Found 39 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 39


Simultaneous observation of two isolated proton auroras at subauroral latitudes by a highly sensitive all-sky camera and Van Allen Probes

Abstract Isolated proton auroras (IPAs) appearing at subauroral latitudes are generated by energetic protons precipitating from the magnetosphere through interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. An IPA thus indicates the spatial scale and temporal variation of wave–particle interactions in the magnetosphere. In this study, a unique event of simultaneous ground and magnetospheric satellite observations of two IPAs were conducted on March 16, 2015, using an all-sky imager at Athabasca, Canada and Van Alle ...

Nakmaura, Kohki; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Shinbori, Atsuki; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Connors, Martin; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff; Funsten, Herbert; MacDowall, Robert; Smith, Charles; Wygant, John; Bonnell, John;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

isolated proton aurora; Van Allen Probes

Multi-event Analysis of Plasma and Field Variations in Source of Stable Auroral Red (SAR) Arcs in Inner Magnetosphere during Non-storm-time Substorms

Abstract Stable auroral red (SAR) arcs are optical events with dominant 630.0-nm emission caused by low-energy electron heat flux into the topside ionosphere from the inner magnetosphere. SAR arcs are observed at subauroral latitudes and often occur during the recovery phase of magnetic storms and substorms. Past studies concluded that these low-energy electrons were generated in the spatial overlap region between the outer plasmasphere and ring-current ions and suggested that Coulomb collisions between plasmaspheric electro ...

Inaba, Yudai; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Oyama, Shin-Ichiro; Otsuka, Yuichi; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Imajo, Shun; Shinbori, Atsuki; Gololobov, Artem; Kazama, Yoichi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; W. Y. Tam, Sunny; Chang, Tzu-Fang; Wang, Bo-Jhou; Asamura, Kazushi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Kasahara, Satoshi; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Matsuda, Shoya; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Shoji, Masafumi; Kitahara, Masahiro; Nakamura, Satoko; Shinohara, Iku; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff; MacDowall, Robert; Smith, Charles; Wygant, John; Bonnell, John;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

SAR arc; Arase; RBSP; ring current; Non-storm-time substorm; Plasmapause; Van Allen Probes


Correlations Between Dispersive Alfvén Wave Activity, Electron Energization, and Ion Outflow in the Inner Magnetosphere

Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we show that field-aligned fluxes of electrons energized by dispersive Alfvén waves (DAWs) are prominent in the inner magnetosphere during active conditions. These electrons have preferentially field-aligned anisotropies from 1.2 to >2 at energies ranging from tens of electron volts to several kiloelectron volts (keV), with largest values being coincident with magnetic field dipolarizations. Comparisons reveal that DAW energy densities and Poynting fluxes are strongly correlated ...

Hull, A.; Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Damiano, P.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

dispersive Alfvén waves; field-aligned electrons; inner magnetosphere; oxygen ion outflow; Geomagnetic storms; substorms; Van Allen Probes

Calculation of the Atomic Oxygen Fluence on the Van Allen Probes

The Van Allen Probes Mission consists of two identical spacecraft flying in highly elliptical orbits, with perigee altitudes originally near 600 km. During the low-altitude periods of the orbits, the spacecrafts are immersed in a region of high-density atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen is known to change and degrade the properties of spacecraft surfaces (Banks et al., 2004), such as those of the Van Allen Probes Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument. The consistency of the sensor surfaces in EFW is important because the me ...

Schumm, G.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.; Mozer, F.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Van Allen Probes; atomic oxygen; Langmuir probes; DAG

Lifetimes of Relativistic Electrons as Determined From Plasmaspheric Hiss Scattering Rates Statistics: Effects of ωpe/Ωce and Wave Frequency Dependence on Geomagnetic Activity

Whistler-mode hiss waves generally determine MeV electron lifetimes inside the plasmasphere. We use Van Allen Probes measurements to provide the first comprehensive statistical survey of plasmaspheric hiss-driven quasi-linear pitch-angle diffusion rates and lifetimes of MeV electrons as a function of L*, local time, and AE index, taking into account hiss power, electron plasma frequency to gyrofrequency ratio ωpe/Ωce, hiss frequency at peak power ωm, and cross correlations of these parameters. We find that during geomagne ...

Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Claudepierre, S.; Hospodarsky, G.; Bonnell, J.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron lifetimes; plasmasphere; hiss waves; wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes


Eastward Propagating Second Harmonic Poloidal Waves Triggered by Temporary Outward Gradient of Proton Phase Space Density: Van Allen Probe A Observation

Two wave packets of second harmonic poloidal Pc 4 waves with a wave frequency of ~7 mHz were detected by Van Allen Probe A at a radial distance of ~5.8 RE and magnetic local time of 13 hr near the magnetic equator, where plasmaspheric refilling was in progress. Proton butterfly distributions with energy dispersions were also measured at the same time; the proton fluxes at 10-30 keV oscillated with the same frequency as the Pc 4 waves. Using the ion sounding technique, we find that the Pc 4 waves propagated eastward with an a ...

Yamamoto, K.; e, Nos\; Keika, K.; Hartley, D.P.; Smith, C.W.; MacDowall, R.J.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Mitchell, D.G.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.; Wygant, J.R.; Bonnell, J.W.; Oimatsu, S.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027158

drift-bounce resonance; Geomagnetic storm; plasmasphere; ring current; substorm; ULF wave; Van Allen Probes

Timescales for electron quasi-linear diffusion by lower-band chorus waves: the effects of ω pe / Ω ce dependence on geomagnetic activity

Electron scattering by chorus waves is an important mechanism that can lead to fast electron acceleration and loss in the outer radiation belt. Making use of Van Allen Probes measurements, we present the first statistical survey of megaelectron volt electron pitch angle and energy quasi-linear diffusion rates by chorus waves as a function of L-shell, local time, and AE index, taking into account the local electron plasma frequency to gyrofrequency ratio ωpe/Ωce, chorus wave frequency, and resonance wave amplitude. We demon ...

Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Hospodarsky, G.; Bonnell, J.W.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083446

magnetosphere plasma density; quasi-linear scattering and acceleration; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions


Pitch Angle Scattering and Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons in Broadband Electromagnetic Waves

A magnetic conjunction between Van Allen Probes spacecraft and the Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) reveals the simultaneous occurrence of broadband Alfv\ enic fluctuations and multi-timescale modulation of enhanced atmospheric X-ray bremsstrahlung emission. The properties of the Alfv\ enic fluctuations are used to build a model for pitch angle scattering in the outer radiation belt on electron gyro-radii scale field structures. It is shown that this scattering may lead to the transport ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Halford, A.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079527

Alfven waves; drift-bounce resonance; energetic particles; Geomagnetic storms; pitch-angle scattering; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Radiation belt \textquotedblleftdropouts\textquotedblright and drift-bounce resonances in broadband electromagnetic waves

Observations during the main phase of geomagnetic storms reveal an anti-correlation between the occurrence of broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves and outer radiation belt electron flux. We show that the drift-bounce motion of electrons in the magnetic field of these waves leads to rapid electron transport. For observed spectral energy densities it is demonstrated that the wave magnetic field can drive radial diffusion via drift-bounce resonance on timescales less than a drift orbit. This process may provide outward ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Melrose, D.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076362

Alfven waves; Geomagnetic storms; Radial Transport; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes


Synthetic empirical chorus wave model from combined Van Allen Probes and Cluster statistics

Chorus waves are among the most important natural electromagnetic emissions in the magnetosphere as regards their potential effects on electron dynamics. They can efficiently accelerate or precipitate electrons trapped in the outer radiation belt, producing either fast increases of relativistic particle fluxes, or auroras at high latitudes. Accurately modeling their effects, however, requires detailed models of their wave power and obliquity distribution as a function of geomagnetic activity in a particularly wide spatial do ...

Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Mozer, F.; Hospodarsky, G.; Bonnell, J.; Krasnoselskikh, V.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024843

chorus waves model; Van Allen Probes

Radial transport of radiation belt electrons in kinetic field-line resonances

A representative case study from the Van Allen Probes during a geomagnetic storm recovery phase reveals enhanced electron fluxes at intermediate pitch angles over energies from ~100 keV to 5 MeV coincident with broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves. The statistical properties of these waves are used to build a model for radial diffusion via drift-bounce resonances in kinetic Alfv\ en eigenmodes/kinetic field-line resonances. Estimated diffusion coefficients indicate timescales for radial transport of the order of hou ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Melrose, D.; Cairns, Iver.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074587

Alfven waves; Diffusion; field line resonances; Radiation belts; Transport; Van Allen Probes

Electron-acoustic solitons and double layers in the inner magnetosphere

The Van Allen Probes observe generally two types of electrostatic solitary waves (ESW) contributing to the broadband electrostatic wave activity in the nightside inner magnetosphere. ESW with symmetric bipolar parallel electric field are electron phase space holes. The nature of ESW with asymmetric bipolar (and almost unipolar) parallel electric field has remained puzzling. To address their nature, we consider a particular event observed by Van Allen Probes to argue that during the broadband wave activity electrons with ener ...

. Y. Vasko, I; Agapitov, O.; Mozer, F.; Bonnell, J.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Reeves, G.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074026

double layers; electron-acoustic waves; inner magnetosphere; solitons; Van Allen Probes

An improved sheath impedance model for the Van Allen probes EFW instrument: Effects of the spin axis antenna

A technique to quantitatively determine the sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument is presented. This is achieved, for whistler mode waves, through a comparison between the total electric field wave power spectra calculated from magnetic field observations and cold plasma theory, and the total electric field wave power measured by the EFW spherical double probes instrument. In a previous study, a simple density-dependent sheath impedance model was developed in order to account for ...

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Bounds, S.; Averkamp, T.; Bonnell, J.; ik, O.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023597

antenna sheath impedance; EFW; electric field; EMFISIS; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode waves

Chorus whistler wave source scales as determined from multipoint Van Allen Probe measurements

Whistler mode chorus waves are particularly important in outer radiation belt dynamics due to their key role in controlling the acceleration and scattering of electrons over a very wide energy range. The key parameters for both nonlinear and quasi-linear treatment of wave-particle interactions are the temporal and spatial scales of the wave source region and coherence of the wave field perturbations. Neither the source scale nor the coherence scale is well established experimentally, mostly because of a lack of multipoint VL ...

Agapitov, O.; Blum, L.; Mozer, F.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL072701

chorus spatial scales; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts

Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify th ...

. Y. Vasko, I; Agapitov, O.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Bonnell, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023337

electron holes; electron losses; injection; Radiation belt; solitary waves; Van Allen Probes

EMIC wave scale size in the inner magnetosphere: Observations from the dual Van Allen Probes

Estimating the spatial scales of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is critical for quantifying their overall scattering efficiency and effects on thermal plasma, ring current, and radiation belt particles. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes in 2013\textendash2014, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of regions of EMIC wave activity and how these depend on local time and radial distance within the inner magnetosphere. Observations are categorized into three types\textemdashwaves observed b ...

Blum, L.; Bonnell, J.; Agapitov, O.; Paulson, K.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072316

EMIC waves; inner magnetosphere; multipoint; spatial scales; Van Allen Probes

Externally driven plasmaspheric ULF waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

We analyze data acquired by the Van Allen Probes on 8 November 2012, during a period of extended low geomagnetic activity, to gain new insight into plasmaspheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. The waves exhibited strong spectral power in the 5\textendash40 mHz band and included multiharmonic toroidal waves visible up to the eleventh harmonic, unprecedented in the plasmasphere. During this wave activity, the interplanetary magnetic field cone angle was small, suggesting that the waves were driven by broadband compressional U ...

