: The most significant unknown regarding relativistic electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt is the relative contribution of loss, transport, and acceleration processes within the inner magnetosphere. Detangling each individual process is critical to improve the understanding of radiation belt dynamics, but determining a single component is challenging due to sparse measurements in diverse spatial and temporal regimes. However, there are currently an unprecedented number of spacecraft taking measurements that sample different regions of the inner magnetosphere. With the increasing number of varied observational platforms, system dynamics can begin to be unraveled. In this work, we employ in situ measurements during the 13–14 January 2013 enhancement event to isolate transport,. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023093 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016JA023093
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Authors: Ozeke Louis G., Mann Ian R., Murphy Kyle R., Sibeck David G., and Baker Daniel N
Title: Ultra-relativistic radiation belt extinction and ULF wave radial diffusion: Modeling the September 2014 extended dropout event
Abstract: In September 2014 an unusually long-lasting (≳10 days) ultra-relativistic electron flux depletion occurred in the outer radiation belt despite ongoing solar wind forcing. We simulate this period using a ULF wave radial diffusion model, driven by observed ULF wave power coupled to flux variations at the outer boundary at L* = 5, including empirical electron loss models due to chorus and hiss wave scattering. Our results show that unexplained rapid main phase loss, that depletes the belt within hours, is essential to explain the observations. Such ultra-relativistic electron extinction decouples the prestorm and poststorm fluxes, revealing the subsequent belt dynamics to be surprisingly independent of prestorm flux. However, once this extinction is included, ULF wave transport and co. . .
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2017GL072811 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2017GL072811
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Authors: Woodroffe J. R., Jordanova V K, Funsten H O, Streltsov A. V., Bengtson M. T., et al.
Title: Van Allen Probes observations of structured whistler mode activity and coincident electron Landau acceleration inside a remnant plasmaspheric plume
Abstract: We present observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft that identify a region of intense whistler mode activity within a large density enhancement outside of the plasmasphere. We speculate that this density enhancement is part of a remnant plasmaspheric plume, with the observed wave being driven by a weakly anisotropic electron injection that drifted into the plume and became nonlinearly unstable to whistler emission. Particle measurements indicate that a significant fraction of thermal (<100 eV) electrons within the plume were subject to Landau acceleration by these waves, an effect that is naturally explained by whistler emission within a gradient and high-density ducting inside a density enhancement.
Date: 03/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022219 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2015JA022219
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Authors: Lyubchich A. A., Demekhov A. G., Titova E. E., and Yahnin A. G.
Title: Amplitude–frequency characteristics of ion–cyclotron and whistler-mode waves from Van Allen Probes data
Abstract: Using two-hour (from 2300 UT January 25, 2013 to 0100 UT January 26, 2013) measurement data from Van Allen Probes on fluxes of energetic particles, cold plasma density, and magnetic field magnitude, we have calculated the local growth rate of electromagnetic ion–cyclotron and whistler-mode waves for field-aligned propagation. The results of these calculations have been compared with wave spectra observed by the same Van Allen Probe spacecraft. The time intervals when the calculated wave increments are sufficiently large, and the frequency ranges corresponding to the enhancement peak agree with the frequency–time characteristics of observed electromagnetic waves. We have analyzed the influence of variations in the density and ionic composition of cold plasma, fluxes of energetic particl. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Geomagnetism and Aeronomy DOI: 10.1134/S001679321701008X Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S001679321701008X
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Authors: Li Jinxing, Bortnik Jacob, Li Wen, Thorne Richard M., Ma Qianli, et al.
Title: Coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously observed over unexpectedly large spatial scales
Abstract: Utilizing simultaneous twin Van Allen Probes observations of whistler mode waves at variable separations, we are able to distinguish the temporal variations from spatial variations, determine the coherence spatial scale, and suggest the possible mechanism of wave modulation. The two probes observed coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously at an unexpectedly large distance up to ~4.3 RE over 3 h during a relatively quiet period. The modulation of 150–500 Hz plasmaspheric hiss was correlated with whistler mode waves measured outside the plasmasphere across 3 h in magnetic local time and 3 L shells, revealing that the modulation was temporal in nature. We suggest that the coherent modulation of whistler mode waves was associated with the coherent ULF waves measured ov. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023706 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023706/full
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Authors: Blum L. W., Bonnell J. W., Agapitov O., Paulson K., and Kletzing C.
