Bibliography



Found 55 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 1 through 50


2021

Van Allen Probes Observations of Multi-MeV Electron Drift-Periodic Flux Oscillations in Earth’s Outer Radiation Belt During the March 2017 Event

Abstract Radiation belt electrons undergo frequent acceleration, transport, and loss processes under various physical mechanisms. One of the most prevalent mechanisms is radial diffusion, caused by the resonant interactions between energetic electrons and ULF waves in the Pc4-5 band. An indication of this resonant interaction is believed to be the appearance of periodic flux oscillations. In this study, we report long-lasting, drift-periodic flux oscillations of relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons with energies up t ...

Zhao, Hong; Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Weiner, Max; Huckabee, Isabela; Baker, Daniel; Jaynes, Allison; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Elkington, Scot; Barani, Mohammad; Tu, Weichao; Liu, Wenlong; Zhang, Dianjun; Hartinger, Michael;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029284

Radiation belt; multi-MeV electrons; radial diffusion; ULF waves; Wave-particle interaction; Phase space density radial gradient; Van Allen Probes

The Characteristics of Three-belt Structure of Sub-MeV Electrons in the Radiation Belts

Abstract After the launch of Van Allen Probes, the three-belt structures of ultra-relativistic electrons are discovered. In this study, we investigate the three-belt structures of sub-MeV electrons, which may form under different mechanism compared with those of ultra-relativistic electrons and are worth in-depth analysis. Based on the differential flux data from MagEIS onboard RBSP-B satellite, we find 54 events, in which two comparable peaks of sub-MeV electron fluxes and a slot appear where there should be the outer radia ...

Li, Yu-Xuan; Yue, Chao; Hao, Yi-Xin; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Fu, Sui-Yan; Chen, Xing-Ran; Zhao, Xing-Xin;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029385

Van Allen Probes

The Characteristics of Three-belt Structure of Sub-MeV Electrons in the Radiation Belts

Abstract After the launch of Van Allen Probes, the three-belt structures of ultra-relativistic electrons are discovered. In this study, we investigate the three-belt structures of sub-MeV electrons, which may form under different mechanism compared with those of ultra-relativistic electrons and are worth in-depth analysis. Based on the differential flux data from MagEIS onboard RBSP-B satellite, we find 54 events, in which two comparable peaks of sub-MeV electron fluxes and a slot appear where there should be the outer radia ...

Li, Yu-Xuan; Yue, Chao; Hao, Yi-Xin; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Fu, Sui-Yan; Chen, Xing-Ran; Zhao, Xing-Xin;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029385

Van Allen Probes

Origin of Electron Boomerang Stripes: Statistical Study

Abstract In the outer radiation belt, localized ULF waves can interact with energetic electrons by drift resonance, leading to quasiperiodic oscillations. The oscillations in the pitch angle spectrum can be characterized by either boomerang-shaped or straight stripes. Previous studies have shown that boomerang-shaped stripes evolve from straight ones when electrons drift away from the localized wave interaction region. Based on the time-of-flight technique on the pitch angle-dependent drift velocity, the origin can be remote ...

Zhao, X.; Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.; Zhou, X.; Yue, Chao; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093377

Localized ULF waves; Energetic Elctrons; drift resonance; Time-of-flight Technique; source region; boomerang-shaped stripes; Van Allen Probes

Origin of Electron Boomerang Stripes: Statistical Study

Abstract In the outer radiation belt, localized ULF waves can interact with energetic electrons by drift resonance, leading to quasiperiodic oscillations. The oscillations in the pitch angle spectrum can be characterized by either boomerang-shaped or straight stripes. Previous studies have shown that boomerang-shaped stripes evolve from straight ones when electrons drift away from the localized wave interaction region. Based on the time-of-flight technique on the pitch angle-dependent drift velocity, the origin can be remote ...

Zhao, X.; Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.; Zhou, X.; Yue, Chao; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093377

Localized ULF waves; Energetic Elctrons; drift resonance; Time-of-flight Technique; source region; boomerang-shaped stripes; Van Allen Probes

Modeling the Dynamics of Radiation Belt Electrons with Source and Loss Driven by the Solar Wind

Abstract A radial diffusion model directly driven by the solar wind is developed to reproduce MeV electron variations between L=2-12 (L is L* in this study) from October 2012 to April 2015. The radial diffusion coefficient, internal source rate, quick loss due to EMIC waves, and slow loss due to hiss waves are all expressed in terms of the solar wind speed, dynamic pressure, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The model achieves a prediction efficiency (PE) of 0.45 at L=5 and 0.51 at L=4 after converting the electron ph ...

