Found 118 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 50


Energetic electron detection packages on board Chinese navigation satellites in MEO

Abstract Energetic electron measurements and spacecraft charging are of great significance for theoretical research in space physics and space weather applications. In this paper, the energetic electron detection package (EEDP) deployed on three Chinese navigation satellites in medium Earth orbit (MEO) is reviewed. The instrument was developed by the space science payload team led by Peking University. The EEDP includes a pinhole medium-energy electron spectrometer (MES), a high-energy electron detector (HED) based on ΔE-E ...

YuGuang, Ye; Hong, Zou; Qiu-Gang, Zong; HongFei, Chen; JiQing, Zou; WeiHong, Shi; XiangQian, Yu; WeiYing, Zhong; YongFu, Wang; YiXin, Hao; ZhiYang, Liu; XiangHong, Jia; Bo, Wang; XiaoPing, Yang; XiaoYun, Hao;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belts; energetic electron detection; Pin-hole technology; Chinese navigation satellites; MEO; internal charging; Van Allen Probes

Empirical loss timescales of slot region electrons due to plasmaspheric hiss based on Van Allen Probes observations

Abstract Based on Van Allen Probes observations, in this study we perform a statistical analysis of the spectral intensities of plasmaspheric hiss at L-shells of 1.8 – 3.0 in the slot region. Our results show that slot region hiss power intensifies with a strong day-night asymmetry as the level of substorm activity or L-shell increases. Using the statistical spectral profiles of plasmaspheric hiss, we calculate the drift- and bounce-averaged electron pitch angle diffusion coefficients and subsequently obtain the resultant ...

Zhu, Qi; Cao, Xing; Gu, Xudong; Ni, Binbin; Xiang, Zheng; Fu, Song; Summers, Danny; Hua, Man; Lou, Yuequn; Ma, Xin; Guo, YingJie; Guo, DeYu; Zhang, Wenxun;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Plasmaspheric Hiss; Slot region; Electron loss timescales; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous observation of two isolated proton auroras at subauroral latitudes by a highly sensitive all-sky camera and Van Allen Probes

Abstract Isolated proton auroras (IPAs) appearing at subauroral latitudes are generated by energetic protons precipitating from the magnetosphere through interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. An IPA thus indicates the spatial scale and temporal variation of wave–particle interactions in the magnetosphere. In this study, a unique event of simultaneous ground and magnetospheric satellite observations of two IPAs were conducted on March 16, 2015, using an all-sky imager at Athabasca, Canada and Van Alle ...

Nakmaura, Kohki; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Shinbori, Atsuki; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Connors, Martin; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff; Funsten, Herbert; MacDowall, Robert; Smith, Charles; Wygant, John; Bonnell, John;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

isolated proton aurora; Van Allen Probes

Prediction of Dynamic Plasmapause Location Using a Neural Network

Abstract As a common boundary layer that distinctly separates the regions of high-density plasmasphere and low-density plasmatrough, the plasmapause is essential to comprehend the dynamics and variability of the inner magnetosphere. Using the machine learning framework Pytorch and high-quality Van Allen Probes data set, we develop a neural network model to predict the global dynamic variation of the plasmapause location, along with the identification of 6537 plasmapause crossing events during the period from 2012 to 2017. To ...

Guo, DeYu; Fu, Song; Xiang, Zheng; Ni, Binbin; Guo, YingJie; Feng, Minghang; Guo, JianGuang; Hu, Zejun; Gu, Xudong; Zhu, Jianan; Cao, Xing; Wang, Qi;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Plasmapause; neural network; Van Allen Probes; space weather forecast

RBSP-ECT Combined Pitch Angle Resolved Electron Flux Data Product

Abstract We describe a new data product combining pitch angle resolved electron flux measurements from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Van Allen Probes. We describe the methodology used to combine each of the data sets and produce a consistent set of pitch-angle-resolved spectra for the entire Van Allen Probes mission. Three-minute-averaged flux spectra are provided spanning energies from 15 eV up to 20 ...

Boyd, A.J.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.; Funsten, H.O; Skoug, R.K.; Larsen, B.A.; Blake, J.B.; Fennell, J.F.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Baker, D.N.; Kanekal, S.K.; Jaynes, A.N.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Van Allen Probes; Radiation belts; ECT; MAGEis; REPT; HOPE

Multi-Point Observations of Quasiperiodic Emission Intensification and Effects on Energetic Electron Precipitation

AbstractThe two Van Allen Probes simultaneously recorded a coherently modulated quasiperiodic (QP) emission that persisted for 3 hours. The magnetic field pulsation at the locations of the two satellites showed a substantial difference, and their frequencies were close to but did not exactly match the repetition frequency of QP emissions for most of the time, suggesting that those coherent QP emissions probably originated from a common source, which then propagated over a broad area in the magnetosphere. The QP emissions wer ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Shen, Xiaochen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; An, Xin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Wygant, John; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Hartley, David; Reeves, Geoffrey; Funsten, Herbert; Blake, Bernard; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

quasiperiodic emissions; electron precipitation; Radiation belt; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes; ULF wave


Equatorial pitch angle distributions of 1 – 50 keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere: an empirical model based on the Van Allen Probes observations

Using seven years of data from the HOPE instrument on the Van Allen Probes, equatorial pitch angle distributions (PADs) of 1 – 50 keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are investigated statistically. An empirical model of electron equatorial PADs as a function of radial distance, magnetic local time, geomagnetic activity, and electron energy is constructed using the method of Legendre polynomial fitting. Model results show that most equatorial PADs of 1 – 10s of keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are pan ...

