Bibliography



Found 400 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 1 through 50


2021

Can Earth’s magnetotail plasma sheet produce a source of relativistic electrons for the radiation belts?

Abstract Simultaneous observations from Van Allen Probes (RBSP) in Earth’s outer radiation belt (∼4-6 RE) and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) in the magnetotail plasma sheet at >20 RE geocentric distance are used to compare relative levels of relativistic electron phase space density (PSD) for constant values of the first adiabatic invariant, M. We present new evidence from two events showing: i) at times, there is sufficient PSD in the central plasma sheet to provide a source of >1 MeV electrons into the outer belt; ii) ...

Turner, Drew; Cohen, Ian; Michael, Adam; Sorathia, Kareem; Merkin, Slava; Mauk, Barry; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Murphy, Kyle; Gabrielse, Christine; Boyd, Alexander; Fennell, Joseph; Blake, Bernard; Claudepierre, Seth; Drozdov, Alexander; Jaynes, Allison; Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Reeves, Geoffrey;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL095495

Radiation belts; plasma sheet; Particle acceleration; relativistic electrons; inner magnetosphere; magnetotail; Van Allen Probes

Realistic electron diffusion rates and lifetimes due to scattering by electron holes

AbstractPlasma sheet electron precipitation into the diffuse aurora is critical for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Recent studies have shown that electron phase space holes can pitch-angle scatter electrons and may produce plasma sheet electron precipitation. These studies have assumed identical electron hole parameters to estimate electron scattering rates (Vasko et al., 2018). In this study, we have re-evaluated the efficiency of this scattering by incorporating realistic electron hole properties from direct spacecraf ...

Shen, Yangyang; Vasko, Ivan; Artemyev, Anton; Malaspina, David; Chu, Xiangning; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Zhang, Xiao-Jia;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029380

diffuse aurora; electron pitch-angle scattering; electron phase space hole; Wave-particle interaction; electron lifetimes; broadband electrostatic fluctuations; Van Allen Probes

Trapping and amplification of unguided mode EMIC waves in the radiation belt

AbstractElectromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can cause the scattering loss of the relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. They can be classified into the guided mode and the unguided mode, according to waves propagation behavior. The guided mode waves have been widely investigated in the radiation belt, but the observation of the unguided mode waves have not been expected. Based on the observations of Van Allen Probes, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of the intense unguided L-mode EMIC waves in th ...

Wang, Geng; Gao, Zhonglei; Wu, MingYu; Wang, GuoQiang; Xiao, SuDong; Chen, YuanQiang; Zou, Zhengyang; Zhang, TieLong;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029322

EMIC waves; unguided mode; Radiation belt; ion abundance ratios; Wave trapping; growth rate; Van Allen Probes

PreMevE Update: Forecasting Ultra-relativistic Electrons inside Earth’s Outer Radiation Belt

Abstract Energetic electrons inside Earth’s Van Allen belts pose a major radiation threat to space-borne electronics that often play vital roles in modern society. Ultra-relativistic electrons with energies greater than or equal to two Megaelectron-volt (MeV) are of particular interest, and thus forecasting these ≥2 MeV electrons has significant meaning to all space sectors. Here we update the latest development of the predictive model for MeV electrons in the outer radiation belt. The new version, called PreMevE-2E, for ...

Sinha, Saurabh; Chen, Yue; Lin, Youzuo; de Lima, Rafael;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021SW002773

Supervised Machine Learning; Van Allen electron radiation belt; Predicting ultra-relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Global Survey of Electron Precipitation due to Hiss Waves in the Earth s Plasmasphere and Plumes

Abstract We present a global survey of energetic electron precipitation from the equatorial magnetosphere due to hiss waves in the plasmasphere and plumes. Using Van Allen Probes measurements, we calculate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients at the bounce loss cone, and evaluate the energy spectrum of precipitating electron flux. Our ∼6.5-year survey shows that, during disturbed times, hiss inside the plasmasphere primarily causes the electron precipitation at L > 4 over 8 h < MLT < 18 h, and hiss waves in plumes cause ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Zhang, X.-J.; Bortnik, J.; Shen, X.-C.; Connor, H.; Boyd, A.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029644

electron precipitation; hiss wave; plasmasphere; plasmaspheric plume; Precipitating Energy Flux; Van Allen Probes Survey; Van Allen Probes

Observational evidence of the excitation of magnetosonic waves by an He ion ring distribution

Abstract We report plasma wave observations of equatorial magnetosonic waves at integer harmonics of the local gyrofrequency of doubly-ionized helium (He). The waves were observed by Van Allen Probe A on 08 Feb 2014 when the spacecraft was in the afternoon magnetic local time sector near inside of the plasmasphere. Analysis of the complementary in-situ energetic ion measurements (1-300 keV) reveals the presence of a helium ion ring distribution centered near 30 keV. Theoretical linear growth rate calculations suggest that th ...