Xiang, Zheng; Li, Xinlin; Kapali, Sudha; Gannon, Jennifer; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Khoo, Leng;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028988

Radiation belt; Solar wind; flux prediction; radial diffusion; magnetopause shadowing; wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

Pitch Angle Phase Shift in Ring Current Ions Interacting with ULF Waves: Van Allen Probes Observations

Abstract Drift-bounce resonance between ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves and ring current ions has been widely studied, because of its important role in ring current acceleration and relevant geomagnetic activities. To identify drift-bounce resonance in observations, 180° phase shifts across resonant pitch angle have been proposed as diagnostic signatures. This study, however, presents observations that suggest this criterion may be invalid when phase space density (PSD) distributions vary non-monochromatically with energy. ...

Li, Xing-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yang; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Hao, Yi-Xin; Rankin, Robert; Zhang, Xiao-Xin;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029025

ring current; ultra-low-frequency waves; drift-bounce resonance; Van Allen Probes

Global distribution of reversed energy spectra of ring current protons based on Van Allen Probes observations

Abstract Energy spectra of ring current protons are crucial to understanding the ring current dynamics. Based on high-quality Van Allen Probes RBSPICE measurements, we investigate the global distribution of the reversed proton energy spectra using the 2013-2019 RBSPICE datasets. The reversed proton energy spectra are characterized by the distinct flux minima around 50 - 100 keV and flux maxima around 200 - 400 keV. Our results show that the reversed proton energy spectrum is prevalent inside the plasmasphere, with the occurr ...

Juan, Yi; Song, Fu; Binbin, Ni; Xudong, Gu; Hua, Man; Xiang, Zheng; Cao, Xing; Shi, Run; Zhao, Yiwen;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL091559

Van Allen Probes

2020

Equatorial pitch angle distributions of 1 – 50 keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere: an empirical model based on the Van Allen Probes observations

Using seven years of data from the HOPE instrument on the Van Allen Probes, equatorial pitch angle distributions (PADs) of 1 – 50 keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are investigated statistically. An empirical model of electron equatorial PADs as a function of radial distance, magnetic local time, geomagnetic activity, and electron energy is constructed using the method of Legendre polynomial fitting. Model results show that most equatorial PADs of 1 – 10s of keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are pan ...

Zhao, H.; Friedel, R.; Chen, Y.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Malaspina, D.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Boyd, A.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028322

Pitch angle distribution; energetic electrons; Earth s inner magnetosphere; Anisotropy; Chorus wave; statistical analysis; Van Allen Probes

New Insights From Long-Term Measurements of Inner Belt Protons (10s of MeV) by SAMPEX, POES, Van Allen Probes, and Simulation Results

The Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission provided long-term measurements of 10s of megaelectron volt (MeV) inner belt (L < 2) protons (1992–2009) as did the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite-18 (POES-18, 2005 to present). These long-term measurements at low-Earth orbit (LEO) showed clear solar cycle variations which anticorrelate with sunspot number. However, the magnitude of the variation is much greater than the solar cycle variation of galactic cosmic rays (>GeV) tha ...

Li, Xinlin; Xiang, Zheng; Zhang, Kun; Khoo, Lengying; Zhao, Hong; Baker, Daniel; Temerin, Michael;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028198

Inner radiation belt; Inner Belt Proton; Solar cycle variation; Cosmic rays; neutron monitor; Low Earth Orbit satellite; Van Allen Probes

Dynamics of Energetic Electrons in the Slot Region During Geomagnetically Quiet Times: Losses Due to Wave-Particle Interactions Versus a Source From Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay (CRAND)

Earth s slot region, lying between the outer and inner radiation belts, has been identified as due to a balance between inward radial diffusion and pitch angle (PA) scattering induced by waves. However, recent satellite observations and modeling studies indicate that cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND) may also play a significant role in energetic electron dynamics in the slot region. In this study, using a drift-diffusion-source model, we investigate the relative contribution of all significant waves and CRAND to the dy ...

Xiang, Zheng; Li, Xinlin; Ni, Binbin; Temerin, M.; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Khoo, Leng;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028042

Slot region; Wave-particle interaction; CRAND; energetic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Origin of Electron Boomerang Stripes: Localized ULF Wave-Particle Interactions

Ultralow frequency (ULF) wave-particle interactions play a significant role in the radiation belt dynamic process, during which drift resonance can accelerate and transport energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Observations of wave-electron drift resonance are characterized by quasiperiodic straight or “boomerang-shaped” stripes in the pitch angle spectrogram. Here we present an ULF wave event on 1 December 2015, during which both kinds stripes were observed by Van Allen Probes A and B, respectively. Using the ...

