Bibliography



Found 85 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 1 through 50


2021

Global Survey of Electron Precipitation due to Hiss Waves in the Earth s Plasmasphere and Plumes

Abstract We present a global survey of energetic electron precipitation from the equatorial magnetosphere due to hiss waves in the plasmasphere and plumes. Using Van Allen Probes measurements, we calculate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients at the bounce loss cone, and evaluate the energy spectrum of precipitating electron flux. Our ∼6.5-year survey shows that, during disturbed times, hiss inside the plasmasphere primarily causes the electron precipitation at L > 4 over 8 h < MLT < 18 h, and hiss waves in plumes cause ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Zhang, X.-J.; Bortnik, J.; Shen, X.-C.; Connor, H.; Boyd, A.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029644

electron precipitation; hiss wave; plasmasphere; plasmaspheric plume; Precipitating Energy Flux; Van Allen Probes Survey; Van Allen Probes

Rapid injections of MeV electrons and extremely fast step-like outer radiation belt enhancements

Abstract Rapid injection of MeV electrons associated with strong substorm dipolarization has been suggested as a potential explanation for some radiation belt enhancement events. However, it has been difficult to quantify the contribution of MeV electron injections to radiation belt enhancements. This paper presents two isolated MeV electron injection events for which we quite precisely quantify how the entire outer-belt immediately changed with the injections. Tracking detailed outer-belt evolution observed by Van Allen Pro ...

Kim, H.-J.; Lee, D.-Y.; Wolf, R.; Bortnik, J.; Kim, K.-C.; Lyons, L.; Choe, W.; Noh, S.-J.; Choi, K.-E.; Yue, C.; Li, J.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093151

Radiation belt enhancement; Relatvistic electrons; substorm injection; Step-like; Extremely fast; Van Allen Probes

The characteristics of EMIC waves in the magnetosphere based on the Van Allen Probes and Arase observations

Abstract We performed a comprehensive statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace satellite (ERG/Arase). From 2017 to 2018, we identified and categorized EMIC wave events with respect to wavebands (H+ and He+ EMIC waves) and relative locations from the plasmasphere (inside and outside the plasmasphere). We found that H+ EMIC waves in the morning sector at L>8 are predominantly observed with a mixture of linear and r ...

Jun, C.-W; Miyoshi, Y.; Kurita, S.; Yue, C.; Bortnik, J.; Lyons, L.; Nakamura, S.; Shoji, M.; Imajo, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kasahara, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kumamoto, A.; Matsuoka, A.; Shinohara, I.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029001

Spatial distributions of EMIC waves; RBSP and Arase observations; EMIC wave properties; EMIC wave dependence on geomagnetic condition; Van Allen Probes

Sustained oxygen spectral gaps and their dynamic evolution in the inner magnetosphere

Abstract Van Allen Probes observations of ion spectra often show a sustained gap within a very narrow energy range throughout the full orbit. To understand their formation mechanism, we statistically investigate the characteristics of the narrow gaps for oxygen ions and find that they are most frequently observed near the noon sector with a peak occurrence rate of over 30\%. The magnetic moment (μ) of the oxygen ions in the gap shows a strong dependence on magnetic local time (MLT), with higher and lower μ in the morning a ...

Yue, Chao; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Bortnik, Jacob; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Li, Yuxuan; Ren, Jie; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029092

oxygen spectral gaps; corotational drift resonance; sustained gaps; drainage void; test particle simulations; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen probe observations of disappearance, recovery and patchiness of plasmaspheric hiss following two consecutive interplanetary shocks: First results

Abstract We present, for the first time, a plasmaspheric hiss event observed by the Van Allen probes in response to two successive interplanetary shocks occurring within an interval of ∼2 hours on December 19, 2015. The first shock arrived at 16:16 UT and caused disappearance of hiss for ∼30 minutes. Combined effect of plasmapause crossing, significant Landau damping by suprathermal electrons and their gradual removal by magnetospheric compression led to the disappearance of hiss. Calculation of electron phase space dens ...