Takahashi, Kazue; Denton, Richard; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John; Bonnell, John; Dai, Lei; Min, Kyungguk; Smith, Charles; MacDowall, Robert;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020373

multispacecraft observation; plasmasphere; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes


Driving ionospheric outflows and magnetospheric O + energy density with Alfv\ en waves

We show how dispersive Alfv\ en waves observed in the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms can extract O+ ions from the topside ionosphere and accelerate these ions to energies exceeding 50 keV in the equatorial plane. This occurs through wave trapping, a variant of \textquotedblleftshock\textquotedblright surfing, and stochastic ion acceleration. These processes in combination with the mirror force drive field-aligned beams of outflowing ionospheric ions into the equatorial plane that evolve to provide energetic O+ ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069008

Alfven waves; ion acceleration; Ionosphere; ionospheric outflow; ring current

EMIC wave spatial and coherence scales as determined from multipoint Van Allen Probe measurements

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can provide a strong source of energetic electron pitch angle scattering. These waves are often quite localized, thus their spatial extent can have a large effect on their overall scattering efficiency. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes, we examine four EMIC wave events observed simultaneously on the two probes at varying spacecraft separations. Correlation of both the wave amplitude and phase observed at both spacecraft is examined to estimate the active region and ...

Blum, L.; Agapitov, O.; Bonnell, J.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068799

coherence scales; EMIC waves; multipoint measurements; Van Allen Probes

Using the cold plasma dispersion relation and whistler-mode waves to quantify the antenna sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes EFW instrument

Cold plasma theory and parallel wave propagation are often assumed when approximating the whistler mode magnetic field wave power from electric field observations. The current study is the first to include the wave normal angle from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science package on board the Van Allen Probes in the conversion factor, thus allowing for the accuracy of these assumptions to be quantified. Results indicate that removing the assumption of parallel propagation does not significantl ...

Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Bounds, S.; Averkamp, T.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J.; ik, O.; Watt, C.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022501

EFW; EMFISIS; Plasmaspheric Hiss; sheath impedance; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus

A Statistical Study of Whistler Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes (RBSP) and Lightning Detected by WWLLN

Lightning-generated whistler waves are electromagnetic plasma waves in the very low frequency (VLF) band, which play an important role in the dynamics of radiation belt particles. In this paper, we statistically analyze simultaneous waveform data from the Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes, RBSP) and global lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). Data were obtained between July to September 2013 and between March and April 2014. For each day during these periods, we predicted the mos ...

Zheng, Hao; Holzworth, Robert; Brundell, James; Jacobson, Abram; Wygant, John; Hospodarsky, George; Mozer, Forrest; Bonnell, John;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022010

lightnting; RBSP; Van Allen Probes; VLF; whistler wave


Extreme ionospheric ion energization and electron heating in Alfv\ en waves in the storm-time inner magnetosphere

We report measurements of energized outflowing/bouncing ionospheric ions and heated electrons in the inner magnetosphere during a geomagnetic storm. The ions arrive in the equatorial plane with pitch angles that increase with energy over a range from tens of eV to > 50 keV while the electrons are field-aligned up to ~1 keV. These particle distributions are observed during intervals of broadband low frequency electromagnetic field fluctuations consistent with a Doppler-shifted spectrum of kinetic Alfv\ en waves and kinetic fi ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Gerrard, A.; Lanzerotti, L.; Smith, C.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066674

Alfven waves; electron precipitation; Geomagnetic storms; ion acceleration; ion outflow; ion upflo

Broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves in the inner magnetosphere