Claudepierre, S.; Liu, X.; Chen, L.; Takahashi, K.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029532

magnetosonic waves; ion Bernstein waves; ring distribution; alpha particles; Plasma instability; ring current; Van Allen Probes

High-energy electron flux enhancement pattern in the outer radiation belt in response to the Alfvénic fluctuations within high-speed solar wind stream: A statistical analysis

Abstract The coupling response between solar wind structures and the magnetosphere is highly complex, leading to different effects in the outer radiation belt electron fluxes. Most Coronal Mass Ejections cause strong geomagnetic storms with short recovery phases, often 1-2 days. By contrast, High-Speed Solar Wind Streams lead to moderate and weak storms often with much longer recovery phases, from several to ∼10 days. The magnetosphere receives energy for a long time under the influence of the HSSs, considerably changing i ...

Da Silva, L.; Shi, J.; Alves, L.; Sibeck, D.; Marchezi, J.; Medeiros, C.; Vieira, L.; Agapitov, O.; Cardoso, F.; Souza, V.; Dal Lago, A.; Jauer, P.; Wang, C.; Li, H.; Liu, Z.; Alves, M.; Rockenbach, M.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029363

outer radiation belt; high-energy electron flux; high speed solar wind stream; ultra low frequency waves; whistler-mode chorus waves; Electron flux enhancement; Van Allen Probes

ULF-modulation of whistler-mode waves in the inner magnetosphere during solar wind compression

Abstract The solar wind plays important roles on terrestrial magnetosphere dynamics, including the particle population and plasma waves generation. Here we report an interesting event that ULF waves are enhanced right after solar wind compression and the compressional mode ULF wave subsequently modulates both the intensity and energy flux direction of whistler-mode waves. Quasi-periodic whistler-mode wave packets are observed around L=5.6 at noon sector by Van Allen Probes. Growth rate calculation demonstrates that the compr ...

Shang, Xiongjun; Liu, Si; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Zhonglei; Wang, Geng; He, Qian; Li, Tong; Xiao, Fuliang;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029353

Van Allen Probes

ULF-modulation of whistler-mode waves in the inner magnetosphere during solar wind compression

Abstract The solar wind plays important roles on terrestrial magnetosphere dynamics, including the particle population and plasma waves generation. Here we report an interesting event that ULF waves are enhanced right after solar wind compression and the compressional mode ULF wave subsequently modulates both the intensity and energy flux direction of whistler-mode waves. Quasi-periodic whistler-mode wave packets are observed around L=5.6 at noon sector by Van Allen Probes. Growth rate calculation demonstrates that the compr ...

Shang, Xiongjun; Liu, Si; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Zhonglei; Wang, Geng; He, Qian; Li, Tong; Xiao, Fuliang;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029353

Van Allen Probes

Direct evidence reveals transmitter signal propagation in the magnetosphere

AbstractSignals from very-low-frequency transmitters on the ground are known to induce energetic electron precipitation from the Earth’s radiation belts. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends on the propagation characteristics of those signals in the magnetosphere, and in particular whether the signals are ducted or nonducted along channels of enhanced plasma density, analogous to optical fibres. Here we perform a statistical analysis of in-situ waveform data collected by the Van Allen Probes satellites that shows th ...

Gu, Wenyao; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang; Horne, Richard;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093987

VLF transmitters; ducted propagation; nonducted propagation; Magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Whistler-mode Waves By Density Irregularities During the Recovery Phase of a Geomagnetic Storm

Abstract Density irregularities near the plasmapause are commonly observed and play an important role in whistler-mode wave excitation and propagation. In this study, we report a frequency-dependent modulation event of whistler-mode waves by background density irregularities during a geomagnetic storm. Higher-frequency whistler waves (near 0.5 fce, where fce is the equatorial electron cyclotron frequency) are trapped in the density trough regions due to the small refractive index near the parallel direction, while lower-freq ...

Liu, Xu; Gu, Wenyao; Xia, Zhiyang; Chen, Lunjin; Horne, Richard;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093095

Van Allen Probes

The Characteristics of Three-belt Structure of Sub-MeV Electrons in the Radiation Belts

Abstract After the launch of Van Allen Probes, the three-belt structures of ultra-relativistic electrons are discovered. In this study, we investigate the three-belt structures of sub-MeV electrons, which may form under different mechanism compared with those of ultra-relativistic electrons and are worth in-depth analysis. Based on the differential flux data from MagEIS onboard RBSP-B satellite, we find 54 events, in which two comparable peaks of sub-MeV electron fluxes and a slot appear where there should be the outer radia ...