Chakraborty, S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Breneman, A.; Hartley, D.; Larsen, B.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028873

Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probe; Interplanetary shocks; substorms; Whistlers; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Multi-Point Observations of Quasiperiodic Emission Intensification and Effects on Energetic Electron Precipitation

AbstractThe two Van Allen Probes simultaneously recorded a coherently modulated quasiperiodic (QP) emission that persisted for 3 hours. The magnetic field pulsation at the locations of the two satellites showed a substantial difference, and their frequencies were close to but did not exactly match the repetition frequency of QP emissions for most of the time, suggesting that those coherent QP emissions probably originated from a common source, which then propagated over a broad area in the magnetosphere. The QP emissions wer ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Shen, Xiaochen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; An, Xin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Wygant, John; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Hartley, David; Reeves, Geoffrey; Funsten, Herbert; Blake, Bernard; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028484

quasiperiodic emissions; electron precipitation; Radiation belt; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes; ULF wave

2020

Multi-Parameter Chorus and Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Models

Abstract The resonant interaction of energetic particles with plasma waves, such as chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves, plays a direct and crucial role in the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons that ultimately affect the dynamics of the radiation belts. In this study, we use the comprehensive wave data measurements made by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instruments on board the two Van Allen probes, to develop multi-parameter statistical chorus and plasmaspheric hiss w ...

Aryan, Homayon; Bortnik, Jacob; Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Sibeck, David; Balikhin, Michael;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028403

chorus waves; inner magnetosphere; multi parameter wave distribution; plasmaspheric hiss waves; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Properties of Lightning Generated Whistlers Based on Van Allen Probes Observations and Their Global Effects on Radiation Belt Electron Loss

Lightning generated whistlers (LGWs) play an important role in precipitating energetic electrons in the Earth s inner radiation belt and beyond. Wave burst data from the Van Allen Probes are used to unambiguously identify LGWs and analyze their properties at L < 4 by extending their frequencies down to ~100 Hz for the first time. The statistical results show that LGWs typically occur at frequencies from 100 Hz to 10 kHz with the major wave power below the equatorial lower hybrid resonance frequency, and their wave ampli ...

Green, A.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Shen, X.-C.; Bortnik, J.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089584

lightning generated whistlers; electron precipitation; Inner radiation belt; hiss; VLF transmitter waves; global distribution; Van Allen Probes

The Modulation of Plasma and Waves by Background Electron Density Irregularities in the Inner Magnetosphere

The background cold electron density plays an important role in plasma and wave dynamics. Here, we investigate an event with clear modulation of the particle fluxes and wave intensities by background electron density irregularities based on Van Allen Probes observations. The energies at the peak fluxes of protons and Helium ions of 100 eV to several keV are well correlated with the total electron density variation. Intense electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) and magnetosonic (MS) waves are simultaneously observed in the hi ...

Yue, Chao; Ma, Qianli; Jun, Chae-Woo; Bortnik, Jacob; Zong, Qiugang; Zhou, Xuzhi; Jang, Eunjin; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088855

electron density irregularities; electromagnetic ion cyclotron; magnetosonic waves; suprathermal particles; Wave-particle interaction; wave growth rate; Van Allen Probes

Outer Radiation Belt Electron Lifetime Model Based on Combined Van Allen Probes and Cluster VLF Measurements

The flux of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt shows a high variability. The interactions of electrons with very low frequency (VLF) chorus waves play a significant role in controlling the flux variation of these particles. Quantifying the effects of these interactions is crucially important for accurately modeling the global dynamics of the outer radiation belt and to provide a comprehensive description of electron flux variations over a wide energy range (from the source population of 30 keV electrons up to th ...

Aryan, Homayon; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Artemyev, Anton; Mourenas, Didier; Balikhin, Michael; Boynton, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028018

electron lifetimes; Van Allen radiation belts; chorus waves; pitch angle diffusion coefficients; Van Allen Probes; Cluster

Global Model of Whistler Mode Chorus in the Near-Equatorial Region (|λm|<  18°)

We extend our database of whistler mode chorus, based on data from seven satellites, by including ∼3 years of data from Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-A and RBSP-B and an additional ∼6 years of data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A, THEMIS-D, and THEMIS-E. The new database allows us to probe the near-equatorial region in detail, revealing new features. In the equatorial source region, |λm|<6°, strong wave power is most extensive in the 0.1–0.4fce bands in the r ...

Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Shen, Xiao-Chen; Li, Wen; Bortnik, Jacob;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087311

whistler mode chorus; wave-particle interactions; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Radial Response of Outer Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons During Enhancement Events at Geostationary Orbit

Abstract Forecasting relativistic electron fluxes at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) has been a long-term goal of the scientific community, and significant advances have been made in the past, but the relation to the interior of the radiation belts, that is, to lower L-shells, is still not clear. In this work we have identified 60 relativistic electron enhancement events at GEO to study the radial response of outer belt fluxes and the correlation between the fluxes at GEO and those at lower L-shells. The enhancement events o ...

Pinto, Victor; Bortnik, Jacob; Moya, Pablo; Lyons, Larry; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027660

Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; geosynchronous orbit; Outer Belt; flux correlation; enhancement events; Van Allen Probes

Episodic Occurrence of Field-Aligned Energetic Ions on the Dayside

The tens of kiloelectron volt ions observed in the ring current region at L ~ 3\textendash7 generally have pancake pitch angle distributions, that is, peaked at 90\textdegree. However, in this study, by using the Van Allen Probe observations on the dayside, unexpectedly, we have found that about 5\% time, protons with energies of ~30 to 50 keV show two distinct populations, having an additional field-aligned population overlapping with the original pancake population. The newly appearing field-aligned populations have higher ...

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Zou, Shasha; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Foster, John; Coppeans, Thomas; Ma, Qianli; Zong, Qiugang; Hull, A.; Henderson, Mike; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086384

Van Allen Probes

2019

Decay of Ultrarelativistic Remnant Belt Electrons Through Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss

Ultrarelativistic electron remnant belts appear frequently following geomagnetic disturbances and are located in-between the inner radiation belt and a reforming outer belt. As remnant belts are relatively stable, here we explore the importance of hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in controlling the observed decay rates of remnant belt ultrarelativistic electrons in a statistical way. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes inside the plasmasphere for 25 remnant belt events that occurred between 2012 and 2017 ...

Pinto, V.; Mourenas, D.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.; Artemyev, A.; Moya, P.; Lyons, L.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026509

Decay rates; EMIC waves; MeV Electron Decay; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; Remnant Belt; Van Allen Probes

Global Survey and Empirical Model of Fast Magnetosonic Waves Over Their Full Frequency Range in Earth\textquoterights Inner Magnetosphere

We investigate the global distribution and provide empirical models of fast magnetosonic waves using the combined observations by the magnetometer and waveform receiver on board Van Allen Probes. The magnetometer measurements of magnetosonic waves indicate a significant wave power within the frequency range from the helium gyrofrequency to 20 Hz at L >= 4 in the afternoon sector, both inside and outside the plasmapause. The waveform receiver measurements indicate a significant wave power from 20 Hz to the lower hybrid resona ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027407

Empirical Fitting; Global Survey; magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation

Ion Heating by Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves and Magnetosonic Waves in the Earth\textquoterights Inner Magnetosphere

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and magnetosonic waves are commonly observed in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere associated with enhanced ring current activity. Using wave and ion measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we identify clear correlations between the hydrogen- and helium-band EMIC waves with the enhancement of trapped helium and oxygen ion fluxes, respectively. We calculate the diffusion coefficients of different ion species using quasi-linear theory to understand the effects of resonant scatter ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Yue, C.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083513

electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves; Ion heating; Quasilinear modeling; Resonant interaction in plasmasphere; ring current; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation

Nonlinear Electron Interaction With Intense Chorus Waves: Statistics of Occurrence Rates

A comprehensive statistical analysis on 8 years of lower-band chorus wave packets measured by the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS spacecraft is performed to examine whether, when, and where these waves are above the theoretical threshold for nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction. We find that \~5\textendash30\% of all chorus waves interact nonlinearly with \~30- to 300-keV electrons possessing equatorial pitch angles of >40\textdegree in the outer radiation belt, especially during disturbed (AE>500 nT) periods with energe ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083833

chorus waves; Electron acceleration; nonlinear wave particle interaction; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes; wave packet size

The Relationship Between EMIC Wave Properties and Proton Distributions Based on Van Allen Probes Observations

Plasma kinetic theory predicts that sufficiently anisotropic proton distribution will excite electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which in turn relax the proton distribution to a marginally stable state creating an upper bound on the relaxed proton anisotropy. Here, using EMIC wave observations and coincident plasma measurements made by Van Allen Probes in the inner magnetosphere, we show that the proton distributions are well constrained by this instability to a marginally stable state. Near the threshold, the probab ...