A prominent yet largely unrecognized feature of the inner magnetosphere associated with particle injections, and more generally geomagnetic storms, is the occurrence of broadband electromagnetic field fluctuations over spacecraft frame frequencies (fsc) extending from effectively zero to fsc ≳ 100 Hz. Using observations from the Van Allen Probes we show that these waves most commonly occur pre-midnight but are observed over a range of local times extending into the dayside magnetosphere. We find that the variation of magne ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Smith, C.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021690

Alfven waves; Geomagnetic storms; ring current; turbulence; Van Allen Probes

Neutral Oxygen Effects at Low Earth Altitudes: A Critical Uncertainty for Spacecraft Operations and Space Weather Effects

Space Weather sits at the intersection of natural phenomena interacting with modern technology\textemdasheither in space or on Earth\textquoterights surface. A key aspect of space weather is the interaction of Earth\textquoterights extended neutral atmosphere with satellite surfaces [e.g., Samwel, 2014, and references therein]. Because neutral oxygen causes spacecraft surface erosion and oxidation, detailed knowledge of the atmosphere below 1000 km is essential for spacecraft design and operations.

Bonnell, John; Lanzerotti, Louis;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001229

atmosphere oxygen; Space weather

Observations of coincident EMIC wave activity and duskside energetic electron precipitation on 18-19 January 2013

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been suggested to be a cause of radiation belt electron loss to the atmosphere. Here simultaneous, magnetically conjugate measurements are presented of EMIC wave activity, measured at geosynchronous orbit and on the ground, and energetic electron precipitation, seen by the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) campaign, on two consecutive days in January 2013. Multiple bursts of precipitation were observed on the duskside of the magnetosphere at ...

Blum, L.; Halford, A.; Millan, R.; Bonnell, J.; Goldstein, J.; Usanova, M.; Engebretson, M.; Ohnsted, M.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Clilverd, M.; Li, X.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065245

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Dense plasma and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves at Earth\textquoterights dayside magnetopause

Spacecraft observations of boundary waves at the dayside terrestrial magnetopause and their ground-based signatures are presented. Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft measured boundary waves at the magnetopause while ground-based HF radar measured corresponding signatures in the ionosphere indicating a large-scale response and tailward propagating waves. The properties of the oscillations are consistent with linear phase Kelvin-Helmholtz waves along the magnetopause boundar ...

Walsh, B.; Thomas, E.; Hwang, K.-J.; Baker, J.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Bonnell, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021014

Kelvin-Helmholtz; magnetopause

Storm-time occurrence and Spatial distribution of Pc4 poloidal ULF waves in the inner magnetosphere: A Van Allen Probes Statistical study

Poloidal ULF waves are capable of efficiently interacting with energetic particles in the ring current and the radiation belt. Using Van Allen Probes (RBSP) data from October 2012 to July 2014, we investigate the spatial distribution and storm-time occurrence of Pc4 (7-25 mHz) poloidal waves in the inner magnetosphere. Pc4 poloidal waves are sorted into two categories: waves with and without significant magnetic compressional components. Two types of poloidal waves have comparable occurrence rates, both of which are much hig ...

Dai, Lei; Takahashi, Kazue; Lysak, Robert; Wang, Chi; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig; Bonnell, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Smith, Charles; MacDowall, Robert; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei; Tao, Xin; Chen, Lunjin;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021134

Geomagnetic storm; Pc4 ULF waves; poloidal waves; ring current; solar wind dynamic pressure; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes investigation of the large scale duskward electric field and its role in ring current formation and plasmasphere erosion in the June 1, 2013 storm

Using the Van Allen Probes we investigate the enhancement in the large scale duskward convection electric field during the geomagnetic storm (Dst ~ -120 nT) on June 1, 2013 and its role in ring current ion transport and energization, and plasmasphere erosion. During this storm, enhancements of ~1-2 mV/m in the duskward electric field in the co-rotating frame are observed down to L shells as low as ~2.3. A simple model consisting of a dipole magnetic field and constant, azimuthally westward, electric field is used to calculat ...

Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.; Dai, L.; Breneman, A.W.; Kersten, K.; Cattell, C.A.; Bonnell, J.W.; Fennell, J.F.; Gkioulidou, Matina; Kletzing, C.A.; De Pascuale, S.; Hospodarsky, G.B.; Bounds, S.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020875

electric field; inner magnetosphere; plasma convection; plasmasphere; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Study of EMIC wave excitation using direct ion measurements

With data from Van Allen Probes, we investigate EMIC wave excitation using simultaneously observed ion distributions. Strong He-band waves occurred while the spacecraft was moving through an enhanced density region. We extract from Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) Mass Spectrometer measurement the velocity distributions of warm heavy ions as well as anisotropic energetic protons that drive wave growth through the ion cyclotron instability. Fitting the measured ion fluxes to multiple sinm-type distribution function ...

Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Bonnell, John; Breneman, Aaron; Denton, Richard; Funsten, Herbert; Jahn, öerg-Micha; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Larsen, Brian; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020717

EMIC wave excitation; observation; linear theory and hybrid simulation; Van Allen Probes


Externally driven plasmaspheric ULF waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

We analyze data acquired by the Van Allen Probes on 8 November 2012, during a period of extended low geomagnetic activity, to gain new insight into plasmaspheric ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves. The waves exhibited strong spectral power in the 5\textendash40 mHzband and included multiharmonic toroidal waves visible up to the 11th harmonic, unprecedented in the plasmasphere. During this wave activity, the interplanetary magnetic field cone angle was small, suggesting that the waves were driven by broadband compressional ULF w ...

Takahashi, Kazue; Denton, Richard; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John; Bonnell, John; Dai, Lei; Min, Kyungguk; Smith, Charles; MacDowall, Robert;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020373

multispacecraft observation; Van Allen Probes; plasmasphere; ULF waves

Interactions of energetic electrons with ULF waves triggered by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations in the magnetotail

We present in situ observations of a shock-induced substorm-like event on 13 April 2013 observed by the newly launched Van Allen twin probes. Substorm-like electron injections with energy of 30\textendash500 keV were observed in the region from L\~5.2 to 5.5 immediately after the shock arrival (followed by energetic electron drift echoes). Meanwhile, the electron flux was clearly and strongly varying on the ULF wave time scale. It is found that both toroidal and poloidal mode ULF waves with a period of 150 s emerged followin ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zhang, Hui; . Y. Fu, S; . Y. Pu, Z; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020023

energetic particles; interplanetary shock; magnetotail ULF wave; poloidal and toroidal mode; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

THEMIS measurements of quasi-static electric fields in the inner magnetosphere

We use four years of THEMIS double-probe measurements to offer, for the first time, a complete picture of the dawn-dusk electric field covering all local times and radial distances in the inner magnetosphere based on in situ equatorial observations. This study is motivated by the results from the CRRES mission, which revealed a local maximum in the electric field developing near Earth during storm times, rather than the expected enhancement at higher L shells that is shielded near Earth as suggested by the Volland-Stern mode ...

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Blum, L.; Jaynes, A.; Schiller, Q.; Zhao, H.; Malaspina, D.; Hartinger, M.; Wolf, R.; Rowland, D.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020360

convection; double probe; electric field; inner magnetosphere

Nonlinear Electric Field Structures in the Inner Magnetosphere

Van Allen Probes observations are presented which demonstrate the presence of nonlinear electric field structures in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere (< 6 RE). A range of structures are observed, including phase space holes and double layers.These structures are observed over several Earth radii in radial distance and over a wide range of magnetic local times. They are observed in the dusk, midnight, and dawn sectors, with the highest concentration pre-midnight. Some nonlinear electric field structures are observed to coi ...