Zhao, X.; Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Yue, Chao; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087960

boomerang-shaped stripes; ULF waves; drift resonance; time of flight; Van Allen Probes

Origin of Electron Boomerang Stripes: Localized ULF Wave-Particle Interactions

Ultralow frequency (ULF) wave-particle interactions play a significant role in the radiation belt dynamic process, during which drift resonance can accelerate and transport energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Observations of wave-electron drift resonance are characterized by quasiperiodic straight or “boomerang-shaped” stripes in the pitch angle spectrogram. Here we present an ULF wave event on 1 December 2015, during which both kinds stripes were observed by Van Allen Probes A and B, respectively. Using the ...

Zhao, X.; Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Yue, Chao; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087960

boomerang-shaped stripes; ULF waves; drift resonance; time of flight; Van Allen Probes

A Short-lived Three-Belt Structure for sub-MeV Electrons in the Van Allen Belts: Time Scale and Energy Dependence

In this study we focus on the radiation belt dynamics driven by the geomagnetic storms during September 2017. Besides the long-lasting three-belt structures of ultrarelativistic electrons (>2 MeV, existing for tens of days), which has been studied intensively during the Van Allen Probe era, it is found that magnetospheric electrons of hundreds of keVs can also have three-belt structures at similar L extent during storm time. Measurements of 500–800 keV electrons from MagEIS instrument onboard Van Allen Probes show double- ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zou, H.; Rankin, R.; Sun, Y.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; . Y. Fu, S; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028031

storage ring; three-belt structure; hiss wave; electron lifetime; Radial Transport; Van Allen Probes

Simulations of Electron Flux Oscillations as Observed by MagEIS in Response to Broadband ULF Waves

Coherent electron flux oscillations of hundreds of keV are often observed by the Van Allen Probes in the magnetosphere during quiet times in association with ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. They are observed in the form of periodic flux fluctuations, with a drift frequency that is energy dependent, but are not associated with drift echoes following storm- or substorm-related energetic particle injections. Instead, they are associated with the resonant interaction of electrons with ULF waves and are an indication of ongoing e ...

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Temerin, Michael; Zhao, Hong; Khoo, Leng; Turner, Drew; Liu, Wenlong; Claudepierre, Seth;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA027798

electron flux oscillations; ULF waves; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; radial diffusion; particle tracing simulations; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous Observations of Localized and Global Drift Resonance

In this study, we present Van Allen Probe observations showing that seed (hundreds of keV) and core ( 1 MeV) electrons can resonate with ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave modes with distinctive m values simultaneously. An unusual electron energy spectrogram with double-banded resonant structure was recorded by energetic particle, composition, and thermal plasma (ECT)-magnetic electron ion spectrometer (MagEIS) and, meanwhile, boomerang stripes in pitch angle spectrogram appeared at the lower energy band. A localized drift reson ...

Hao, Y.; Zhao, X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; . Y. Fu, S; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088019

drift resonance; ULF waves; Radiation Belt Dynamics; boomerang stripes; azimuthal wave number; multiple resonances; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous Observations of Localized and Global Drift Resonance

In this study, we present Van Allen Probe observations showing that seed (hundreds of keV) and core ( 1 MeV) electrons can resonate with ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave modes with distinctive m values simultaneously. An unusual electron energy spectrogram with double-banded resonant structure was recorded by energetic particle, composition, and thermal plasma (ECT)-magnetic electron ion spectrometer (MagEIS) and, meanwhile, boomerang stripes in pitch angle spectrogram appeared at the lower energy band. A localized drift reson ...

Hao, Y.; Zhao, X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; . Y. Fu, S; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088019

drift resonance; ULF waves; Radiation Belt Dynamics; boomerang stripes; azimuthal wave number; multiple resonances; Van Allen Probes

The Role of the Dynamic Plasmapause in Outer Radiation Belt Electron Flux Enhancement

Abstract The plasmasphere is a highly dynamic toroidal region of cold, dense plasma around Earth. Plasma waves exist both inside and outside this region and can contribute to the loss and acceleration of high energy outer radiation belt electrons. Early observational studies found an apparent correlation on long time scales between the observed inner edge of the outer radiation belt and the modeled innermost plasmapause location. More recent work using high-resolution Van Allen Probes data has found a more complex relationsh ...