Yue, Chao; Jun, Chae-Woo; Bortnik, Jacob; An, Xin; Ma, Qianli; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Gerrard, Andrew; Gkioulidou, Matina; Mitchell, Donald; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082633

EMIC waves; helium-band; hydrogen-band; plasma beta; proton temperature anisotropy; Van Allen Probes

A Statistical Study of EMIC Waves Associated With and Without Energetic Particle Injection From the Magnetotail

To understand the relationship between generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and energetic particle injections, we performed a statistical study of EMIC waves associated with and without injections based on the Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES; GOES-13 and GOES-15) observations. Using 47 months of observations, we identified wave events seen by the Van Allen Probes relative to the plasmapause and to energetic particle injections seen ...

Jun, C.-W.; Yue, C.; Bortnik, J.; Lyons, L.; Nishimura, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025886

EMIC waves associated with and without injections; Relationship between EMIC wave activity and energetic H+ flux variation; Simultaneous observations using the Van Allen Probes and GOES satellites; Spatial occurrence distributions of EMIC waves; Van Allen Probes

2018

Characteristics, Occurrence and Decay Rates of Remnant Belts associated with Three-Belt events in the Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts

Shortly after the launch of the Van Allen Probes, a new three-belt configuration of the electron radiation belts was reported. Using data between September 2012 and November 2017, we have identified 30 three-belt events and found that about 18\% of geomagnetic storms result in such configuration. Based on the identified events, we evaluated some characteristics of the remnant (intermediate) belt. We determined the energy range of occurrence and found it peaks at E = 5.2 MeV. We also determined that the magnetopause location ...

Pinto, V\; Bortnik, Jacob; Moya, Pablo; Lyons, Larry; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080274

Belt Formation; MeV Electrons; Outer Belt; Radiation belts; Remnant Belt; Three Belts; Van Allen Probes

The composition of plasma inside geostationary orbit based on Van Allen Probes observations

The composition of the inner magnetosphere is of great importance for determining the plasma pressure, and thus the currents and magnetic field configuration. In this study, we perform a statistical survey of equatorial plasma pressure distributions and investigate the relative contributions of ions and electron with different energies inside of geostationary orbit under two AE levels based on over sixty months of observations from the HOPE and RBSPICE mass spectrometers on board Van Allen Probes. We find that the total and ...

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Gkioulidou, Matina; Reeves, Geoffrey; Wang, Chih-Ping; Thorne, Richard; T. Y. Lui, Anthony; Gerrard, Andrew; Spence, Harlan; Mitchell, Donald;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025344

ion composition; plasma pressure; Plasmapause; Van Allen Probes

Longitudinal dependence of whistler mode electromagnetic waves in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere

We use the measurements performed by the DEMETER (2004-2010) and the Van Allen Probes (2012-2016, still operating) spacecraft to investigate the longitudinal dependence of the intensity of whistler mode waves in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere. We show that a significant longitudinal dependence is observed inside the plasmasphere on the nightside, primarily in the frequency range 400 Hz\textendash2 kHz. On the other hand, almost no longitudinal dependence is observed on the dayside. The obtained results are com ...

ahlava, J.; emec, F.; ik, O.; a, I.; Hospodarskyy, G.; Parrot, M.; Kurth, W.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025284

DEMETER; Van Allen Probes; Whistler waves

Properties of intense field-aligned lower-band chorus waves: Implications for nonlinear wave-particle interactions

Resonant interactions between electrons and chorus waves are responsible for a wide range of phenomena in near-Earth space (e.g., diffuse aurora, acceleration of MeV electrons, etc.). Although quasi-linear diffusion is believed to be the primary paradigm for describing such interactions, an increasing number of investigations suggest that nonlinear effects are also important in controlling the rapid dynamics of electrons. However, present models of nonlinear wave-particle interactions, which have been successfully used to de ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Thorne, R.; Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025390

chorus waves; Effective amplitude; nonlinear wave-particle interaction; spatial distribution; statistics; Van Allen Probes; Wave-packet length

Electron nonlinear resonant interaction with short and intense parallel chorus wave-packets

One of the major drivers of radiation belt dynamics, electron resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves, is traditionally described using the quasi-linear diffusion approximation. Such a description satisfactorily explains many observed phenomena, but its applicability can be justified only for sufficiently low intensity, long duration waves. Recent spacecraft observations of a large number of very intense lower band chorus waves (with magnetic field amplitudes sometimes reaching \~1\% of the background) therefore ...