Li, Yu-Xuan; Yue, Chao; Hao, Yi-Xin; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Fu, Sui-Yan; Chen, Xing-Ran; Zhao, Xing-Xin;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029385

Van Allen Probes

Multi-Instrument Characterisation of Magnetospheric Cold Plasma Dynamics in the 22 June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

Abstract We present a comparison of magnetospheric plasma mass/electron density observations during an 11-day interval which includes the geomagnetic storm of 22 June 2015. For this study we used: equatorial plasma mass density derived from geomagnetic field line resonances (FLRs) detected by Van Allen Probes and at the ground-based magnetometer networks EMMA and CARISMA; in situ electron density inferred by the Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination algorithm applied to plasma wave Van Allen Probes measur ...

Vellante, M.; Takahashi, K.; Del Corpo, A.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Goldstein, J.; Mann, I.; Pietropaolo, E.; Reda, J.; Heilig, B.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029292

magnetoseismology; plasmasphere; Field line resonance; ground-based magnetometers; Van Allen Probes; Swarm satellites

Multi-Instrument Characterisation of Magnetospheric Cold Plasma Dynamics in the 22 June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

Abstract We present a comparison of magnetospheric plasma mass/electron density observations during an 11-day interval which includes the geomagnetic storm of 22 June 2015. For this study we used: equatorial plasma mass density derived from geomagnetic field line resonances (FLRs) detected by Van Allen Probes and at the ground-based magnetometer networks EMMA and CARISMA; in situ electron density inferred by the Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination algorithm applied to plasma wave Van Allen Probes measur ...

Vellante, M.; Takahashi, K.; Del Corpo, A.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Goldstein, J.; Mann, I.; Pietropaolo, E.; Reda, J.; Heilig, B.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029292

magnetoseismology; plasmasphere; Field line resonance; ground-based magnetometers; Van Allen Probes; Swarm satellites

Observation of unusual chorus elements by Van Allen Probes

AbstractWhistler mode chorus waves play an important role in the radiation belt dynamics, which usually appear as discrete elements with frequency sweeping. Finer structure analysis shows that a chorus element is composed of several frequency-sweeping subelements, and such two-level structures can be successfully reproduced by modeling based on nonlinear theories. Previous observations and models suggest that an element and its subelements should have the same frequency-sweep direction. However, we here present two unexpecte ...

Liu, Si; Gao, Zhonglei; Xiao, Fuliang; He, Qian; Li, Tong; Shang, Xiongjun; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; Zhang, Sai;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029258

Van Allen Probes

Origin of Electron Boomerang Stripes: Statistical Study

Abstract In the outer radiation belt, localized ULF waves can interact with energetic electrons by drift resonance, leading to quasiperiodic oscillations. The oscillations in the pitch angle spectrum can be characterized by either boomerang-shaped or straight stripes. Previous studies have shown that boomerang-shaped stripes evolve from straight ones when electrons drift away from the localized wave interaction region. Based on the time-of-flight technique on the pitch angle-dependent drift velocity, the origin can be remote ...

Zhao, X.; Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.; Zhou, X.; Yue, Chao; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093377

Localized ULF waves; Energetic Elctrons; drift resonance; Time-of-flight Technique; source region; boomerang-shaped stripes; Van Allen Probes

A Multi-instrument Study of a Dipolarization Event in the Inner Magnetosphere

Abstract A dipolarization of the background magnetic field was observed during a conjunction of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft and Van Allen Probe B on 22 September 2018. The spacecraft were located in the inner magnetosphere at L ∼ 6 − 7 just before midnight magnetic local time (MLT). The radial separation between MMS and Probe B was ∼ 1RE. Gradual dipolarization or an increase of the northward component BZ of the background field occurred on a timescale of minutes. Exploration of energization and Radi ...

Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Cohen, I.; Cooper, M.; Ergun, R.; Farrugia, C.; Fennell, J.; Fuselier, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Matsuoka, A.; Russell, C.; Shoji, M.; Strangeway, R.; Turner, D.; Vaith, H.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029294

Dipolarization; inner magnetosphere; Multiple Scale Dynamics; Van Allen Probes

Investigating the link between outer radiation belt losses and energetic electron escape at the magnetopause: A case study using multi-mission observations and simulations

Abstract Radiation belt flux dropout events are sudden and often significant reductions in high-energy electrons from Earth’s outer radiation belts. These losses are theorized to be due to interactions with the dayside magnetopause and possibly connected to observations of escaping magnetospheric particles. This study focuses on radiation belt losses during a moderate-strength, nonstorm dropout event on 21 November 2016. The potential loss mechanisms and the linkage to dayside escape are investigated using combined energet ...