Title: EMIC wave scale size in the inner magnetosphere: Observations from the dual Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Estimating the spatial scales of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is critical for quantifying their overall scattering efficiency and effects on thermal plasma, ring current, and radiation belt particles. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes in 2013–2014, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of regions of EMIC wave activity and how these depend on local time and radial distance within the inner magnetosphere. Observations are categorized into three types—waves observed by only one spacecraft, waves measured by both spacecraft simultaneously, and waves observed by both spacecraft with some time lag. Analysis reveals that dayside (and H+ band) EMIC waves more frequently span larger spatial areas, while nightside (and He+ band) waves are more often loc. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters Pages: 1227 - 1233 DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072316 Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2016GL072316
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Authors: Denton M. H., Reeves G D, Larsen B A, Friedel R. F. W., Thomsen M F, et al.
Title: On the origin of low-energy electrons in the inner magnetosphere: Fluxes and pitch-angle distributions
Abstract: Accurate knowledge of the plasma fluxes in the inner magnetosphere is essential for both scientific and programmatic applications. Knowledge of the low-energy electrons (approximately tens to hundreds of eV) in the inner magnetosphere is particularly important since these electrons are acted upon by various physical processes, accelerating the electrons to higher energies, and also causing their loss. However, measurements of low-energy electrons are challenging, and as a result, this population has been somewhat neglected previously. This study concerns observations of low-energy electrons made by the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument on board the Van Allen Probes satellites and also observations from geosynchronous orbit made by the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer on board Los Alam. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 1789–1802 DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023648 Available at: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023648/full
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Authors: Califf S., Li X., Zhao H., Kellerman A., Sarris T. E., et al.
Title: The role of the convection electric field in filling the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts
Abstract: The Van Allen Probes have reported frequent flux enhancements of 100s keV electrons in the slot region, with lower energy electrons exhibiting more dynamic behavior at lower L shells. Also, in situ electric field measurements from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Van Allen Probes have provided evidence for large-scale electric fields at low L shells during active times. We study an event on 19 February 2014 where hundreds of keV electron fluxes were enhanced by orders of magnitude in the slot region and electric fields of 1–2 mV/m were observed below L = 3. Using a 2-D guiding center particle tracer and a simple large-scale convection electric field model, we demonstrate that . . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023657 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023657/full
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Authors: Min Kyungguk, Takahashi Kazue, Ukhorskiy Aleksandr Y., Manweiler Jerry W., Spence Harlan E., et al.
Title: Second harmonic poloidal waves observed by Van Allen Probes in the dusk-midnight sector
Abstract: This paper presents observations of ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves from Van Allen Probes. The event that generated the ULF waves occurred two days after a minor geomagnetic storm during a geomagnetically quiet time. Narrowband pulsations with a frequency of about 7 mHz with moderate amplitudes were registered in the pre-midnight sector when Probe A was passing through an enhanced density region near geosynchronous orbit. Probe B, which passed through the region earlier, did not detect the narrowband pulsations but only broadband noise. Despite the single-spacecraft measurements, we were able to determine various wave properties. We find that (1) the observed waves are a second harmonic poloidal mode propagating westward with an azimuthal wave number estimated to be ∼100; (2) the magneti. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023770 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023770/full
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Authors: Artemyev A. V., Mourenas D., Agapitov O. V., and Blum L.
Title: Transverse eV ion heating by random electric field fluctuations in the plasmasphere
Abstract: Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2–3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Physics of Plasmas DOI: 10.1063/1.4976713 Available at: http://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4976713
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Authors: Chen X.-R., Zong Q.-G., Zhou X.-Z., Blake Bernard, Wygant J. R., et al.
Title: Van Allen Probes observation of a 360° phase shift in the flux modulation of injected electrons by ULF waves
Abstract: We present Van Allen Probe observation of drift-resonance interaction between energetic electrons and ultralow frequency (ULF) waves on 29 October 2013. Oscillations in electron flux were observed at the period of ∼450 s, which is also the dominant period of the observed ULF magnetic pulsations. The phase shift of the electron fluxes (∼50 to 150 keV) across the estimated resonant energy (∼104 keV) is ∼360°. This phase relationship is different from the characteristic 180° phase shift as expected from the drift-resonance theory. We speculate that the additional 180° phase difference arises from the inversion of electron phase space density (PSD) gradient, which in turn is caused by the drift motion of the substorm injected electrons. This PSD gradient adjusts the characteristic p. . .
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071252 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL071252/full
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Authors: Woodroffe J. R., Jordanova V. K., Funsten H. O., Streltsov A. V., Bengtson M. T., et al.