Mourenas, D.; Zhang, X.-J.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Neishtadt, A.; Vasiliev, A.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025417

chorus waves; ; kinetic equation; nonlinear interaction; Radiation belts; short wave-packets; trapping; Van Allen Probes

Global model of plasmaspheric hiss from multiple satellite observations

We present a global model of plasmaspheric hiss, using data from eight satellites, extending the coverage and improving the statistics of existing models. We use geomagnetic activity dependent templates to separate plasmaspheric hiss from chorus. In the region 22-14 MLT the boundary between plasmaspheric hiss and chorus moves to lower L* values with increasing geomagnetic activity. The average wave intensity of plasmaspheric hiss is largest on the dayside and increases with increasing geomagnetic activity from midnight throu ...

Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Kersten, Tobias; Li, Wen; Bortnik, Jacob; Sicard-Piet, elica; Yearby, Keith;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025226

plasmasphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Quantitative Evaluation of Radial Diffusion and Local Acceleration Processes During GEM Challenge Events

We simulate the radiation belt electron flux enhancements during selected Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) challenge events to quantitatively compare the major processes involved in relativistic electron acceleration under different conditions. Van Allen Probes observed significant electron flux enhancement during both the storm time of 17\textendash18 March 2013 and non\textendashstorm time of 19\textendash20 September 2013, but the distributions of plasma waves and energetic electrons for the two events were dramaticall ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Chu, X.; Ozeke, L.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Engebretson, M.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025114

electron accelerationl whistler mode waves; radial diffusion; radiation belt simulation; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation

2017

Chorus Wave Modulation of Langmuir Waves in the Radiation Belts

Using high-resolution waveforms measured by the Van Allen Probes, we report a novel observation in the radiation belts. Namely, we show that multiband, discrete, rising-tone whistler mode chorus emissions exhibit a one-to-one correlation with Langmuir wave bursts. Moreover, the periodic Langmuir wave bursts are generally observed at the phase location where the chorus wave E|| component is oriented opposite to its propagation direction. The electron measurements show a beam in phase space density at the particle velocity tha ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; An, Xin; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Zhou, Meng; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Funsten, Herbert; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075877

Chorus wave; Landau resonance; Langmuir wave; nonlinear interaction; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; wave modulation

A neural network model of three-dimensional dynamic electron density in the inner magnetosphere

A plasma density model of the inner magnetosphere is important for a variety of applications including the study of wave-particle interactions, and wave excitation and propagation. Previous empirical models have been developed under many limiting assumptions and do not resolve short-term variations, which are especially important during storms. We present a three-dimensional dynamic electron density (DEN3D) model developed using a feedforward neural network with electron densities obtained from four satellite missions. The D ...

Chu, X.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Denton, R.; Yue, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R.; Darrouzet, F.; Ozhogin, P.; Kletzing, C.; Wang, Y.; Menietti, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024464

Radiation-Induced Single-Event Effects on the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft

Electronic devices on the Van Allen Probes mission have experienced more than a thousand single-event effects (SEE) during the 4.5 years of transit through the inner and outer earth trapped radiation belts. The majority of these SEE have been due to trapped protons determined by the orbit timing and the dose rate response of the engineering radiation monitor. Fault tolerant systems engineering and spacecraft operation have enabled a successful mission to date without a safe mode or spacecraft emergency.

Maurer, Richard; Fretz, Kristin; Angert, Matthew; Bort, David; Goldsten, John; Ottman, Geffrey; Dolan, Jeff; Needell, Gerald; Bodet, David;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2017.2754878

Space vehicles; Probes; Belts; Orbits; Monitoring; protons; Observatories; Van Allen Probes

The characteristic response of whistler mode waves to interplanetary shocks

Magnetospheric whistler mode waves play a key role in regulating the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. Recent satellite observations indicate a significant influence of interplanetary (IP) shocks on whistler mode wave power in the inner magnetosphere. In this study, we statistically investigate the response of whistler mode chorus and plasmaspheric hiss to IP shocks based on Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellite observations. Immediately after the IP shock arrival, chorus wave power is usually intensified, often at p ...