Cohen, I.; Turner, D.; Michael, A.; Sorathia, K.; . Y. Ukhorskiy, A;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029261

Radiation belt; Magnetospheric escape; energetic electrons; Flux dropout events; test particle simulations; Van Allen Probes

A Statistical Study of Lower Hybrid Waves In the Earth’s Magnetosphere by Van Allen Probes

Abstract The lower hybrid (LH) waves are electrostatic emissions near the LH resonant frequency. They propagate perpendicularly with a small wavelength comparable to Larmor radius of thermal particles and can heat both ions and electrons. In this paper, we statistically study the global distribution of LH waves in the inner magnetosphere by using Van Allen Probes observation from 2012 to 2018. We find that (1) LH waves are commonly observed in the inner magnetosphere. Most LH waves are confined near the magnetic equator with ...

Liu, Xu; Chen, Lunjin; Ma, Qianli;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093168

Van Allen Probes

A Concise Empirical Formula for the Field-aligned Distribution of Auroral Kilometeric Radiation based on Arase satellite and Van Allen Probes

Abstract Auroral kilometric radiations (AKR) are strong radio emission phenomena, and can prduce significant acceleration or scattering of radiation belt electrons. The variation of AKR wave amplitude with the latitude (λ) has not been reported so far owing to lack of measurements. Here, using observations of the Arase satellite and Van Allen Probes from 23 March 2017 to 31 July 2019, we present the first statistical study on the AKR electric field amplitude (Et) in the radiation belts for |λ| = 0° − 40° and L-shell L ...

Zhang, Sai; Liu, Si; Li, Wentao; He, Yihua; Yang, Qiwu; Xiao, Fuliang; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Nakamura, Yosuke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Shinohara, Iku;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092805

AKR; wave amplitude; geomagnetic latitude; Radiation belt; field-aligned; Van Allen Probes

Dependence of Relativistic Electron Precipitation in the Ionosphere on EMIC Wave Minimum Resonant Energy at the Conjugate Equator

Abstract We investigate relativistic electron precipitation events detected by POES in low-Earth orbit in close conjunction with Van Allen Probe A observations of EMIC waves near the geomagnetic equator. We show that the occurrence rate of > 0.7 MeV electron precipitation recorded by POES during those times strongly increases, reaching statistically significant levels when the minimum electron energy for cyclotron resonance with hydrogen or helium band EMIC waves at the equator decreases below ≃ 1.0 − 2.5 MeV, as expecte ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Mourenas, D.; Shen, X.-C.; Qin, M.; Artemyev, A.; Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Hudson, M.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029193

EMIC waves; relativistic electron precipitation; minimum resonant energy; Van Allen Probes; POES; Radiation belts

Observational Evidence for Whistler Waves Guided/Ducted by the Inner and Outer Edges of the Plasmapause

Abstract With Van Allen Probes data, we present the observational support for whistler waves guided by the plasmapause based on a case study and statistical analyses. Due to the combined effects of inhomogeneous magnetic fields and plasma densities, whistler waves near the inner edge of plasmapause (plasmasphere side) will be guided by a HDD-like (HDD, high density duct) density gradient, and tend to have very small wave normal angles (WNAs ≤20°). In contrast, whistler waves around the outer edge of the plasmapause (plasm ...

Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Tsurutani, Bruce; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092652

Plasmapause; whistler wave; ducting effect; inner edge; outer edge; wave normal angle; Van Allen Probes

Whistler-mode waves trapped by density irregularities in the Earth s magnetosphere

Abstract Whistler-mode waves are electromagnetic waves pervasively observed in the Earth s and other planetary magnetospheres. They are considered to be mainly responsible for producing the hazardous radiation and diffuse aurora, which heavily relies on their properties. Density irregularities, frequently observed in the Earth s magnetospheres, are found to change largely the properties of whistler-mode waves. Here we report, using Van Allen Probes measurements, whistler-mode waves strongly modulated by two different density ...

Ke, Yangguang; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Rui; Chen, Huayue; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092305

WHISTLER-MODE WAVES; density irregularities; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; particle-in-cell simulation; Wave trapping; Van Allen Probes

Whistler-mode waves trapped by density irregularities in the Earth s magnetosphere

Abstract Whistler-mode waves are electromagnetic waves pervasively observed in the Earth s and other planetary magnetospheres. They are considered to be mainly responsible for producing the hazardous radiation and diffuse aurora, which heavily relies on their properties. Density irregularities, frequently observed in the Earth s magnetospheres, are found to change largely the properties of whistler-mode waves. Here we report, using Van Allen Probes measurements, whistler-mode waves strongly modulated by two different density ...