Malaspina, D.; Andersson, L.; Ergun, R.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Larsen, B.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061109

Van Allen Probes

Storm time observations of plasmasphere erosion flux in the magnetosphere and ionosphere

Plasmasphere erosion carries cold dense plasma of ionospheric origin in a storm-enhanced density plume extending from dusk toward and through the noontime cusp and dayside magnetopause and back across polar latitudes in a polar tongue of ionization. We examine dusk sector (20 MLT) plasmasphere erosion during the 17 March 2013 storm (Dst ~ -130 nT) using simultaneous, magnetically aligned direct sunward ion flux observations at high altitude by Van Allen Probes RBSP-A (at ~3.0 Re) and at ionospheric heights (~840 km) by DMSP ...

Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Coster, A.; Thaller, S.; Tao, J.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059124

Van Allen Probes

Chorus waves and spacecraft potential fluctuations: Evidence for wave-enhanced photoelectron escape

Chorus waves are important for electron energization and loss in Earth\textquoterights radiation belts and inner magnetosphere. Because the amplitude and spatial distribution of chorus waves can be strongly influenced by plasma density fluctuations and spacecraft floating potential can be a diagnostic of plasma density, the relationship between measured potential and chorus waves is examined using Van Allen Probes data. While measured potential and chorus wave electric fields correlate strongly, potential fluctuation propert ...

Malaspina, D.; Ergun, R.; Sturner, A.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Breneman, A.; Kersten, K.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058769

Van Allen Probes

Observations of kinetic scale field line resonances

We identify electromagnetic field variations from the Van Allen Probes which have the properties of Doppler shifted kinetic scale Alfv\ enic field line resonances. These variations are observed during injections of energetic plasmas into the inner magnetosphere. These waves have scale sizes perpendicular to the magnetic field which are determined to be of the order of an ion gyro-radius (ρi) and less. Cross-spectral analysis of the electric and magnetic fields reveals phase transitions at frequencies correlated with enhance ...

Chaston, Christopher; Bonnell, J; Wygant, John; Mozer, Forrest; Bale, Stuart; Kersten, Kris; Breneman, Aaron; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Smith, Charles; MacDonald, Elizabeth;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058507

Van Allen Probes


Megavolt Parallel Potentials Arising from Double-Layer Streams in the Earth\textquoterights Outer Radiation Belt

Huge numbers of double layers carrying electric fields parallel to the local magnetic field line have been observed on the Van Allen probes in connection with in situ relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt. For one case with adequate high time resolution data, 7000 double layers were observed in an interval of 1 min to produce a 230 000 V net parallel potential drop crossing the spacecraft. Lower resolution data show that this event lasted for 6 min and that more than 1 000 000 v ...

Mozer, F.; Bale, S.; Bonnell, J; Chaston, C.; Roth, I.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.235002

Van Allen Probes

The Electric Field and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasi-static and low frequency electric fields and waves associated with the major mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. For this measurement, the instrument uses two pairs of spherical double probe sensors at the ends of orthogonal centripetally deployed booms in t ...

Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Goetz, K.; Ergun, R.E.; Mozer, F.; Bale, S.D.; Ludlam, M.; Turin, P.; Harvey, P.R.; Hochmann, R.; Harps, K.; Dalton, G.; McCauley, J.; Rachelson, W.; Gordon, D.; Donakowski, B.; Shultz, C.; Smith, C.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Fischer, J.; Heavner, S.; Berg, P.; Malaspina, D.; Bolton, M.; Hudson, M.; Strangeway, R.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Albert, J.; Foster, J.C.; Chaston, C.C.; Mann, I.; Donovan, E.; Cully, C.M.; Cattell, C.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Kersten, K.; Brenneman, A; Tao, J.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0013-7

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Excitation of Poloidal standing Alfven waves through the drift resonance wave-particle interaction

Drift-resonance wave-particle interaction is a fundamental collisionless plasma process studied extensively in theory. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (Eφ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed, associated w ...

Dai, L.; Takahashi, K; Wygant, J.; Chen, L.; Bonnell, J; Cattell, C.; Thaller, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50800

RBSP; Van Allen Probes