Bruff, M.; Jaynes, A.; Zhao, H.; Goldstein, J.; Malaspina, D.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2020GL086991

Plasmapause; outer radiation belt; Magnetosphere; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes

Upper Limit of Electron Fluxes Observed in the Radiation Belts

Radiation belt electrons have a complicated relationship with geomagnetic activity. We select electron measurements from 7 years of DEMETER and 6 years of Van Allen Probes data during geomagnetic storms to conduct statistical analysis focusing on the correlation between electron flux and Dst index. We report, for the first time, an upper limit of electron fluxes observed by both satellites throughout the inner and outer belts across a wide energy range from ?100s keV to multi-MeV. The upper flux limit is determined at diffe ...

Zhang, Kun; Li, Xinlin; Zhao, Hong; Xiang, Zheng; Khoo, Leng; Zhang, Wenxun; Hogan, Benjamin; Temerin, Michael;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028511

electron; Radiation belt; statistics; upper limit; Van Allen Probes

2019

Comparison of Van Allen Probes Energetic Electron Data with Corresponding GOES-15 Measurements: 2012-2018

Baker, D.N.; Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.G.; Jaynes, A.N.; Kress, B.T.; Rodriguez, J.V.; Singer, H.J.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Fennell, J.F.; Hoxie, V.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027331

energetic particles; Magnetosphere:Inner; Magnetospheric configuration; Radiation belts; Space weather; Van Allen Probes

How Sudden, Intense Energetic Electron Enhancements Correlate With the Innermost Plasmapause Locations Under Various Solar Wind Drivers and Geomagnetic Conditions

In this report, the relationship between innermost plasmapause locations (Lpp) and initial electron enhancements during both storm and nonstorm (Dst > -30 nT) periods are examined using data from the Van Allen Probes. The geomagnetic storms are classified into coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven and corotating interaction region (CIR)-driven storms to explore their influences on the initial electron enhancements, respectively. We also study nonstorm time electron enhancements and observe frequent, sudden (within two consecuti ...

Khoo, L.-Y.; Li, X.; Zhao, H.; Chu, X.; Xiang, Z.; Zhang, K.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027412

energetic electron enhancements; Plasmapause; Radiation Belt Dynamics; Van Allen Probes

Identifying STEVE\textquoterights Magnetospheric Driver Using Conjugate Observations in the Magnetosphere and on the Ground

The magnetospheric driver of strong thermal emission velocity enhancement (STEVE) is investigated using conjugate observations when Van Allen Probes\textquoteright footprint directly crossed both STEVE and stable red aurora (SAR) arc. In the ionosphere, STEVE is associated with subauroral ion drift features, including electron temperature peak, density gradient, and westward ion flow. The SAR arc at lower latitudes corresponds to regions inside the plasmapause with isotropic plasma heating, which causes redline-only SAR emis ...

Chu, Xiangning; Malaspina, David; Gallardo-Lacourt, Bea; Liang, Jun; Andersson, Laila; Ma, Qianli; Artemyev, Anton; Liu, Jiang; Ergun, Robert; Thaller, Scott; Akbari, Hassanali; Zhao, Hong; Larsen, Brian; Reeves, Geoffrey; Wygant, John; Breneman, Aaron; Tian, Sheng; Connors, Martin; Donovan, Eric; Archer, William; MacDonald, Elizabeth;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082789

aurora; kinetic Alfven wave; Plasmapause; STEVE; subauroral ion drift; table red auroral arc; Van Allen Probes

On the Acceleration Mechanism of Ultrarelativistic Electrons in the Center of the Outer Radiation Belt: A Statistical Study

Using energetic particle and wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), the acceleration mechanism of ultrarelativistic electrons (>3 MeV) in the center of the outer radiation belt is investigated statistically. A superposed epoch analysis is conducted using 19 storms, which caused flux enhancements of 1.8\textendash7.7 MeV electrons. The evolution of electron phase space density radial profile suggests an energy-d ...

Zhao, H.; Baker, D.N.; Li, X.; Malaspina, D.M.; Jaynes, A.N.; Kanekal, S.G.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027111

Acceleration mechanism; Inward radial diffusion; Local Acceleration; Phase space density; Radiation belts; ultrarelativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Global Occurrences of Auroral Kilometric Radiation Related to Suprathermal Electrons in Radiation Belts

Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) can potentially produce serious damage to space-borne systems by accelerating trapped radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Here we examine the global occurrences of AKR emissions in radiation belts based on Van Allen Probes observations from 1 October 2012 to 31 December 2016. The statistical results (1,848 events in total) show that AKR covers a broad region of L= 3\textendash6.5 and 00\textendash24 magnetic local time (MLT), with a higher occurrence on the nightside (20\text ...