Yue, Chao; Chen, Lunjin; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Thorne, Richard; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Li, Jinxing; An, Xin; Zhou, Chen; Kletzing, Craig; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024574

IP shocks; MLT dependent; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Ray Tracing; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus

Diffusive transport of several hundred keV electrons in the Earth\textquoterights slot region

We investigate the gradual diffusion of energetic electrons from the inner edge of the outer radiation belt into the slot region. The Van Allen Probes observed slow inward diffusion and decay of ~200-600 keV electrons following the intense geomagnetic storm that occurred on 17 March 2013. During the 10-day non-disturbed period following the storm, the peak of electron fluxes gradually moved from L~2.7 to L~2.4, and the flux levels decreased by a factor of ~2-4 depending on the electron energy. We simulated the radial intrusi ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Turner, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024452

Electron transport; Energetic electron diffusion; pitch angle scattering; Slot region dynamics; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation; Waves in plasmasphere

The characteristic pitch angle distributions of 1 eV to 600 keV protons near the equator based on Van Allen Probes observations

Understanding the source and loss processes of various plasma populations is greatly aided by having accurate knowledge of their pitch angle distributions (PADs). Here, we statistically analyze ~1 eV to 600 keV hydrogen (H+) PADs near the geomagnetic equator in the inner magnetosphere based on Van Allen Probes measurements, to comprehensively investigate how the H+ PADs vary with different energies, magnetic local times (MLTs), L-shells, and geomagnetic conditions. Our survey clearly indicates four distinct populations with ...

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Ma, Qianli; An, Xin; Chappell, C.; Gerrard, Andrew; Lanzerotti, Louis; Shi, Quanqi; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Mitchell, Donald; Gkioulidou, Matina; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024421

bi-directional field-aligned; H+ Pitch angle distributions; plasmaspheric H+; radiation belt H+; ring current; Van Allen Probes; warm Plasma cloak

Statistical Properties of Low Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss

Plasmaspheric hiss is an important wave mode for the dynamics of inner terrestrial magnetosphere plasma populations. It acts to scatter high energy electrons out of trapped orbits about Earth and into the atmosphere, defining the inner edge of the radiation belts over a range of energies. A low-frequency component of hiss was recently identified and is important for its ability to interact with higher energy electrons compared to typically considered hiss frequencies. This study compares the statistical properties of low and ...

Malaspina, David; Jaynes, Allison; Hospodarsky, George; Bortnik, Jacob; Ergun, Robert; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024328

inner magnetosphere; plasma waves; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; Wave Statistics

Coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously observed over unexpectedly large spatial scales

Utilizing simultaneous twin Van Allen Probes observations of whistler mode waves at variable separations, we are able to distinguish the temporal variations from spatial variations, determine the coherence spatial scale, and suggest the possible mechanism of wave modulation. The two probes observed coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously at an unexpectedly large distance up to ~4.3 RE over 3 h during a relatively quiet period. The modulation of 150\textendash500 Hz plasmaspheric hiss was correlated with whist ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Ma, Qianli; Chu, Xiangning; Chen, Lunjin; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Wygant, John; Breneman, Aaron; Thaller, Scott;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023706

coherent waves; multisatellite; periodic rising tone; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode

Coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously observed over unexpectedly large spatial scales

Utilizing simultaneous twin Van Allen Probes observations of whistler mode waves at variable separations, we are able to distinguish the temporal variations from spatial variations, determine the coherence spatial scale, and suggest the possible mechanism of wave modulation. The two probes observed coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously at an unexpectedly large distance up to ~4.3 RE over 3 h during a relatively quiet period. The modulation of 150\textendash500 Hz plasmaspheric hiss was correlated with whist ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Ma, Qianli; Chu, Xiangning; Chen, Lunjin; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Wygant, John; Breneman, Aaron; Thaller, Scott;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023706

coherent waves; multisatellite; periodic rising tone; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode

Transitional behavior of different energy protons based on Van Allen Probes observations

Understanding the dynamical behavior of ~1 eV to 50 keV ions and identifying the energies at which the morphologies transit are important in that they involve the relative intensities and distributions of the large-scale electric and magnetic fields, the outflow, and recombination rates. However, there have been only few direct observational investigations of the transition in drift behaviors of different energy ions before the Van Allen Probes era. Here we statistically analyze ~1 eV to 50 keV hydrogen (H+) differential flu ...

