Bibliography



Found 389 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 1 through 50


2021

The Characteristics of Three-belt Structure of Sub-MeV Electrons in the Radiation Belts

Abstract After the launch of Van Allen Probes, the three-belt structures of ultra-relativistic electrons are discovered. In this study, we investigate the three-belt structures of sub-MeV electrons, which may form under different mechanism compared with those of ultra-relativistic electrons and are worth in-depth analysis. Based on the differential flux data from MagEIS onboard RBSP-B satellite, we find 54 events, in which two comparable peaks of sub-MeV electron fluxes and a slot appear where there should be the outer radia ...

Li, Yu-Xuan; Yue, Chao; Hao, Yi-Xin; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Fu, Sui-Yan; Chen, Xing-Ran; Zhao, Xing-Xin;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029385

Van Allen Probes

Multi-Instrument Characterisation of Magnetospheric Cold Plasma Dynamics in the 22 June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

Abstract We present a comparison of magnetospheric plasma mass/electron density observations during an 11-day interval which includes the geomagnetic storm of 22 June 2015. For this study we used: equatorial plasma mass density derived from geomagnetic field line resonances (FLRs) detected by Van Allen Probes and at the ground-based magnetometer networks EMMA and CARISMA; in situ electron density inferred by the Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination algorithm applied to plasma wave Van Allen Probes measur ...

Vellante, M.; Takahashi, K.; Del Corpo, A.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Goldstein, J.; Mann, I.; Pietropaolo, E.; Reda, J.; Heilig, B.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029292

magnetoseismology; plasmasphere; Field line resonance; ground-based magnetometers; Van Allen Probes; Swarm satellites

Multi-Instrument Characterisation of Magnetospheric Cold Plasma Dynamics in the 22 June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

Abstract We present a comparison of magnetospheric plasma mass/electron density observations during an 11-day interval which includes the geomagnetic storm of 22 June 2015. For this study we used: equatorial plasma mass density derived from geomagnetic field line resonances (FLRs) detected by Van Allen Probes and at the ground-based magnetometer networks EMMA and CARISMA; in situ electron density inferred by the Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination algorithm applied to plasma wave Van Allen Probes measur ...

Vellante, M.; Takahashi, K.; Del Corpo, A.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Goldstein, J.; Mann, I.; Pietropaolo, E.; Reda, J.; Heilig, B.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029292

magnetoseismology; plasmasphere; Field line resonance; ground-based magnetometers; Van Allen Probes; Swarm satellites

Observation of unusual chorus elements by Van Allen Probes

AbstractWhistler mode chorus waves play an important role in the radiation belt dynamics, which usually appear as discrete elements with frequency sweeping. Finer structure analysis shows that a chorus element is composed of several frequency-sweeping subelements, and such two-level structures can be successfully reproduced by modeling based on nonlinear theories. Previous observations and models suggest that an element and its subelements should have the same frequency-sweep direction. However, we here present two unexpecte ...

Liu, Si; Gao, Zhonglei; Xiao, Fuliang; He, Qian; Li, Tong; Shang, Xiongjun; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; Zhang, Sai;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029258

Van Allen Probes

Origin of Electron Boomerang Stripes: Statistical Study

Abstract In the outer radiation belt, localized ULF waves can interact with energetic electrons by drift resonance, leading to quasiperiodic oscillations. The oscillations in the pitch angle spectrum can be characterized by either boomerang-shaped or straight stripes. Previous studies have shown that boomerang-shaped stripes evolve from straight ones when electrons drift away from the localized wave interaction region. Based on the time-of-flight technique on the pitch angle-dependent drift velocity, the origin can be remote ...

Zhao, X.; Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.; Zhou, X.; Yue, Chao; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093377

Localized ULF waves; Energetic Elctrons; drift resonance; Time-of-flight Technique; source region; boomerang-shaped stripes; Van Allen Probes

A Multi-instrument Study of a Dipolarization Event in the Inner Magnetosphere

Abstract A dipolarization of the background magnetic field was observed during a conjunction of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft and Van Allen Probe B on 22 September 2018. The spacecraft were located in the inner magnetosphere at L ∼ 6 − 7 just before midnight magnetic local time (MLT). The radial separation between MMS and Probe B was ∼ 1RE. Gradual dipolarization or an increase of the northward component BZ of the background field occurred on a timescale of minutes. Exploration of energization and Radi ...

Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Cohen, I.; Cooper, M.; Ergun, R.; Farrugia, C.; Fennell, J.; Fuselier, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Matsuoka, A.; Russell, C.; Shoji, M.; Strangeway, R.; Turner, D.; Vaith, H.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029294

Dipolarization; inner magnetosphere; Multiple Scale Dynamics; Van Allen Probes

Investigating the link between outer radiation belt losses and energetic electron escape at the magnetopause: A case study using multi-mission observations and simulations

Abstract Radiation belt flux dropout events are sudden and often significant reductions in high-energy electrons from Earth’s outer radiation belts. These losses are theorized to be due to interactions with the dayside magnetopause and possibly connected to observations of escaping magnetospheric particles. This study focuses on radiation belt losses during a moderate-strength, nonstorm dropout event on 21 November 2016. The potential loss mechanisms and the linkage to dayside escape are investigated using combined energet ...