Ke, Yangguang; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Rui; Chen, Huayue; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092305

WHISTLER-MODE WAVES; density irregularities; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; particle-in-cell simulation; Wave trapping; Van Allen Probes

Whistler-mode waves trapped by density irregularities in the Earth s magnetosphere

Abstract Whistler-mode waves are electromagnetic waves pervasively observed in the Earth s and other planetary magnetospheres. They are considered to be mainly responsible for producing the hazardous radiation and diffuse aurora, which heavily relies on their properties. Density irregularities, frequently observed in the Earth s magnetospheres, are found to change largely the properties of whistler-mode waves. Here we report, using Van Allen Probes measurements, whistler-mode waves strongly modulated by two different density ...

Ke, Yangguang; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Rui; Chen, Huayue; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092305

WHISTLER-MODE WAVES; density irregularities; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; particle-in-cell simulation; Wave trapping; Van Allen Probes

A comparative study on the distributions of incoherent and coherent plasmaspheric hiss

Abstract We perform a comparative study on the distributions of incoherent and coherent plasmaspheric hiss, based on the Van Allen Probe data. The statistics show that incoherent hiss ( ∼10–20 pT) is widely distributed in dayside plasmasphere, with peak frequencies below 500 Hz; intense coherent hiss (amplitudes up to 80 pT) occurs in outer plasmasphere of L > 4 (L denotes the L-shell.), whose frequency increases with ambient magnetic field significantly. The Poynting flux analysis indicates that incoherent hiss generall ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yu, Jiang; Li, Kun; Liu, Nigang; Chen, Zewen; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092902

Van Allen Probes

A comparative study on the distributions of incoherent and coherent plasmaspheric hiss

Abstract We perform a comparative study on the distributions of incoherent and coherent plasmaspheric hiss, based on the Van Allen Probe data. The statistics show that incoherent hiss ( ∼10–20 pT) is widely distributed in dayside plasmasphere, with peak frequencies below 500 Hz; intense coherent hiss (amplitudes up to 80 pT) occurs in outer plasmasphere of L > 4 (L denotes the L-shell.), whose frequency increases with ambient magnetic field significantly. The Poynting flux analysis indicates that incoherent hiss generall ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yu, Jiang; Li, Kun; Liu, Nigang; Chen, Zewen; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092902

Van Allen Probes

In situ Observations of Whistler-mode Chorus Waves Guided by Density Ducts

Abstract In this paper, we report the proof of the existence of density ducts in the Earth’s magnetosphere by studying in situ observations of whistler-mode chorus waves using NASA’s Van Allen Probe-A data. Chorus waves, originally excited inside the density ducts with wave normal angles (WNAs) smaller than the Gendrin angle at near equator region, are efficiently confined to a limited area inside density ducts (i.e., ducted regions), and remain with small WNAs as they propagate towards high latitudes. The ducted region ...

Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Chen, Lunjin; Tsurutani, Bruce; Li, Wen; Ni, Binbin; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028814

Radiation belt; Chorus wave; density duct; ducted region; Van Allen Probes

In situ Observations of Whistler-mode Chorus Waves Guided by Density Ducts

Abstract In this paper, we report the proof of the existence of density ducts in the Earth’s magnetosphere by studying in situ observations of whistler-mode chorus waves using NASA’s Van Allen Probe-A data. Chorus waves, originally excited inside the density ducts with wave normal angles (WNAs) smaller than the Gendrin angle at near equator region, are efficiently confined to a limited area inside density ducts (i.e., ducted regions), and remain with small WNAs as they propagate towards high latitudes. The ducted region ...

Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Chen, Lunjin; Tsurutani, Bruce; Li, Wen; Ni, Binbin; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028814

Radiation belt; Chorus wave; density duct; ducted region; Van Allen Probes

A Comparison of the Location of the Mid-latitude Trough and Plasmapause Boundary

Abstract We have compared the location of the mid-latitude trough observed in two dimensional vertical total electron content (vTEC) maps with four plasmapause boundary models, Radiation Belt Storm Probes observations, and IMAGE EUV observations all mapped to the ionosphere pierce point using the Tsyganenko [1996] magnetic field line model. For this study we examine four events over North America: one just after the 13 October 2012 storm, one during the 20 April 2002 double storm, another during a large substorm on 26 Januar ...

Weygand, J.M.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Shprits, Y.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028213

mid-latitude trough; plasmapause boundary; vTECs; plasmapause models; Van Allen Probes

Reconstruction of the Radiation Belts for Solar Cycles 17 – 24 (1933 – 2017)

AbstractWe present a reconstruction of the dynamics of the radiation belts from Solar Cycles 17 – 24 which allows us to study how radiation belt activity has varied between the different solar cycles. The radiation belt simulations are produced using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB)-3D code. The VERB-3D code simulations incorporate radial, energy, and pitch angle diffusion to reproduce the radiation belts. Our simulations use the historical measurements of Kp (available since Solar Cycle 17, i.e., 1933) to mode ...