Zhao, Wanli; Liu, Si; Zhang, Sai; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei; Xiao, Fuliang;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083944

Auroral kilometric radiation; global occurrence; Radiation belt; suprathermal electron flux enhancenments; Van Allen Probes

Wave Normal Angle Distribution of Fast Magnetosonic Waves: A Survey of Van Allen Probes EMFISIS Observations

Using Van Allen Probe Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) wave observations from September 2012 to May 2018, we statistically investigate the distributions of power-weighted wave normal angle (WNA) of fast magnetosonic (MS) waves from L = 2\textendash6 within \textpm15\textdegree geomagnetic latitudes. The spatial distributions show that the MS WNAs are mainly confined within 87\textendash89\textdegree near the geomagnetic equator and decrease with increasing magnetic latitude. Furth ...

Zou, Zhengyang; Zuo, Pingbing; Ni, Binbin; Wei, Fengsi; Zhao, Zhengyu; Cao, Xing; Fu, Song; Gu, Xudong;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026556

Empirical Model; Fast Magnetosonic Waves; latitudinal dependence; power-weighted wave normal angles; spatial distributions; Van Allen Probes

Characterization and Evolution of Radiation Belt Electron Energy Spectra Based on the Van Allen Probes Measurements

Based on the measurements of ~100-keV to 10-MeV electrons from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) on the Van Allen Probes, the radiation belt electron energy spectra characterization and evolution have been investigated systematically. The results show that the majority of radiation belt electron energy spectra can be represented by one of three types of distributions: exponential, power law, and bump-on-tail (BOT). The exponential spectra are generally domin ...

Zhao, H.; Johnston, W.R.; Baker, D.N.; Li, X.; Ni, B.; Jaynes, A.N.; Kanekal, S.G.; Blake, J.B.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Boyd, A.J.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026697

Bump-on-tail energy spectrum; Energy spectrum; Exponential energy spectrum; Plasmapause; Power law energy spectrum; radiation belt electrons; Van Allen Probes

The Effects of Geomagnetic Storms and Solar Wind Conditions on the Ultrarelativistic Electron Flux Enhancements

Using data from the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope on the Van Allen Probes, the effects of geomagnetic storms and solar wind conditions on the ultrarelativistic electron (E > ~3 MeV) flux enhancements in the outer radiation belt, especially regarding their energy dependence, are investigated. It is showed that, statistically, more intense geomagnetic storms are indeed more likely to cause flux enhancements of ~1.8- to 7.7-MeV electrons, though large variations exist. As the electron energy gets higher, the probabilit ...

Zhao, H.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026257

Acceleration mechanism; Geomagnetic storms; Radiation belt; solar wind conditions; ultrarelativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Multiyear Measurements of Radiation Belt Electrons: Acceleration, Transport, and Loss

In addition to clarifying morphological structures of the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts, it has also been a major achievement of the Van Allen Probes mission to understand more thoroughly how highly relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons are accelerated deep inside the radiation belts. Prior studies have demonstrated that electrons up to energies of 10 megaelectron volts (MeV) can be produced over broad regions of the outer Van Allen zone on timescales of minutes to a few hours. It often is seen that geomagneti ...

Baker, Daniel; Hoxie, Vaughn; Zhao, Hong; Jaynes, Allison; Kanekal, Shri; Li, Xinlin; Elkington, Scot;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026259

convection electric field; Energetic particle deep penetration; Low L Region; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

2018

On the Initial Enhancement of Energetic Electrons and the Innermost Plasmapause Locations: CME-Driven Storm Periods

Using Van Allen Probes\textquoteright observations and established plasmapause location (Lpp) models, we investigate the relationship between the location of the initial enhancement (IE) of energetic electrons and the innermost (among all magnetic local time sectors) Lpp over five intense storm periods. Our study reveals that the IE events for 30 keV to 2MeV electrons always occurred outside of the innermost Lpp. On average, the inner extent of the IE events (LIE) for <800 keV electrons was closer to the innermost Lpp when c ...