Zhao, H.; Friedel, R.; Chen, Y.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Malaspina, D.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Boyd, A.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Pitch angle distribution; energetic electrons; Earth s inner magnetosphere; Anisotropy; Chorus wave; statistical analysis; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Distribution of Bifurcation of Earth s Inner Energetic Electron Belt at tens of keV

We present a survey of the bifurcation of the Earth s energetic electron belt (tens of keV) using 6-year measurements from Van Allen Probes. The inner energetic electron belt usually presents one-peak radial structure with high flux intensity at L < ∼2.5, which however can be bifurcated to exhibit a double-peak radial structure. By automatically identifying the events of bifurcation based on RBSPICE data, we find that the bifurcation is mostly observed at ∼30–100 keV with a local flux minimum at L=∼2.0–∼2.3 under ...

Hua, Man; Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Gu, Xudong; Fu, Song; Cao, Xing; Guo, YingJie; Liu, Yangxizi;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Inner electron radiation belt; Flux bifurcation; VLF transmitter waves; Statistical distribution; Van Allen Probes

Ring Current Decay During Geomagnetic Storm Recovery Phase: Comparison Between RBSP Observations and Theoretical Modeling

Ring current decay during storm recovery phase may be affected by different loss processes. In this study, we have investigated the lifetimes of ring current ions (H+ and O+) of energies from 1 keV to several hundred keV at L shell from 3 to 6 during the storm recovery phase through a statistical survey. The observational data of 48 geomagnetic storms from March 2013 to May 2019 are collected based on Van Allen Probe observations. We find that (1) the observed lifetimes of H+ and O+ in general increase with L shell and (2) ...

Chen, Ao; Yue, Chao; Chen, HongFei; Zong, Qiugang; Fu, Suiyan; Wang, Yongfu; Ren, Jie;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

charge exchange; lifetime; ring current decay; Van Allen Probes

On the loss mechanisms of radiation belt electron dropouts during the 12 September 2014 geomagnetic storm

Radiation belt electron dropouts indicate electron flux decay to the background level during geomagnetic storms, which is commonly attributed to the effects of wave-induced pitch angle scattering and magnetopause shadowing. To investigate the loss mechanisms of radiation belt electron dropouts triggered by a solar wind dynamic pressure pulse event on 12 September 2014, we comprehensively analyzed the particle and wave measurements from Van Allen Probes. The dropout event was divided into three periods: before the storm, the ...

Ma, Xin; Xiang, Zheng; Ni, Binbin; Fu, Song; Cao, Xing; Hua, Man; Guo, DeYu; Guo, YingJie; Gu, Xudong; Liu, ZeYuan; Zhu, Qi;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

radiation belt electron flux dropouts; Geomagnetic storm; electron phase space density; magnetopause shadowing; wave–particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

On the Formation of Wedge-Like Ion Spectral Structures in the Nightside Inner Magnetosphere

Recent observations in the nightside inner magnetosphere have identified a series of wedge-like spectral structures in the energy-time spectrograms of oxygen, helium, and hydrogen ion fluxes. Although the shapes and distributions of these structures have been characterized by case and statistical studies, their formation mechanism remains unclear. Here we utilize a particle tracing model to reproduce the wedge-like structures successively observed by the twin Van Allen Probes. The model suggests that these structures origina ...

Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Ren, Jie; Yang, Fan; Yue, Chao; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Fu, Sui-Yan; Wang, Yongfu;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

wedge-like structure; inner magnetosphere; substorm injection; magnetospheric convection; ring current; magnetotail; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneously Formed Wedge-Like Structures of Different Ion Species Deep in the Inner Magnetosphere

In this study, ion data from the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) spectrometers onboard Van Allen Probes reveal the existence of wedge-like structures of O+, He+, and H+ ions deep in the inner magnetosphere. The behaviors of the wedge-like structures in terms of temporal evolution, spatial distribution, upper energy limit, as well as dependence on solar wind and different geomagnetic indices are investigated from both event studies of several consecutive orbits on 3 February 2013 and the subsequent statistical ana ...

Ren, Jie; Zong, Q.; Yue, C.; Zhou, X.; . Y. Fu, S; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

wedge-like structures; Ring current ions; inner magnetosphere; Substorm Injections; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneously Formed Wedge-Like Structures of Different Ion Species Deep in the Inner Magnetosphere

In this study, ion data from the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) spectrometers onboard Van Allen Probes reveal the existence of wedge-like structures of O+, He+, and H+ ions deep in the inner magnetosphere. The behaviors of the wedge-like structures in terms of temporal evolution, spatial distribution, upper energy limit, as well as dependence on solar wind and different geomagnetic indices are investigated from both event studies of several consecutive orbits on 3 February 2013 and the subsequent statistical ana ...

