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Substorm injection of relativistic electrons to geosynchronous orbit during the great magnetic storm of March 24, 1991

The great March 1991 magnetic storm and the immediately preceding solar energetic particle event (SEP) were among the largest observed during the past solar cycle, and have been the object of intense study. We investigate here, using data from eight satellites, the very large delayed buildup of relativistic electron flux in the outer zone during a 1.5-day period beginning 2 days after onset of the main phase of this storm. A notable feature of the March storm is the intense substorm activity throughout the period of the rela ...

Ingraham, J.; Cayton, T.; Belian, R.; Christensen, R.; Friedel, R.; Meier, M.; Reeves, G.; Takahashi, K;

YEAR: 2001     DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000458

Substorm Injections


Substorm electron injections: Geosynchronous observations and test particle simulations

We investigate electron acceleration and the flux increases associated with energetic electron injections on the basis of geosynchronous observations and test-electron orbits in the dynamic fields of a three-dimensional MHD simulation of neutral line formation and dipolarization in the magnetotail. This complements an earlier investigation of test protons [Birn et al., 1997b]. In the present paper we consider equatorial orbits only, using the gyrocenter drift approximation. It turns out that this approximation is valid for e ...

Birn, J.; Thomsen, M.; Borovsky, J.; Reeves, G.; McComas, D.; Belian, R.; Hesse, M.;

YEAR: 1998     DOI: 10.1029/97JA02635

Substorm Injections