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Chen, Lunjin; Ma, Qianli; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071324

Transition in drift behavior; UBK method; Van Allen Probes

\textquotedblleftZipper-like\textquotedblright periodic magnetosonic waves: Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and magnetospheric multiscale observations

An interesting form of \textquotedblleftzipper-like\textquotedblright magnetosonic waves consisting of two bands of interleaved periodic rising-tone spectra was newly observed by the Van Allen Probes, the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) missions. The two discrete bands are distinct in frequency and intensity; however, they maintain the same periodicity which varies in space and time, suggesting that they possibly originate from one single s ...

Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Breneman, A.; Thaller, S.; Funsten, H.; Mitchell, D.; Manweiler, J.; Torbert, R.; Le Contel, O.; Ergun, R.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Russell, C.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023536

magnetosonic wave; Radiation belt; rising-tone; Van Allen Probes; zipper-like

2016

Statistical distribution of EMIC wave spectra: Observations from Van Allen Probes

It has been known that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can precipitate ultrarelativistic electrons through cyclotron resonant scattering. However, the overall effectiveness of this mechanism has yet to be quantified, because it is difficult to obtain the global distribution of EMIC waves that usually exhibit limited spatial presence. We construct a statistical distribution of EMIC wave frequency spectra and their intensities based on Van Allen Probes measurements from September 2012 to December 2015. Our results s ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071158

EMIC waves; magnetic storm; outer radiation belt; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Transitional behavior of different energy protons based on Van Allen Probes observations

Understanding the dynamical behavior of ~1 eV to 50 keV ions and identifying the energies at which the morphologies transit are important in that they involve the relative intensities and distributions of the large-scale electric and magnetic fields, the outflow and recombination rates. However, there have been only few direct observational investigations of the transition in drift behaviors of different energy ions before the Van Allen Probes era. Here, we statistically analyze ~1 eV to 50 keV Hydrogen (H+) differential flu ...

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Chen, Lunjin; Ma, Qianli; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071324

Transition in drift behavior; UBK method; Van Allen Probes

Characteristic energy range of electron scattering due to plasmaspheric hiss

We investigate the characteristic energy range of electron flux decay due to the interaction with plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere. The Van Allen Probes have measured the energetic electron flux decay profiles in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during a quiet period following the geomagnetic storm that occurred on 7 November 2015. The observed energy of significant electron decay increases with decreasing L shell and is well correlated with the energy band corresponding to th ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023311

electron flux decay; pitch angle scattering; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation

Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the presen ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022517

Drift shell splitting; dropouts; magnetic storm; magnetopause shadowing; outer radiation belt; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes

RBSPICE measurement of ion loss during the 2015 March storm: Adiabatic response to the geomagnetic field change

A strongly energy-dependent ring current ion loss was measured by the RBSPICE instrument on the Van Allen Probes A spacecraft in the local evening sector during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm. The ion loss is found to be energy dependent where only ions with energies measured above \~ 150 keV have a significant drop in intensity. At these energies the ion dynamics are principally controlled by variations of the geomagnetic field which, during magnetic storms, exhibits large scale variations on timescales from minutes ...

Soto-Chavez, A.; Lanzerotti, L.; Gerrard, A.; Kim, H.; Bortnik, J.; Manweiler, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022512

inner magnetosphere; Magnetic Storms; Ring current ion.; Van Allen Probes

Unraveling the excitation mechanisms of highly oblique lower band chorus waves

Excitation mechanisms of highly oblique, quasi-electrostatic lower band chorus waves are investigated using Van Allen Probes observations near the equator of the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Linear growth rates are evaluated based on in situ, measured electron velocity distributions and plasma conditions and compared with simultaneously observed wave frequency spectra and wave normal angles. Accordingly, two distinct excitation mechanisms of highly oblique lower band chorus have been clearly identified for the first ...