Saikin, A.; . Y. Shprits, Y; . Y. Drozdov, A; Landis, D.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Cervantes, S.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020SW002524

Radiation belts; numerical modeling; Particle acceleration; Magnetosphere: inner; forecasting; Van Allen Probes

Determining the Temporal and Spatial Coherence of Plasmaspheric Hiss Waves in the Magnetosphere

Abstract Plasmaspheric hiss is one of the most important plasma waves in the Earth s magnetosphere to contribute to radiation belt dynamics by pitch-angle scattering energetic electrons via wave-particle interactions. There is growing evidence that the temporal and spatial variability of wave-particle interactions are important factors in the construction of diffusion-based models of the radiation belts. Hiss amplitudes are thought to be coherent across large distances and on long timescales inside the plasmapause, which mea ...

Zhang, Shuai; Rae, Jonathan; Watt, Clare; Degeling, Alexander; Tian, Anmin; Shi, Quanqi; Shen, Xiao-Chen; Smith, Andy; Wang, Mengmeng;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028635

Van Allen Probes

Periodic Rising and Falling Tone ECH Waves from Van Allen Probes Observations

AbstractElectron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are known to precipitate plasma sheet electrons into the upper atmosphere and generate diffuse aurorae. In this study, we report quasi-periodic rising (3 events) and falling tone (22 events) ECH waves observed by Van Allen Probes, and evaluate their properties. These rising and falling tone ECH waves prefer to occur during quiet geomagnetic conditions over the dusk to midnight sector in relatively high-density (10–80 cm-3) regions. Their repetition periods increase with incre ...

Shen, Xiao-Chen; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL091330

ECH wave; falling tone; rising tone; Magnetosphere; plasma wave; Van Allen Probes

A combined neural network- and physics-based approach for modeling plasmasphere dynamics

AbstractIn recent years, feedforward neural networks (NNs) have been successfully applied to reconstruct global plasmasphere dynamics in the equatorial plane. These neural network-based models capture the large-scale dynamics of the plasmasphere, such as plume formation and erosion of the plasmasphere on the nightside. However, their performance depends strongly on the availability of training data. When the data coverage is limited or non-existent, as occurs during geomagnetic storms, the performance of NNs significantly de ...

Zhelavskaya, I.; Aseev, N.; . Y. Shprits, Y;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028077

plasmasphere; plasma density; neural networks; data assimilation; Kalman Filter; Machine learning; Van Allen Probes

Observations of Particle Loss due to Injection-Associated EMIC Waves

AbstractWe report on observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and their interactions with injected ring current particles and high energy radiation belt electrons. The magnetic field experiment aboard the twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft measured EMIC waves near L = 5.5 − 6. Particle data from the spacecraft show that the waves were associated with particle injections. The wave activity was also observed by a ground-based magnetometer near the spacecraft geomagnetic footprint over a more extensive tempora ...

Kim, Hyomin; Schiller, Quintin; Engebretson, Mark; Noh, Sungjun; Kuzichev, Ilya; Lanzerotti, Louis; Gerrard, Andrew; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lessard, Marc; Spence, Harlan; Lee, Dae-Young; Matzka, Jürgen; Fromm, Tanja;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028503

EMIC waves; ring current; Radiation belt; wave particle interaction; injection; Particle precipitation; Van Allen Probes

Multi-Point Observations of Quasiperiodic Emission Intensification and Effects on Energetic Electron Precipitation

AbstractThe two Van Allen Probes simultaneously recorded a coherently modulated quasiperiodic (QP) emission that persisted for 3 hours. The magnetic field pulsation at the locations of the two satellites showed a substantial difference, and their frequencies were close to but did not exactly match the repetition frequency of QP emissions for most of the time, suggesting that those coherent QP emissions probably originated from a common source, which then propagated over a broad area in the magnetosphere. The QP emissions wer ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Shen, Xiaochen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; An, Xin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Wygant, John; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Hartley, David; Reeves, Geoffrey; Funsten, Herbert; Blake, Bernard; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028484

quasiperiodic emissions; electron precipitation; Radiation belt; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes; ULF wave

2020

Equatorial pitch angle distributions of 1 – 50 keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere: an empirical model based on the Van Allen Probes observations

Using seven years of data from the HOPE instrument on the Van Allen Probes, equatorial pitch angle distributions (PADs) of 1 – 50 keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are investigated statistically. An empirical model of electron equatorial PADs as a function of radial distance, magnetic local time, geomagnetic activity, and electron energy is constructed using the method of Legendre polynomial fitting. Model results show that most equatorial PADs of 1 – 10s of keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are pan ...