Cohen, I.; Turner, D.; Michael, A.; Sorathia, K.; . Y. Ukhorskiy, A;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029261

Radiation belt; Magnetospheric escape; energetic electrons; Flux dropout events; test particle simulations; Van Allen Probes

A Statistical Study of Lower Hybrid Waves In the Earth’s Magnetosphere by Van Allen Probes

Abstract The lower hybrid (LH) waves are electrostatic emissions near the LH resonant frequency. They propagate perpendicularly with a small wavelength comparable to Larmor radius of thermal particles and can heat both ions and electrons. In this paper, we statistically study the global distribution of LH waves in the inner magnetosphere by using Van Allen Probes observation from 2012 to 2018. We find that (1) LH waves are commonly observed in the inner magnetosphere. Most LH waves are confined near the magnetic equator with ...

Liu, Xu; Chen, Lunjin; Ma, Qianli;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093168

Van Allen Probes

A Concise Empirical Formula for the Field-aligned Distribution of Auroral Kilometeric Radiation based on Arase satellite and Van Allen Probes

Abstract Auroral kilometric radiations (AKR) are strong radio emission phenomena, and can prduce significant acceleration or scattering of radiation belt electrons. The variation of AKR wave amplitude with the latitude (λ) has not been reported so far owing to lack of measurements. Here, using observations of the Arase satellite and Van Allen Probes from 23 March 2017 to 31 July 2019, we present the first statistical study on the AKR electric field amplitude (Et) in the radiation belts for |λ| = 0° − 40° and L-shell L ...

Zhang, Sai; Liu, Si; Li, Wentao; He, Yihua; Yang, Qiwu; Xiao, Fuliang; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Nakamura, Yosuke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Shinohara, Iku;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092805

AKR; wave amplitude; geomagnetic latitude; Radiation belt; field-aligned; Van Allen Probes

Dependence of Relativistic Electron Precipitation in the Ionosphere on EMIC Wave Minimum Resonant Energy at the Conjugate Equator

Abstract We investigate relativistic electron precipitation events detected by POES in low-Earth orbit in close conjunction with Van Allen Probe A observations of EMIC waves near the geomagnetic equator. We show that the occurrence rate of > 0.7 MeV electron precipitation recorded by POES during those times strongly increases, reaching statistically significant levels when the minimum electron energy for cyclotron resonance with hydrogen or helium band EMIC waves at the equator decreases below ≃ 1.0 − 2.5 MeV, as expecte ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Mourenas, D.; Shen, X.-C.; Qin, M.; Artemyev, A.; Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Hudson, M.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029193

EMIC waves; relativistic electron precipitation; minimum resonant energy; Van Allen Probes; POES; Radiation belts

Observational Evidence for Whistler Waves Guided/Ducted by the Inner and Outer Edges of the Plasmapause

Abstract With Van Allen Probes data, we present the observational support for whistler waves guided by the plasmapause based on a case study and statistical analyses. Due to the combined effects of inhomogeneous magnetic fields and plasma densities, whistler waves near the inner edge of plasmapause (plasmasphere side) will be guided by a HDD-like (HDD, high density duct) density gradient, and tend to have very small wave normal angles (WNAs ≤20°). In contrast, whistler waves around the outer edge of the plasmapause (plasm ...

Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Tsurutani, Bruce; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092652

Plasmapause; whistler wave; ducting effect; inner edge; outer edge; wave normal angle; Van Allen Probes

Whistler-mode waves trapped by density irregularities in the Earth s magnetosphere

Abstract Whistler-mode waves are electromagnetic waves pervasively observed in the Earth s and other planetary magnetospheres. They are considered to be mainly responsible for producing the hazardous radiation and diffuse aurora, which heavily relies on their properties. Density irregularities, frequently observed in the Earth s magnetospheres, are found to change largely the properties of whistler-mode waves. Here we report, using Van Allen Probes measurements, whistler-mode waves strongly modulated by two different density ...

Ke, Yangguang; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Rui; Chen, Huayue; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092305

WHISTLER-MODE WAVES; density irregularities; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; particle-in-cell simulation; Wave trapping; Van Allen Probes

Whistler-mode waves trapped by density irregularities in the Earth s magnetosphere

Abstract Whistler-mode waves are electromagnetic waves pervasively observed in the Earth s and other planetary magnetospheres. They are considered to be mainly responsible for producing the hazardous radiation and diffuse aurora, which heavily relies on their properties. Density irregularities, frequently observed in the Earth s magnetospheres, are found to change largely the properties of whistler-mode waves. Here we report, using Van Allen Probes measurements, whistler-mode waves strongly modulated by two different density ...