Ren, Jie; Zong, Q.; Yue, C.; Zhou, X.; . Y. Fu, S; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

wedge-like structures; Ring current ions; inner magnetosphere; Substorm Injections; Van Allen Probes

A Short-lived Three-Belt Structure for sub-MeV Electrons in the Van Allen Belts: Time Scale and Energy Dependence

In this study we focus on the radiation belt dynamics driven by the geomagnetic storms during September 2017. Besides the long-lasting three-belt structures of ultrarelativistic electrons (>2 MeV, existing for tens of days), which has been studied intensively during the Van Allen Probe era, it is found that magnetospheric electrons of hundreds of keVs can also have three-belt structures at similar L extent during storm time. Measurements of 500–800 keV electrons from MagEIS instrument onboard Van Allen Probes show double- ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zou, H.; Rankin, R.; Sun, Y.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; . Y. Fu, S; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

storage ring; three-belt structure; hiss wave; electron lifetime; Radial Transport; Van Allen Probes

An empirical model of the global distribution of plasmaspheric hiss based on Van Allen Probes EMFISIS measurements

Using wave measurements from the EMFISIS instrument onboard Van Allen Probes, we investigate statistically the spatial distributions of the intensity of plasmaspheric hiss waves. To reproduce these empirical results, we establish a fitting model that is a third-order polynomial function of L-shell, magnetic local time (MLT), magnetic latitude (MLAT), and AE*. Quantitative comparisons indicate that the model s fitting functions can reflect favorably the major empirical features of the global distribution of hiss wave intensit ...

Wang, JingZhi; Zhu, Qi; Gu, Xudong; Fu, Song; Guo, JianGuang; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Yi, Juan; Guo, YingJie; Ni, Binbin; Xiang, Zheng;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

hiss; Van Allen Probes; global model

Simultaneous Observations of Localized and Global Drift Resonance

In this study, we present Van Allen Probe observations showing that seed (hundreds of keV) and core ( 1 MeV) electrons can resonate with ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave modes with distinctive m values simultaneously. An unusual electron energy spectrogram with double-banded resonant structure was recorded by energetic particle, composition, and thermal plasma (ECT)-magnetic electron ion spectrometer (MagEIS) and, meanwhile, boomerang stripes in pitch angle spectrogram appeared at the lower energy band. A localized drift reson ...

Hao, Y.; Zhao, X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; . Y. Fu, S; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

drift resonance; ULF waves; Radiation Belt Dynamics; boomerang stripes; azimuthal wave number; multiple resonances; Van Allen Probes


Remote Detection of Drift Resonance Between Energetic Electrons and Ultralow Frequency Waves: Multisatellite Coordinated Observation by Arase and Van Allen Probes

We report the electron flux modulations without corresponding magnetic fluctuations from unique multipoint satellite observations of the Arase (Exploration of Energization and Radiation in Geospace) and the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probe [RBSP])-B satellites. On 30 March 2017, both Arase and RBSP-B observed periodic fluctuations in the relativistic electron flux with energies ranging from 500 keV to 2 MeV when they were located near the magnetic equator in the morning and dusk local time sectors, respectively. A ...

Teramoto, M.; Hori, T.; Saito, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kurita, S.; Higashio, N.; Matsuoka, A.; Kasahara, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Takashima, T.; Nomura, R.; e, Nos\; Fujimoto, A.; Tanaka, Y.-M.; Shoji, M.; Tsugawa, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Shinohara, I.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.F.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Turner, D.; Kletzing, C.; Sormakov, D.; Troshichev, O.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084379

Van Allen Probes

Cold Plasmaspheric Electrons Affected by ULF Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere: A Van Allen Probes Statistical Study

Six years of Van Allen Probes data are used to investigate cold plasmaspheric electrons affected by ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves in the inner magnetosphere (L<7) including spatial distributions, occurrence conditions, and resonant energy range. Events exhibit a global distribution within L= 4\textendash7 but preferentially occur at L\~5.5\textendash7 in the dayside, while there is higher occurrence rate in the duskside than dawnside. They can occur under different geomagnetic activities and solar wind velocities (VS), but ...

Ren, Jie; Zong, Q.; Zhou, X.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Wygant, J.; Rankin, R.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027009

Cold plasmaspheric electrons; drift-bounce resonance; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

RBSP-ECT Combined Spin-Averaged Electron Flux Data Product

We describe a new data product combining the spin-averaged electron flux measurements from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration\textquoterights Van Allen Probes. We describe the methodology used to combine each of the data sets and produce a consistent set of spectra for September 2013 to the present. Three-minute-averaged flux spectra are provided spanning energies from 15 eV up to 20 MeV. This new data produ ...