Zhao, H.; Friedel, R.; Chen, Y.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Malaspina, D.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Boyd, A.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028322

Pitch angle distribution; energetic electrons; Earth s inner magnetosphere; Anisotropy; Chorus wave; statistical analysis; Van Allen Probes

Study of spatiotemporal development of global distribution of magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves using ground-based and satellite observations, and RAM-SCB simulations, for the March and November 2017 storms

Magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves have an important role in the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere through wave-particle interaction. It is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal development of magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves to quantitatively estimate this effect of wave-particle interaction, a global process not yet well understood. We investigated spatiotemporal development of magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves using 6 PWING ground-based stations at subauroral latitudes, ERG and RBSP satellites, POES/ ...

Takeshita, Yuhei; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Oyama, Shin-Ichiro; Connors, Martin; Manninen, Jyrki; Jordanova, Vania; Baishev, Dmitry; Oinats, Alexey; Kurkin, Vladimir;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028216

ELF/VLF wave; Arase; Van Allen Probes; PWING; RAM-SCB simulation; subauroral latitudes

Mirror instabilities in the inner magnetosphere and their potential for localized ULF wave generation

Results from the NASA Van Allen Probes mission indicate extensive observations of mirror/drift-mirror (M/D-M hereafter) unstable plasma regions in the nightside inner magnetosphere. Said plasmas lie on the threshold between the kinetic and frozen-in plasma regimes and have favorable conditions for the formation of M/D-M modes and subsequent ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave signatures in the surrounding plasma. We present the results of a climatological analysis of plasma-γ (anisotropy measure) and total plasma-β (ratio of pa ...

Cooper, M.; Gerrard, A.; Lanzerotti, L.; Soto-Chavez, A.; Kim, H.; Kuzichev, I.; Goodwin, L.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028773

Mirror mode-unstable plasma; ULF waves; magnetotail injections; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

TWINS Observations of the Dynamics of Ring Currents Ion Spectra on 17th March and 7th October 2015

Direct comparisons between RBSP (Van Allen Probes or Radiation Belt Storm Probes) and TWINS (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers) for the main phase of two storms, 17th March and 7th October 2015, showed agreement between the in–situ ion measurements and the ion spectra from the deconvolved energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements, except when O+ ions were significant. Spatial evolution of individual energy peaks in the ion spectra are studied using TWINS data. O+ ions are seen to result in intense peaks at ...

Shekhar, S.; Perez, J.; Ferradas, C.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028156

Ring Currents; Magnetosphere; energy dependent drift; ion nose; Substorm Injections; Ion Spectra; Van Allen Probes

Ring Current Decay During Geomagnetic Storm Recovery Phase: Comparison Between RBSP Observations and Theoretical Modeling

Ring current decay during storm recovery phase may be affected by different loss processes. In this study, we have investigated the lifetimes of ring current ions (H+ and O+) of energies from 1 keV to several hundred keV at L shell from 3 to 6 during the storm recovery phase through a statistical survey. The observational data of 48 geomagnetic storms from March 2013 to May 2019 are collected based on Van Allen Probe observations. We find that (1) the observed lifetimes of H+ and O+ in general increase with L shell and (2) ...

Chen, Ao; Yue, Chao; Chen, HongFei; Zong, Qiugang; Fu, Suiyan; Wang, Yongfu; Ren, Jie;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028500

charge exchange; lifetime; ring current decay; Van Allen Probes

Ring Current Decay During Geomagnetic Storm Recovery Phase: Comparison Between RBSP Observations and Theoretical Modeling

Ring current decay during storm recovery phase may be affected by different loss processes. In this study, we have investigated the lifetimes of ring current ions (H+ and O+) of energies from 1 keV to several hundred keV at L shell from 3 to 6 during the storm recovery phase through a statistical survey. The observational data of 48 geomagnetic storms from March 2013 to May 2019 are collected based on Van Allen Probe observations. We find that (1) the observed lifetimes of H+ and O+ in general increase with L shell and (2) ...

Chen, Ao; Yue, Chao; Chen, HongFei; Zong, Qiugang; Fu, Suiyan; Wang, Yongfu; Ren, Jie;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028500

charge exchange; lifetime; ring current decay; Van Allen Probes

Correlated Observation on Global Distributions of Magnetosonic Waves and Proton Rings in the Radiation Belts

Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves are excited by the ring distribution of energetic protons preferably when the ring velocity (VR) is within a factor of 2 above or below the local Alfvén speed (VA). Here we examine the global distributions of MS waves and proton rings with 0.5VA ≤ VR ≤ 2VA based on 64 months (from October 25, 2012 to February 28, 2018) of Van Allen Probes observations. The statistical results show that MS waves are present over a broad region of L = 1.2–6.0 and 00–24 magnetic local time (MLT), wit ...