Khoo, Leng; Li, Xinlin; Zhao, Hong; Sarris, Theodore; Xiang, Zheng; Zhang, Kun; Kellerman, Adam; Blake, Bernard;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026074

energetic electron; enhancements; plasmasphere; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Nonlinear drift resonance between charged particles and ultra-low frequency waves: Theory and Observations

In Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere, electromagnetic waves in the ultra-low frequency (ULF) range play an important role in accelerating and diffusing charged particles via drift resonance. In conventional drift-resonance theory, linearization is applied under the assumption of weak wave-particle energy exchange so particle trajectories are unperturbed. For ULF waves with larger amplitudes and/or durations, however, the conventional theory becomes inaccurate since particle trajectories are strongly perturbed. Here, ...

Li, Li; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Omura, Yoshiharu; Wang, Zi-Han; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Liu, Ying; Hao, Yi-Xin; Fu, Sui-Yan; Kivelson, Margaret; Rankin, Robert; Claudepierre, Seth; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079038

drift resonance; nonlinear process; Particle acceleration; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

The Acceleration of Ultrarelativistic Electrons During a Small to Moderate Storm of 21 April 2017

The ultrarelativistic electrons (E > ~3 MeV) in the outer radiation belt received limited attention in the past due to sparse measurements. Nowadays, the Van Allen Probes measurements of ultrarelativistic electrons with high energy resolution provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the dynamics of this population. In this study, using data from the Van Allen Probes, we report significant flux enhancements of ultrarelativistic electrons with energies up to 7.7 MeV during a small to moderate geomagnetic storm. The underl ...

Zhao, H.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078582

Energy-dependent acceleration; Geomagnetic storms; Inward radial diffusion; Local Acceleration; Radiation belts; Ultra-relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Observation of Oblique Lower Band Chorus Generated by Nonlinear Three-Wave Interaction

Oblique whistler mode waves have been suggested to play an important role in radiation belt electron dynamics. Recently, Fu et al. [2017] proposed that highly oblique lower band whistler waves could be generated by nonlinear three-wave resonance. Here we present the first observational evidence of such process, using Van Allen Probes data, where an oblique lower band chorus wave is generated by two quasi-parallel waves through nonlinear three-wave interaction. The wave resonance condition is satisfied even in the presence of ...

Teng, S.; Zhao, J.; Tao, X.; Wang, S.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078765

Oblique lower band chorus; radiation belt physics; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interaction; wave-wave interaction

An empirical model of radiation belt electron pitch angle distributions based on Van Allen Probes measurements

Based on over 4 years of Van Allen Probes measurements, an empirical model of radiation belt electron equatorial pitch angle distribution (PAD) is constructed. The model, developed by fitting electron PADs with Legendre polynomials, provides the statistical PADs as a function of L-shell (L=1 \textendash 6), magnetic local time (MLT), electron energy (~30 keV \textendash 5.2 MeV), and geomagnetic activity (represented by the Dst index), and is also the first empirical PAD model in the inner belt and slot region. For MeV elect ...

Zhao, H.; Friedel, R.; Chen, Y.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025277

Empirical Model; Geomagnetic storms; inner belt and slot region; Pitch angle distribution; radiation belt electrons; Van Allen Probes

The Radial Propagation Characteristics of the Injection Front: A Statistical Study Based on BD-IES and Van Allen Probes Observations

Electron flux measurements outside geosynchronous orbit (GSO) obtained by the BeiDa Imaging Electron Spectrometer instrument onboard a 55 degrees-inclined GSO satellite, and inside GSO obtained by the Van Allen Probes are analyzed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolutions of the substorm injection region. In one year data started from October 2015, 63 injection events are identified. Firstly, our study shows that the injection signatures can be detected in a large radial extent in one single event, for example, from ...

. Y. Liu, Z; Zong, Q.-G.; Hao, Y.; Liu, Y.; Chen, X.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2018JA025185

earthward propagation; radial propagation speed; substorm injection; tailward propagation; upper-cutoff magnetic moment; Van Allen Probes

Storm-time evolution of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons by a nearly continuous distribution of chorus

During the 13-14 November 2012 storm, Van Allen Probe A simultaneously observed a 10-h period of enhanced chorus (including quasi-parallel and oblique propagation components) and relativistic electron fluxes over a broad range of L = 3-6 and MLT=2 - 10 within a complete orbit cycle. By adopting a Gaussian fit to the observed wave spectra, we obtain the wave parameters and calculate the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. We solve the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation to simulate flux evolutions of relativistic (1.8-4.2 Me ...