Li, W.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v43.1710.1002/2016GL070386

beam instability; lower band chorus; oblique chorus excitation; temperature anisotropy; Van Allen Probes

The distribution of plasmaspheric hiss wave power with respect to plasmapause location

In this work, Van Allen Probes data are used to derive terrestrial plasmaspheric hiss wave power distributions organized by (1) distance away from the plasmapause and (2) plasmapause distance from Earth. This approach is in contrast to the traditional organization of hiss wave power by L parameter and geomagnetic activity. Plasmapause-sorting reveals previously unreported and highly repeatable features of the hiss wave power distribution, including a regular spatial distribution of hiss power with respect to the plasmapause, ...

Malaspina, David; Jaynes, Allison; e, Cory; Bortnik, Jacob; Thaller, Scott; Ergun, Robert; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069982

hiss; plasma waves; plasmasphere; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

The relationship between the macroscopic state of electrons and the properties of chorus waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

Plasma kinetic theory predicts that a sufficiently anisotropic electron distribution will excite whistler mode waves, which in turn relax the electron distribution in such a way as to create an upper bound on the relaxed electron anisotropy. Here using whistler mode chorus wave and plasma measurements by Van Allen Probes, we confirm that the electron distributions are well constrained by this instability to a marginally stable state in the whistler mode chorus waves generation region. Lower band chorus waves are organized by ...

Yue, Chao; An, Xin; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Gkioulidou, Matina; Mitchell, Donald; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070084

beta parallel; electron temperature anisotropy; marginally stable state; oblique waves; quasi-parallel waves; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus waves

Direct evidence for EMIC wave scattering of relativistic electrons in space

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause efficient losses of highly relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons via gyroresonant interactions. Simultaneous observations of EMIC waves and equatorial electron pitch angle distributions, which can be used to directly quantify the EMIC wave scattering effect, are still very limited, however. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of EMIC waves on pitch angle scattering of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, wh ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, L.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022521

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; equatorial pitch angle distribution; Fokker-Planck equation; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical p ...

Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.; Li, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Kanekal, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Green, J.; Goldstein, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.610.1002/2016JA022400

chorus-driven local acceleration; Electron acceleration; radial diffusion; Van Allen Probes

Rapid enhancement of low-energy (<100 eV) ion flux in response to interplanetary shocks based on two Van Allen Probes case studies: Implications for source regions and heating mechanisms

Interactions between interplanetary (IP) shocks and the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere manifest many important space physics phenomena including low-energy ion flux enhancements and particle acceleration. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving shock-induced enhancement of low-energy ion flux, we have examined two IP shock events that occurred when the Van Allen Probes were located near the equator while ionospheric and ground observations were available around the spacecraft footprints. We have found that, assoc ...

Yue, Chao; Li, Wen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Zong, Qiugang; Ma, Qianli; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John; Nicolls, Michael;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022808

adiabatic accelerations; enhancement of low-energy ion flux; ionospheric ion outflows; response to IP shocks; Van Allen Probes

New Chorus Wave Properties Near the Equator from Van Allen Probes Wave Observations

The chorus wave properties are evaluated using Van Allen Probes data in the Earth\textquoterights equatorial magnetosphere. Two distinct modes of lower band chorus are identified: a quasi-parallel mode and a quasi-electrostatic mode, whose wave normal direction is close to the resonance cone. Statistical results indicate that the quasi-electrostatic (quasi-parallel) mode preferentially occurs during relatively quiet (disturbed) geomagnetic activity at lower (higher) L shells. Although the magnetic intensity of the quasi-elec ...

Li, W.; Santolik, O.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068780

Chorus wave; oblique; quasi-electrostatic; quasi-parallel; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angles

Occurrence Characteristics of Outer Zone Relativistic Electron Butterfly Distribution: A Survey of Van Allen Probes REPT Measurements

Using Van Allen Probes REPT pitch angle resolved electron flux data from September 2012 to March 2015, we investigate in detail the global occurrence pattern of equatorial (|λ| <= 3\textdegree) butterfly distribution of outer zone relativistic electrons and its potential correlation with the solar wind dynamic pressure. The statistical results demonstrate that these butterfly distributions occur with the highest occurrence rate ~ 80\% at ~ 20 \textendash 04 MLT and L > ~ 5.5 and with the second peak (> ~ 50 \%) at ~ 11 \tex ...

Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Li, Xinlin; Bortnik, Jacob; Xie, Lun; Gu, Xudong;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069350

butterfly pitch angle distributions; global occurrence pattern; outer radiation belt; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes



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