Zhou, Qinghua; Jiang, Zheng; Yang, Chang; He, Yihua; Liu, Si; Xiao, Fuliang;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028354

Fast Magnetosonic Waves; global occurrences; proton ring distribution; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probe observation; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Study of Chorus Modulations by Background Magnetic Field and Plasma Density

In this study, we use observations of THEMIS and Van Allen Probes to statistically study the modulations of chorus emissions by variations of background magnetic field and plasma density in the ultra low frequency range. The modulation events are identified automatically and divided into three types according to whether the chorus intensity correlates to the variations of the magnetic field only (Type B), plasma density only (Type N), or both (Type NB). For the THEMIS observations, the occurrences of the Types B and N are la ...

Xia, Zhiyang; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089344

Van Allen Probes

Alpha Transmitter Signal Reflection and Triggered Emissions

Russian Alpha radio navigation system (RSDN-20) emits F1 = 11.9 kHz signals into the magnetosphere which propagate as whistler mode waves. Observed by waveform continuous burst mode from Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on Van Allen Probes, a case is presented and featured with ducted propagation, multiple reflections, and triggered emissions. Both risers and fallers appear in the triggered emissions. We use a ray tracing method to demonstrate ducted propagation, which has a s ...

Gu, Wenyao; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang; An, Xin; Horne, Richard;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090165

VLF transmitter; ducted propagation; triggered emission; Van Allen Probes

Long-Term Dropout of Relativistic Electrons in the Outer Radiation Belt During Two Sequential Geomagnetic Storms

On 31 January 2016, the flux of >2 MeV electrons observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 dropped to the background level during a minor storm main phase (−48 nT). Then, a second storm (−53 nT) occurred on 2 February; during the 3 days after its main phase, the flux remained at background level. Using data from various instruments on the GOES, Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), Meteor-M2, and Fengyun-series spacecraft, we study this long ...

Wu, H.; Chen, T.; Kalegaev, V.; Panasyuk, M.; Vlasova, N.; Duan, S.; Zhang, X.; He, Z.; Luo, J.; Wang, C.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028098

Radiation belt; relativistic electron dropout; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Long-Term Dropout of Relativistic Electrons in the Outer Radiation Belt During Two Sequential Geomagnetic Storms

On 31 January 2016, the flux of >2 MeV electrons observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 dropped to the background level during a minor storm main phase (−48 nT). Then, a second storm (−53 nT) occurred on 2 February; during the 3 days after its main phase, the flux remained at background level. Using data from various instruments on the GOES, Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), Meteor-M2, and Fengyun-series spacecraft, we study this long ...

Wu, H.; Chen, T.; Kalegaev, V.; Panasyuk, M.; Vlasova, N.; Duan, S.; Zhang, X.; He, Z.; Luo, J.; Wang, C.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028098

Radiation belt; relativistic electron dropout; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Precipitation Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons by Two-Band Plasmaspheric Hiss Waves

A two-band plasmaspheric hiss consisting of a low-frequency band (normal hiss with the frequency below 2 kHz) and a high-frequency band (locally generated hiss with the frequency up to 10 kHz) was observed on 6 January 2014 by the Van Allen Probes (He et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081578). The electron scattering effect driven by this kind of two-band plasmaspheric hiss is evaluated by the quasi-linear diffusion simulation for the first time. Realistic wave characteristic parameters of the two-band plasmasp ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yan, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yu, Jiang; Ma, Yonghui; Cao, Yong; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028157

two-band hiss; radiation belt electron; loss; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Study on Locally Generated High-Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss and Its Effect on Suprathermal Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observation and Quasi-linear Simulation

The local generation of high-frequency plasmaspheric hiss has recently been reported by a case study (He et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081578). In this research, we perform statistics of global distributions of the locally generated high-frequency plasmaspheric hiss (LHFPH) for different levels of substorm activity, using 6-year observational data from Van Allen Probes. The statistics find that the LHFPH amplitude presents a strong magnetic local time (MLT) asymmetry and highly depends on substorm activity, and ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yu, Jiang; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang; Wang, Wenrui; Li, Kun; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028526

Van Allen Probes

Statistical Study on Locally Generated High-Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss and Its Effect on Suprathermal Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observation and Quasi-linear Simulation

The local generation of high-frequency plasmaspheric hiss has recently been reported by a case study (He et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081578). In this research, we perform statistics of global distributions of the locally generated high-frequency plasmaspheric hiss (LHFPH) for different levels of substorm activity, using 6-year observational data from Van Allen Probes. The statistics find that the LHFPH amplitude presents a strong magnetic local time (MLT) asymmetry and highly depends on substorm activity, and ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yu, Jiang; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang; Wang, Wenrui; Li, Kun; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028526

Van Allen Probes



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