Yang, Chang; Xiao, Fuliang; He, Yihua; Liu, Si; Zhou, Qinghua; Guo, Mingyue; Zhao, Wanli;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075894

energetic electron; Geomagnetic storm; outer radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction; whistler-mode chorus wave

2017

Van Allen Probes measurements of energetic particle deep penetration into the low L region (L<4) during the storm on 8 April 2016

Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, a penetration event of 10s \textendash 100s of keV electrons and 10s of keV protons into the low L-shells (L<4) is studied. Timing and magnetic local time (MLT) differences of energetic particle deep penetration are unveiled and underlying physical processes are examined. During this event, both proton and electron penetrations are MLT-asymmetric. The observed MLT difference of proton penetration is consistent with convection of plasma sheet protons, suggesting enhanced convectio ...

Zhao, H.; Baker, D.; Califf, S.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Kanekal, S.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024558

Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions

We present an analysis of \textquotedblleftboomerang-shaped\textquotedblright pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on June 7th, 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90o pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180o, and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of th ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; . Y. Fu, S; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074006

drift resonance; interplanetary shock; localized waves; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

On the Relationship Between Electron Flux Oscillations and ULF Wave-Driven Radial Transport

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the levels of electron flux oscillations and radial diffusion for different Phase Space Density (PSD) gradients, through observation and particle tracing simulations under the effect of model Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) fluctuations. This investigation aims to demonstrate that electron flux oscillation is associated with and could be used as an indicator of ongoing radial diffusion. To this direction, flux oscillations are observed through the Van Allen Pro ...

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Temerin, Michael; Zhao, Hong; Califf, Sam; Liu, Wenlong; Ergun, Robert;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023741

Flux Oscillations; MAGEis; EMFISIS; EFW; Phase space density; radial diffusion; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Variations of the relativistic electron flux after a magnetospheric compression event

On January 21, 2015, a sharp increase of the solar wind dynamic pressure impacted the magnetosphere. The magnetopause moved inward to the region L< 8 without causing a geomagnetic storm. The flux of the relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt decreased by half during this event based on the observations of the particle radiation monitor (PRM) of the fourth of the China-Brazil Earth Resource Satellites (CBERS-4). The flux remained low for approximately 11 d; it did not recover after a small magnetic storm on Januar ...

Chen, Zhe; Chen, HongFei; Li, YiFan; Xiang, HongWen; Yu, XiangQian; Shi, WeiHong; Hao, ZhiHua; Zou, Hong; Zou, JiQing; Zhong, WeiYing;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1007/s11431-016-9008-3

outer radiation belt high-energy electrons medium-energy electrons space environment; Van Allen Probes

The role of the convection electric field in filling the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts

The Van Allen Probes have reported frequent flux enhancements of 100s keV electrons in the slot region, with lower energy electrons exhibiting more dynamic behavior at lower L shells. Also, in situ electric field measurements from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Van Allen Probes have provided evidence for large-scale electric fields at low L shells during active times. We study an event on 19 February 2014 where hundre ...

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Zhao, H.; Kellerman, A.; Sarris, T.; Jaynes, A.; Malaspina, D.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023657

convection; electric field; electrons; Slot region; Van Allen Probes

2016

Combined Scattering Loss of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons by Simultaneous Three-band EMIC Waves: A Case Study

Multiband electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can drive efficient scattering loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. However, it is statistically uncommon to capture the three bands of EMIC waves concurrently. Utilizing data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science magnetometer onboard Van Allen Probe A, we report the simultaneous presence of three (H+, He+, and O+) emission bands in an EMIC wave event, which provides an opportunity to look into the combined scattering effect ...

He, Fengming; Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Xiang, Zheng; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong; Zhao, Zhengyu; Shi, Run; Wang, Qi;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022483

combined scattering rates; electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves; loss timescales; radiation belt relativistic electrons; resonant wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

Electron dropout echoes induced by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations

On 23 November 2012, a sudden dropout of the relativistic electron flux was observed after an interplanetary shock arrival. The dropout peaks at \~1MeV and more than 80\% of the electrons disappeared from the drift shell. Van Allen twin Probes observed a sharp electron flux dropout with clear energy dispersion signals. The repeating flux dropout and recovery signatures, or \textquotedblleftdropout echoes\textquotedblright, constitute a new phenomenon referred to as a \textquotedblleftdrifting electron dropout\textquotedblrig ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; . Y. Fu, S; Rankin, R.; Yuan, C.-J.; T. Y. Lui, A.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069140

Drift shell splitting; electron dropout echo; energetic particle; interplanetary shock; magnetopause shadowing; solar wind-magnetospheric coupling; Van Allen Probes

Large-amplitude electric fields in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations of subauroral polarization streams

The subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) is an important magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) coupling phenomenon that impacts a range of particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. SAPS studies often emphasize ionospheric signatures of fast westward flows, but the equatorial magnetosphere is also affected through strong radial electric fields in the dusk sector. This study focuses on a period of steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) during the 29 June 2013 geomagnetic storm where the Van Allen Probes observe a ...