Boyd, A.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Jaynes, A.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026733

ECT; HOPE; MAGEis; Radiation belts; REPT; Van Allen Probes

Wave Normal Angle Distribution of Fast Magnetosonic Waves: A Survey of Van Allen Probes EMFISIS Observations

Using Van Allen Probe Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) wave observations from September 2012 to May 2018, we statistically investigate the distributions of power-weighted wave normal angle (WNA) of fast magnetosonic (MS) waves from L = 2\textendash6 within \textpm15\textdegree geomagnetic latitudes. The spatial distributions show that the MS WNAs are mainly confined within 87\textendash89\textdegree near the geomagnetic equator and decrease with increasing magnetic latitude. Furth ...

Zou, Zhengyang; Zuo, Pingbing; Ni, Binbin; Wei, Fengsi; Zhao, Zhengyu; Cao, Xing; Fu, Song; Gu, Xudong;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026556

Empirical Model; Fast Magnetosonic Waves; latitudinal dependence; power-weighted wave normal angles; spatial distributions; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Properties of Hiss in Plasmaspheric Plumes and Associated Scattering Losses of Radiation Belt Electrons

Whistler mode hiss acts as an important loss mechanism contributing to the radiation belt electron dynamics inside the plasmasphere and plasmaspheric plumes. Based on Van Allen Probes observations from September 2012 to December 2015, we conduct a detailed analysis of hiss properties in plasmaspheric plumes and illustrate that corresponding to the highest occurrence probability of plumes at L = 5.0\textendash6.0 and MLT = 18\textendash21, hiss emissions occur concurrently with a rate of >~80\%. Plume hiss can efficiently sca ...

Zhang, Wenxun; Ni, Binbin; Huang, He; Summers, Danny; Fu, Song; Xiang, Zheng; Gu, Xudong; Cao, Xing; Lou, Yuequn; Hua, Man;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081863

Electron scattering; plasmaspheric plumes; plume hiss; Van Allen Probes

Excitation of extremely low-frequency chorus emissions: The role of background plasma density

Low-frequency chorus emissions have recently attracted much attention due to the suggestion that they may play important roles in the dynamics of the Van Allen Belts. However, the mechanism (s) generating these low-frequency chorus emissions have not been well understood. . In this letter, we report an interesting case in which background plasma density lowered the lower cutoff frequency of chorus emissions from above 0.1 f ce (typical ordinary chorus) to 0.02 f ce (extremely low-frequency chorus). Those extremely low-freque ...

Yu, Xiongdong; Yuan, Zhigang; Huang, Shiyong; Yao, Fei; Qiao, Zheng; Wygant, John; Funsten, Herbert;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.26464/epp2019001

anisotropic temperature instability; linear growth rate; low-frequency chorus emissions; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode

PreMevE: New Predictive Model for Megaelectron-volt Electrons inside Earth\textquoterights Outer Radiation Belt

This work designs a new model called PreMevE to predict storm-time distributions of relativistic electrons within Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt. This model takes advantage of the cross-energy, -L-shell, and \textendashpitch-angle coherence associated with wave-electron resonant interactions, ingests observations from belt boundaries\textemdashmainly by NOAA POES in low-Earth-orbits (LEOs), and provides high-fidelity nowcast (multiple-hour prediction) and forecast (> ~1 day) of MeV electron fluxes over L-shells b ...

Chen, Yue; Reeves, Geoffrey; Fu, Xiangrong; Henderson, Michael;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018SW002095

event-specific predictions; LANL GEO observations; linear predictive filters; MeV electron events; outer radiation belt; precipitation at low-earth-orbits (LEO); Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous trapping of EMIC and MS waves by background plasmas

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and fast magnetosonic waves are found to be simultaneously modulated by background plasma density: both kinds of waves were observed in high plasma density regions but vanished in low density regions. Theoretical analysis based on Snell\textquoterights law and linear growth theory have been utilized to investigate the physical mechanisms driving such modulation. It is suggested that the modulation of fast magnetosonic waves might be due to trapping by plasma density structures, which resul ...

Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Ouyang, Zhihai; Yao, Fei; Huang, Shiyong; Funsten, H.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026149

EMIC waves; MS waves; Ring current ions; Van Allen Probes; Wave trapping

Sensitivity of EMIC Wave-Driven Scattering Loss of Ring Current Protons to Wave Normal Angle Distribution

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves have long been recognized to play a crucial role in the dynamic loss of ring current protons. While the field-aligned propagation approximation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves was widely used to quantify the scattering loss of ring current protons, in this study, we find that the wave normal distribution strongly affects the pitch angle scattering efficiency of protons. Increase of peak normal angle or angular width can considerably reduce the scattering rates of <=10 keV protons. F ...

Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Summers, Danny; Shprits, Yuri; Gu, Xudong; Fu, Song; Lou, Yuequn; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Xin; Zhang, Wenxun; Huang, He; Yi, Juan;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081550

EMIC waves; Quasi-linear diffusion; Ring current protons; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions


Response of banded whistler-mode waves to the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure in the inner Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere

With observations of Van Allen Probe A, in this letter we display a typical event where banded whistler waves shifted up their frequencies with frequency bands broadening as a response to the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure. Meanwhile, the anisotropy of electrons with energies about several tens of keV was observed to increase. Through the comparison of the calculated wave growth rates and observed wave spectral intensity, we suggest that those banded whistler waves observed with frequencies shifted up and frequen ...