Title: Van Allen Probes Observations of Structured Whistler-mode Activity and Coincident Electron Landau Acceleration Inside a Remnant Plasmaspheric Plume
Abstract: We present observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft that identify an region of intense whistler-mode activity within a large density enhancement outside of the plasmasphere. We speculate that this density enhancement is part of a remnant plasmaspheric plume, with the observed wave being driven by a weakly anisotropic electron injection that drifted into the plume and became non-linearly unstable to whistler emission. Particle measurements indicate that a significant fraction of thermal (<100 eV) electrons within the plume were subject to Landau acceleration by these waves, an effect that is naturally explained by whistler emission within a gradient and high-density ducting inside a density enhancement.
Date: 02/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022219 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA022219/full
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Authors: Ukhorskiy A. Y., Sitnov M. I., Merkin V. G., Gkioulidou M., and Mitchell D. G.
Title: Acceleration at Dipolarization Fronts in the Inner Magnetosphere
Abstract: During geomagnetic storms plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere is controlled by energetic ions of tens to hundreds keV. Plasma pressure is the source of global storm-time currents, which control the distribution of magnetic field and couple the inner magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Recent analysis showed that the buildup of hot ion population in the inner magnetosphere largely occurs in the form of localized discrete injections associated with sharp dipolarizations of magnetic field, similar to dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail. Because of significant differences between the ambient magnetic field and the dipolarization front properties in the magnetotail and the inner magnetosphere, the physical mechanisms of ion acceleration at dipolarization fronts in these two regions ma. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016ja023304 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023304
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Authors: Cohen Ross, Gerrard Andrew J., Lanzerotti Louis J., Soto-Chavez A. R., Kim Hyomin, et al.
Title: Climatology of high-β plasma measurements in Earth's inner magnetosphere
Abstract: Since their launch in August 2012, the Radiation Belt Storm Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments on the NASA Van Allen Probes spacecraft have been making continuous high-resolution measurements of Earth's ring current plasma environment. After a full traversal through all magnetic local times, a climatology (i.e., a survey of observations) of high-beta (β) plasma events (defined here as β > 1) as measured by the RBSPICE instrument in the ∼45 keV to ∼600 keV proton energy range in the inner magnetosphere (L < 5.8) has been constructed. In this paper we report this climatology of such high-β plasma occurrences, durations, and their general characteristics. Specifically, we show that most high-β events in the RBSPICE energy range are associated with postdusk/premidni. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022513 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022513
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Authors: Goldstein J, Angelopoulos V, De Pascuale S., Funsten H O, Kurth W S, et al.
Title: Cross-scale observations of the 2015 St. Patrick's day storm: THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, and TWINS
Abstract: We present cross-scale magnetospheric observations of the 17 March 2015 (St. Patrick's Day) storm, by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes), and Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS), plus upstream ACE/Wind solar wind data. THEMIS crossed the bow shock or magnetopause 22 times and observed the magnetospheric compression that initiated the storm. Empirical models reproduce these boundary locations within 0.7 RE. Van Allen Probes crossed the plasmapause 13 times; test particle simulations reproduce these encounters within 0.5 RE. Before the storm, Van Allen Probes measured quiet double-nose proton spectra in the region of corotating cold plasma. About 15 min after a 0605 UT dayside sout. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Pages: 368 - 392 DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v122.110.1002/2016JA023173 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023173/full
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Authors: Goldstein J., Angelopoulos V., De Pascuale S., Funsten H. O., Kurth W. S., et al.