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Wolf, R.; Zhao, H.; Jaynes, A.; Wilder, F.; Malaspina, D.; Redmon, R.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022252

electric field; injection; SAPS; subauroral; Van Allen Probes

Ring current electron dynamics during geomagnetic storms based on the Van Allen Probes measurements

Based on comprehensive measurements from Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron Mass Spectrometer Ion Spectrometer, Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope, and Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment instruments on the Van Allen Probes, comparative studies of ring current electrons and ions are performed and the role of energetic electrons in the ring current dynamics is investigated. The deep injections of tens to hundreds of keV electrons and tens of keV protons into the inner magnetosphere occur frequently; a ...

Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Baker, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022358

deep injections; Geomagnetic storms; ring current; ring current energy content; ring current electrons; Van Allen Probes

2015

Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons

Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definit ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y.-X.; Gao, Zhonglei; He, Zhaoguo; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10096

Van Allen Probes

Resonant scattering of outer zone relativistic electrons by multiband EMIC waves and resultant electron loss time scales

To improve our understanding of the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in radiation belt electron dynamics, we perform a comprehensive analysis of EMIC wave-induced resonant scattering of outer zone relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons and resultant electron loss time scales with respect to EMIC wave band, L shell, and wave normal angle model. The results demonstrate that while H+-band EMIC waves dominate the scattering losses of ~1\textendash4 MeV outer zone relativistic electrons, it is He+-band and O+-band wa ...

Ni, Binbin; Cao, Xing; Zou, Zhengyang; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong; Bortnik, Jacob; Zhang, Jichun; Fu, Song; Zhao, Zhengyu; Shi, Run; Xie, Lun;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021466

electron loss time scales; EMIC waves; outer radiation belt; relativistic electrons; resonant wave-particle interactions

The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements

Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the MagEIS, HOPE, and RBSPICE instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies < 50 keV contribute m ...

Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Rodriguez, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021533

Geomagnetic storms; Ring current energy content; Ring current ions; The DPS relation; The Dst index; Van Allen Probes

Imprints of impulse-excited hydromagnetic waves on electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

Ultralow frequency electromagnetic oscillations, interpreted as standing hydromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere, are a major energy source that accelerates electrons to relativistic energies in the Van Allen radiation belt. Electrons can rapidly gain energy from the waves when they resonate via a process called drift resonance, which is observationally characterized by energy-dependent phase differences between electron flux and electromagnetic oscillations. Such dependence has been recently observed and interpreted as spa ...

Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Wang, Zi-Han; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Claudepierre, Seth; Mann, Ian; Kivelson, Margaret; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Hao, Yi-Xin; Wang, Yong-Fu; Pu, Zu-Yin;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.1510.1002/2015GL064988

drift resonance; Radiation belt; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; wave growth; Wave-particle interaction

Variability of the pitch angle distribution of radiation belt ultra-relativistic electrons during and following intense geomagnetic storms: Van Allen Probes observations

Fifteen months of pitch angle resolved Van Allen Probes REPT measurements of differential electron flux are analyzed to investigate the characteristic variability of the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of radiation belt ultra-relativistic (>2 MeV) electrons during storm conditions and during the long-term post-storm decay. By modeling the ultra-relativistic electron pitch angle distribution as sinn α, where α is the equatorial pitch angle, we examine the spatio-temporal variations of the n-value. The results show that in ge ...

Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Gu, Xudong; Zhou, Chen; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Shi, Run; Zhao, Zhengyu; Baker, Daniel; Kanekal, Shrikhanth; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoffrey; Li, Xinlin;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021065

adiation belt ultra-relativistic electrons; decay timescales; Geomagnetic storms; Pitch angle distribution; resonant wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the 17 March 2013 storm

Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyroresonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the 17 March 2013 storm. We consider the Earth\textquoterights magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against nondipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current- ...

Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian; Jordanova, Vania;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020858

diffusion coefficients; Radiation belt; ring current



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