Yu, Xiongdong; Yuan, Zhigang; Li, Haimeng; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Yao, Fei; Funsten, H.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078849

Banded whistler-mode waves; Frequency properties; inner magnetosphere; solar wind dynamic pressure; Van Allen Probes

Longitudinal Structure of Oxygen Torus in the Inner Magnetosphere: Simultaneous Observations by Arase and Van Allen Probe A

Simultaneous observations of the magnetic field and plasma waves made by the Arase and Van Allen Probe A satellites at different magnetic local time (MLT) enable us to deduce the longitudinal structure of an oxygen torus for the first time. During 04:00\textendash07:10 UT on 24 April 2017, Arase flew from L = 6.2 to 2.0 in the morning sector and detected an enhancement of the average plasma mass up to ~3.5 amu around L = 4.9\textendash5.2 and MLT = 5.0 hr, implying that the plasma consists of approximately 15\% O+ ions. Prob ...

e, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Kumamoto, A.; Kasahara, Y.; Goldstein, J.; Teramoto, M.; Tsuchiya, F.; Matsuda, S.; Shoji, M.; Imajo, S.; Oimatsu, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Obana, Y.; Nomura, R.; Fujimoto, A.; Shinohara, I.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080122

Arase satellite; Geomagnetic storm; inner magnetosphere; oxygen torus; simultaneous observation; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes satellite

Combined Scattering of Outer Radiation Belt Electrons by Simultaneously Occurring Chorus, Exohiss, and Magnetosonic Waves

We report a typical event that fast magnetosonic (MS) waves, exohiss, and two-band chorus waves occurred simultaneously on the dayside observed by Van Allen Probes on 25 December 2013. By combining calculations of electron diffusion coefficients and 2-D Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we quantitatively analyze the combined scattering effect of multiple waves to demonstrate that the net impact of combined scattering does not simply depend on the wave intensity dominance of various plasma waves. Although the observed MS w ...

Hua, Man; Ni, Binbin; Fu, Song; Gu, Xudong; Xiang, Zheng; Cao, Xing; Zhang, Wenxun; He, Ying; Huang, He; Lou, Yuequn; Zhang, Yang;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079533

Combined scattering effect; diffusion simulations; Exohiss; magnetosonic waves; resonant wave-particle interactions; two-band chorus waves; Van Allen Probes

Global distribution of proton rings and associated magnetosonic wave instability in the inner magnetosphere

Using the Van Allen Probe A observations, we obtained the global distribution of proton rings and calculated the linear wave growth rate of fast magnetosonic (MS) waves in the region L ~ 3-6. Our statistical and calculated results demonstrate that MS waves can be locally excited on the dayside outside the plasmapause, as well as in the dusk sector inside the plasmapause. The frequency range of unstable MS waves is strongly modulated by the ratio of the proton ring velocity (Vr) to the local Alfv\ en speed (VA). High harmonic ...

Yuan, Zhigang; Ouyang, Zhihai; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Yao, Fei; Funsten, H.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079999

Fast Magnetosonic Waves; linear growth rates; locally excited; low harmonic magnetosonic waves; Proton rings; Van Allen Probes

MMS, Van Allen Probes, GOES 13, and Ground Based Magnetometer Observations of EMIC Wave Events Before, During, and After a Modest Interplanetary Shock

The stimulation of EMIC waves by a magnetospheric compression is perhaps the closest thing to a controlled experiment that is currently possible in magnetospheric physics, in that one prominent factor that can increase wave growth acts at a well-defined time. We present a detailed analysis of EMIC waves observed in the outer dayside magnetosphere by the four Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, Van Allen Probe A, and GOES 13, and by four very high latitude ground magnetometer stations in the western hemisphere before, ...

Engebretson, M.; Posch, J.; Capman, N.; Campuzano, N.; elik, P.; Allen, R.; Vines, S.; Anderson, B.; Tian, S.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Fuselier, S.; Argall, M.; Lessard, M.; Torbert, R.; Moldwin, M.; Hartinger, M.; Kim, H.; Russell, C.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025984

Van Allen Probes

The Response of the Energy Content of the Outer Electron Radiation Belt to Geomagnetic Storms

Using the data from the Van Allen Probe-A spacecraft, the variability of the total outer radiation belt (2.5300 keV) is investigated for the first time during 51 isolated storms spanning from October 2012 to May 2017. The statistical results show that the TRBEEC exhibits no-change in 20\% of the storms and gets enhanced during 80\% of them. The sub-relativistic electrons (300-500 keV) and relativistic electrons (0.5-2.0 MeV) equally contribute to the TRBEEC du ...

Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Chen, Lunjin; Ni, Binbin; Fu, Suiyan; Pu, Zuyin;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025475

Chorus wave; energetic particles; energy content; magnetic storm; outer radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Nonlinear drift resonance between charged particles and ultra-low frequency waves: Theory and Observations

In Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere, electromagnetic waves in the ultra-low frequency (ULF) range play an important role in accelerating and diffusing charged particles via drift resonance. In conventional drift-resonance theory, linearization is applied under the assumption of weak wave-particle energy exchange so particle trajectories are unperturbed. For ULF waves with larger amplitudes and/or durations, however, the conventional theory becomes inaccurate since particle trajectories are strongly perturbed. Here, ...

Li, Li; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Omura, Yoshiharu; Wang, Zi-Han; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Liu, Ying; Hao, Yi-Xin; Fu, Sui-Yan; Kivelson, Margaret; Rankin, Robert; Claudepierre, Seth; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079038

drift resonance; nonlinear process; Particle acceleration; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

A comparative study of ULF waves\textquoteright role in the dynamics of charged particles in the plasmasphere: Van Allen Probes observation

By analyzing observations from Van Allen Probes in its inbound and outbound orbits, we present evidence of coherent enhancement of cold plasmaspheric electrons and ions due to drift-bounce resonance with ULF waves. From 18:00 UT on 28 May 2017 to 10:00 UT on 29 May 2017, newly formed poloidal mode standing ULF waves with significant electric field oscillations were observed in two consecutive orbits when Probe B was travelling inbound. In contrast to observations during outbound orbits, the cold (< 150 eV) electorns measured ...

Ren, Jie; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Rankin, Robert; Spence, Harlan; Funsten, Herbert; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025255

Cold plasmaspheric electrons acceleration; Drfit-bounce resonance; Modification of electron and ion density profile; Substorm activities; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Rapid Enhancements of the Seed Populations in the Heart of the Earth\textquoterights Outer Radiation Belt: A Multicase Study

To better understand rapid enhancements of the seed populations (hundreds of keV electrons) in the heart of the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt (L* ~ 3.5\textendash5.0) during different geomagnetic activities, we investigate three enhancement events measured by Van Allen Probes in detail. Observations of the fluxes and the pitch angle distributions of energetic electrons are analyzed to determine rapid enhancements of the seed populations. Our study shows that three specified processes associated with substorm ele ...

Tang, C.; Xie, X.; Ni, B.; Su, Z.; Reeves, G.; Zhang, J.-C.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Wygant, J.; . Y. Dai, G;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA025142

enhanced convection; Substorm Injections; the outer radiation belt; the seed population; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Electron Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss in a Nightside Plume

Plasmaspheric hiss is known to play an important role in radiation belt electron dynamics in high plasma density regions. We present observations of two crossings of a plasmaspheric plume by the Van Allen Probes on 26 December 2012, which occurred unusually at the post-midnight-to-dawn sector between L ~ 4\textendash6 during a geomagnetically quiet period. This plume exhibited pronounced electron densities higher than those of the average plume level. Moderate hiss emissions accompanied the two plume crossings with the peak ...

Zhang, Wenxun; Fu, Song; Gu, Xudong; Ni, Binbin; Xiang, Zheng; Summers, Danny; Zou, Zhengyang; Cao, Xing; Lou, Yuequn; Hua, Man;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077212

Electron scattering; nightside plumes; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes

Cold Ion Heating by Magnetosonic Waves in a Density Cavity of the Plasmasphere

Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves play an important role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Theoretical prediction and simulation have demonstrated that MS waves can heat cold ions. However, direct observational evidence of cold ion heating by MS waves has so far remained elusive. In this paper, we show a typical event of cold ion heating by magnetosonic waves in a density cavity of the plasmasphere with observations of the Van Allen Probe mission on 22 August 2013. During enhancements of the MS wave intensity in the den ...

Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Qiao, Zheng; Yao, Fei; Funsten, Herbert;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024919

cold ion heating; Density cavities; local linear growth rates; magnetosonic waves; Ring current ions; Van Allen Probes; \textquoteleftring\textquoteright distributions

Excitation of O + Band EMIC Waves Through H + Ring Velocity Distributions: Van Allen Probe Observations

A typical case of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) emissions with both He+ band and O+ band waves was observed by Van Allen Probe A on 14 July 2014. These emissions occurred in the morning sector on the equator inside the plasmasphere, in which region O+ band EMIC waves prefer to appear. Through property analysis of these emissions, it is found that the He+ band EMIC waves are linearly polarized and propagating quasi-parallelly along the background magnetic field, while the O+ band ones are of linear and left-hand polari ...

Yu, Xiongdong; Yuan, Zhigang; Huang, Shiyong; Yao, Fei; Wang, Dedong; Funsten, Herbert; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v45.310.1002/2018GL077109

linear wave growth; O+ band EMIC waves; ring distributions; Van Allen Probes

Resonant Scattering of Radiation Belt Electrons by Off-Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves

Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves are commonly regarded as electromagnetic waves that are characteristically confined within \textpm3\textdegree of the geomagnetic equator. We report two typical off-equatorial MS events observed by Van Allen Probes, that is, the 8 May 2014 event that occurred at the geomagnetic latitudes of 7.5\textdegree\textendash9.2\textdegree both inside and outside the plasmasphere with the wave amplitude up to 590 pT and the 9 January 2014 event that occurred at the latitudes of\textemdash(15.7\textdegree\t ...

Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Fu, Song; Cao, Xing; Gu, Xudong; Xiang, Zheng;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v45.310.1002/2017GL075788

butterfly pitch angle distributions; off-equatorial MS waves; radiation belt electrons; Van Allen Probes


The Radiation Belt Electron Scattering by Magnetosonic Wave: Dependence on Key Parameters

Magnetosonic (MS) waves have been found capable of creating radiation belt electron butterfly distributions in the inner magnetosphere. To investigate the physical nature of the interactions between radiation belt electrons and MS waves, and to explore a preferential condition for MS waves to scatter electrons efficiently, we performed a comprehensive parametric study of MS wave-electron interactions using test particle simulations. The diffusion coefficients simulated by varying the MS wave frequency show that the scatterin ...

Lei, Mingda; Xie, Lun; Li, Jinxing; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Ni, Binbin; Hua, Man; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023801

magnetosonic wave; parametric study; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Temporal evolution of ion spectral structures during a geomagnetic storm: Observations and modeling

Using the Van Allen Probes/Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometer, we perform a case study of the temporal evolution of ion spectral structures observed in the energy range of 1-~50 keV throughout the geomagnetic storm of 2 October 2013. The ion spectral features are observed near the inner edge of the plasma sheet and are signatures of fresh transport from the plasma sheet into the inner magnetosphere. We find that the characteristics of the ion structures are determined by the intensity of the convec ...

Ferradas, C.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H.; Kistler, L.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024702

Geomagnetic storm; ion injection; ion nose structure; numerical modeling; Van Allen Probes; Weimer electric field model

Chorus Wave Modulation of Langmuir Waves in the Radiation Belts

Using high-resolution waveforms measured by the Van Allen Probes, we report a novel observation in the radiation belts. Namely, we show that multiband, discrete, rising-tone whistler mode chorus emissions exhibit a one-to-one correlation with Langmuir wave bursts. Moreover, the periodic Langmuir wave bursts are generally observed at the phase location where the chorus wave E|| component is oriented opposite to its propagation direction. The electron measurements show a beam in phase space density at the particle velocity tha ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; An, Xin; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Zhou, Meng; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Funsten, Herbert; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075877

Chorus wave; Landau resonance; Langmuir wave; nonlinear interaction; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; wave modulation

The Evolution of the Plasma Sheet Ion Composition: Storms and Recoveries

The ion plasma sheet (~few hundred eV to ~few 10s keV) is usually dominated by H+ ions. Here, changes in ion composition within the plasma sheet are explored both during individual events, and statistically during 54 calm-to-storm events and during 21 active-to-calm events. Ion composition data from the HOPE (Helium, Oxygen, Proton, Electron) instruments onboard Van Allen Probes satellites provide exceptional spatial and temporal resolution of the H+, O+, and He+ ion fluxes in the plasma sheet. H+ shown to be the dominant io ...

Denton, M.; Thomsen, M.; Reeves, G.; Larsen, B.; Henderson, M.; Jordanova, V.; Fernandes, P.; Friedel, R.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; MacDonald, E.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024475

plasma sheet; Van Allen Probes

Lower-hybrid drift waves and electromagnetic electron space-phase holes associated with dipolarization fronts and field-aligned currents observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a substorm

We analyse two ion scale dipolarization fronts associated with field-aligned currents detected by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a large substorm on August 10, 2016. The first event corresponds to a fast dawnward flow with an anti-parallel current and could be generated by the wake of a previous fast earthward flow. It is associated with intense lower-hybrid drift waves detected at the front and propagating dawnward with a perpendicular phase speed close to the electric drift and the ion thermal velocity. The s ...

Contel, O.; Nakamura, R.; Breuillard, H.; Argall, M.; Graham, D.; Fischer, D.; o, A.; Berthomier, M.; Pottelette, R.; Mirioni, L.; Chust, T.; Wilder, F.; Gershman, D.; Varsani, A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Norgren, C.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Burch, J.; Torbert, R.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R.; Bromund, K.; . Y. Wei, H; Plaschke, F.; Anderson, B.; Le, G.; Moore, T.; Giles, B.; Paterson, W.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J.; Avanov, L.; Saito, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Fuselier, S.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I.; Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Leonard, T.; Jaynes, A.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024550

dipolarization front; electron hole; fast flow:Van allen Probes; Field-Aligned Current; lower-hybrid drift wave; substorm

Relativistic electron increase during chorus wave activities on the 6-8 March 2016 geomagnetic storm

There was a geomagnetic storm on 6\textendash8 March 2016, in which Van Allen Probes A and B separated by \~2.5 h measured increase of relativistic electrons with energies \~ several hundred keV to 1 MeV. Simultaneously, chorus waves were measured by both Van Allen Probes and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. Some of the chorus elements were rising-tones, possibly due to nonlinear effects. These measurements are compared with a nonlinear theory of chorus waves incorporating the inhomogeneity ratio and the field equati ...

Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C.; Kurth, W.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Ergun, R.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024540

chorus waves; Geomagnetic storm; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Generation of Highly Oblique Lower-band Chorus via Nonlinear Three-wave Resonance

Chorus in the inner magnetosphere has been observed frequently at geomagnetically active times, typically exhibiting a two-band structure with a quasi-parallel lower-band and an upper-band with a broad range of wave normal angles. But recent observations by Van Allen Probes confirm another type of lower-band chorus, which has a large wave normal angle close to the resonance cone angle. It has been proposed that these waves could be generated by a low-energy beam-like electron component or by temperature anisotropy of keV ele ...

Fu, Xiangrong; Gary, Peter; Reeves, Geoffrey; Winske, Dan; Woodroffe, Jesse;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074411

oblique whistler; PIC simulation; Ray Tracing; three-wave resonance; Van Allen Probes

Bounce resonance scattering of radiation belt electrons by low-frequency hiss: Comparison with cyclotron and Landau resonances

Bounce-resonant interactions with magnetospheric waves have been proposed as important contributing mechanisms for scattering near-equatorially mirroring electrons by violating the second adiabatic invariant associated with the electron bounce motion along a geomagnetic field line. This study demonstrates that low-frequency plasmaspheric hiss with significant wave power below 100 Hz can bounce-resonate efficiently with radiation belt electrons. By performing quantitative calculations of pitch-angle scattering rates, we show ...

Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Summers, Danny; Zou, Zhengyang; Fu, Song; Zhang, Wenxun;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075104

bounce resonance; Low-frequency hiss; Radiation Belt Dynamics; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Low-energy (< 200 eV) electron acceleration by ULF waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer: Van Allen Probes observation

We report observational evidence of cold plamsmaspheric electron (< 200 eV) acceleration by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer on 10 September 2015. Strongly enhanced cold electron fluxes in the energy spectrogram were observed along with second harmonic mode waves with a period of about 1 minute which lasted several hours during two consecutive Van Allen Probe B orbits. Cold electron (<200 eV) and energetic proton (10-20 keV) bi-directional pitch angle signatures observed during the event ar ...

Ren, Jie; Zong, Q.; Miyoshi, Y.; Zhou, X.; Wang, Y.; Rankin, R.; Yue, C.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024316

Cold plasmaspheric electrons; drift-bounce resonance; Plasma instability; Plasmaspheric boundary layer; Substorm-injected protons; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

The plasma environment inside geostationary orbit: A Van Allen Probes HOPE survey

The two full precessions in local time completed by the Van Allen Probes enable global specification of the near-equatorial inner magnetosphere plasma environment. Observations by the Helium-Oxygen-Proton-Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometers provide detailed insight into the global spatial distribution of electrons, H+, He+, and O+. Near-equatorial omnidirectional fluxes and abundance ratios at energies 0.1\textendash30 keV are presented for 2 <= L <= 6 as a function of L shell, magnetic local time (MLT), and geomagnetic activ ...

Fernandes, Philip; Larsen, Brian; Thomsen, Michelle; Skoug, Ruth; Reeves, Geoffrey; Denton, Michael; Friedel, Reinhard; Funsten, Herbert; Goldstein, Jerry; Henderson, Michael; Jahn, örg-Micha; MacDonald, Elizabeth; Olson, David;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024160

inner magnetosphere; magnetospheric composition; plasma access; plasma convection; UBK modeling; Van Allen Probes

Storm time empirical model of O + and O 6+ distributions in the magnetosphere

Recent studies have utilized different charge states of oxygen ions as a tracer for the origins of plasma populations in the magnetosphere of Earth, using O+ as an indicator of ionospheric-originating plasma and O6+ as an indicator of solar wind-originating plasma. These studies have correlated enhancements in O6+ to various solar wind and geomagnetic conditions to characterize the dominant solar wind injection mechanisms into the magnetosphere but did not include analysis of the temporal evolution of these ions. A sixth-ord ...

Allen, R.; Livi, S.; Vines, S.; Goldstein, J.; Cohen, I.; Fuselier, S.; Mauk, B.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024245

MMS mission; Polar mission; solar wind injection; storm time dynamics; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes mission

In situ observations of magnetosonic waves modulated by background plasma density

We report in situ observations by the Van Allen Probe mission that magnetosonic (MS) waves are clearly relevant to appear relevant to the background plasma number density. As the satellite moved across dense and tenuous plasma alternatively, MS waves occurred only in lower density region. As the observed protons with \textquoteleftring\textquoteright distributions provide free energy, local linear growth rates are calculated and show that magnetosonic waves can be locally excited in tenuous plasma. With variations of the bac ...

Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Funsten, Herbert;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074681

\textquoterightring\textquoteright distributions; local linear growth rates; magnetosonic waves; Ring current ions; Van Allen Probes

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