Title: Cross-scale observations of the 2015 St. Patrick's day storm: THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, and TWINS
Abstract: We present cross-scale magnetospheric observations of the 17 March 2015 (St. Patrick's Day) storm, by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes), and Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS), plus upstream ACE/Wind solar wind data. THEMIS crossed the bow shock or magnetopause 22 times and observed the magnetospheric compression that initiated the storm. Empirical models reproduce these boundary locations within 0.7 RE. Van Allen Probes crossed the plasmapause 13 times; test particle simulations reproduce these encounters within 0.5 RE. Before the storm, Van Allen Probes measured quiet double-nose proton spectra in the region of corotating cold plasma. About 15 min after a 0605 UT dayside sout. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023173 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023173
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Authors: Drozdov A. Y., Shprits Y Y, Aseev N. A., Kellerman A. C., and Reeves G D
Title: Dependence of radiation belt simulations to assumed radial diffusion rates tested for two empirical models of radial transport
Abstract: Radial diffusion is one of the dominant physical mechanisms that drives acceleration and loss of the radiation belt electrons, which makes it very important for nowcasting and forecasting space weather models. We investigate the sensitivity of the two parameterizations of the radial diffusion of Brautigam and Albert (2000) and Ozeke et al. (2014) on long-term radiation belt modeling using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB). Following Brautigam and Albert (2000) and Ozeke et al. (2014), we first perform 1-D radial diffusion simulations. Comparison of the simulation results with observations shows that the difference between simulations with either radial diffusion parameterization is small. To take into account effects of local acceleration and loss, we perform 3-D simulations, in. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Space Weather Pages: 150 - 162 DOI: 10.1002/swe.v15.110.1002/2016SW001426 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016SW001426/full
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Title: EMIC wave scale size in the inner magnetosphere: Observations from the dual Van Allen Probes
Abstract: Estimating the spatial scales of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is critical for quantifying their overall scattering efficiency and effects on thermal plasma, ring current, and radiation belt particles. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes in 2013–2014, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of regions of EMIC wave activity and how these depend on local time and radial distance within the inner magnetosphere. Observations are categorized into three types—waves observed by only one spacecraft, waves measured by both spacecraft simultaneously, and waves observed by both spacecraft with some time lag. Analysis reveals that dayside (and H+ band) EMIC waves more frequently span larger spatial areas, while nightside (and He+ band) waves are more often loc. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072316 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL072316
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Authors: Takahashi Kazue, Denton Richard E., Kurth William, Kletzing Craig, Wygant John, et al.
Title: Externally driven plasmaspheric ULF waves observed by the Van Allen Probes
Abstract: We analyze data acquired by the Van Allen Probes on 8 November 2012, during a period of extended low geomagnetic activity, to gain new insight into plasmaspheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. The waves exhibited strong spectral power in the 5–40 mHz band and included multiharmonic toroidal waves visible up to the eleventh harmonic, unprecedented in the plasmasphere. During this wave activity, the interplanetary magnetic field cone angle was small, suggesting that the waves were driven by broadband compressional ULF waves originating in the foreshock region. This source mechanism is supported by the tailward propagation of the compressional magnetic field perturbations at a phase velocity of a few hundred kilometers per second that is determined by the cross-phase analysis of data from . . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020373 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020373
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Authors: Turner D L, O'Brien T. P., Fennell J F, Claudepierre S. G., Blake J. B., et al.
Title: Investigating the source of near-relativistic and relativistic electrons in Earth's inner radiation belt
Abstract: Using observations from NASA's Van Allen Probes, we study the role of sudden particle enhancements at low L shells (SPELLS) as a source of inner radiation belt electrons. SPELLS events are characterized by electron intensity enhancements of approximately an order of magnitude or more in less than 1 day at L < 3. During quiet and average geomagnetic conditions, the phase space density radial distributions for fixed first and second adiabatic invariants are peaked at 2 < L < 3 for electrons ranging in energy from ~50 keV to ~1 MeV, indicating that slow inward radial diffusion is not the dominant source of inner belt electrons under quiet/average conditions. During SPELLS events, the evolution of electron distributions reveals an enhancement of phase space density that can e. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900445 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/1999JA900445
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Authors: Khazanov G. V., Boardsen S., Krivorutsky E. N., Engebretson M. J., Sibeck D., et al.
Title: Lower hybrid frequency range waves generated by ion polarization drift due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves: Analysis of an event observed by the Van Allen Probe B
Abstract: We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of ~0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions' polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth . . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022814 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022814
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Authors: Denton M. H., Reeves G. D., Larsen B. A., Friedel R. F. W., Thomsen M. F., et al.
Title: On the origin of low-energy electrons in the inner magnetosphere: Fluxes and pitch-angle distributions
Abstract: Accurate knowledge of the plasma fluxes in the inner magnetosphere is essential for both scientific and programmatic applications. Knowledge of the low-energy electrons (approximately tens to hundreds of eV) in the inner magnetosphere is particularly important since these electrons are acted upon by various physical processes, accelerating the electrons to higher energies, and also causing their loss. However, measurements of low-energy electrons are challenging, and as a result, this population has been somewhat neglected previously. This study concerns observations of low-energy electrons made by the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument on board the Van Allen Probes satellites and also observations from geosynchronous orbit made by the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer on board Los Alam. . .
Date: 01/2017 Publisher: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023648 Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023648
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