Ke, Yangguang; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Rui; Chen, Huayue; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092305

WHISTLER-MODE WAVES; density irregularities; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; particle-in-cell simulation; Wave trapping; Van Allen Probes

Whistler-mode waves trapped by density irregularities in the Earth s magnetosphere

Abstract Whistler-mode waves are electromagnetic waves pervasively observed in the Earth s and other planetary magnetospheres. They are considered to be mainly responsible for producing the hazardous radiation and diffuse aurora, which heavily relies on their properties. Density irregularities, frequently observed in the Earth s magnetospheres, are found to change largely the properties of whistler-mode waves. Here we report, using Van Allen Probes measurements, whistler-mode waves strongly modulated by two different density ...

Ke, Yangguang; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Rui; Chen, Huayue; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092305

WHISTLER-MODE WAVES; density irregularities; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; particle-in-cell simulation; Wave trapping; Van Allen Probes

A comparative study on the distributions of incoherent and coherent plasmaspheric hiss

Abstract We perform a comparative study on the distributions of incoherent and coherent plasmaspheric hiss, based on the Van Allen Probe data. The statistics show that incoherent hiss ( ∼10–20 pT) is widely distributed in dayside plasmasphere, with peak frequencies below 500 Hz; intense coherent hiss (amplitudes up to 80 pT) occurs in outer plasmasphere of L > 4 (L denotes the L-shell.), whose frequency increases with ambient magnetic field significantly. The Poynting flux analysis indicates that incoherent hiss generall ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yu, Jiang; Li, Kun; Liu, Nigang; Chen, Zewen; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092902

Van Allen Probes

A comparative study on the distributions of incoherent and coherent plasmaspheric hiss

Abstract We perform a comparative study on the distributions of incoherent and coherent plasmaspheric hiss, based on the Van Allen Probe data. The statistics show that incoherent hiss ( ∼10–20 pT) is widely distributed in dayside plasmasphere, with peak frequencies below 500 Hz; intense coherent hiss (amplitudes up to 80 pT) occurs in outer plasmasphere of L > 4 (L denotes the L-shell.), whose frequency increases with ambient magnetic field significantly. The Poynting flux analysis indicates that incoherent hiss generall ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yu, Jiang; Li, Kun; Liu, Nigang; Chen, Zewen; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL092902

Van Allen Probes

In situ Observations of Whistler-mode Chorus Waves Guided by Density Ducts

Abstract In this paper, we report the proof of the existence of density ducts in the Earth’s magnetosphere by studying in situ observations of whistler-mode chorus waves using NASA’s Van Allen Probe-A data. Chorus waves, originally excited inside the density ducts with wave normal angles (WNAs) smaller than the Gendrin angle at near equator region, are efficiently confined to a limited area inside density ducts (i.e., ducted regions), and remain with small WNAs as they propagate towards high latitudes. The ducted region ...

Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Chen, Lunjin; Tsurutani, Bruce; Li, Wen; Ni, Binbin; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028814

Radiation belt; Chorus wave; density duct; ducted region; Van Allen Probes

In situ Observations of Whistler-mode Chorus Waves Guided by Density Ducts

Abstract In this paper, we report the proof of the existence of density ducts in the Earth’s magnetosphere by studying in situ observations of whistler-mode chorus waves using NASA’s Van Allen Probe-A data. Chorus waves, originally excited inside the density ducts with wave normal angles (WNAs) smaller than the Gendrin angle at near equator region, are efficiently confined to a limited area inside density ducts (i.e., ducted regions), and remain with small WNAs as they propagate towards high latitudes. The ducted region ...

Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Chen, Lunjin; Tsurutani, Bruce; Li, Wen; Ni, Binbin; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028814

Radiation belt; Chorus wave; density duct; ducted region; Van Allen Probes

A Comparison of the Location of the Mid-latitude Trough and Plasmapause Boundary

Abstract We have compared the location of the mid-latitude trough observed in two dimensional vertical total electron content (vTEC) maps with four plasmapause boundary models, Radiation Belt Storm Probes observations, and IMAGE EUV observations all mapped to the ionosphere pierce point using the Tsyganenko [1996] magnetic field line model. For this study we examine four events over North America: one just after the 13 October 2012 storm, one during the 20 April 2002 double storm, another during a large substorm on 26 Januar ...

Weygand, J.M.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Shprits, Y.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028213

mid-latitude trough; plasmapause boundary; vTECs; plasmapause models; Van Allen Probes

Reconstruction of the Radiation Belts for Solar Cycles 17 – 24 (1933 – 2017)

AbstractWe present a reconstruction of the dynamics of the radiation belts from Solar Cycles 17 – 24 which allows us to study how radiation belt activity has varied between the different solar cycles. The radiation belt simulations are produced using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB)-3D code. The VERB-3D code simulations incorporate radial, energy, and pitch angle diffusion to reproduce the radiation belts. Our simulations use the historical measurements of Kp (available since Solar Cycle 17, i.e., 1933) to mode ...

Saikin, A.; . Y. Shprits, Y; . Y. Drozdov, A; Landis, D.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Cervantes, S.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020SW002524

Radiation belts; numerical modeling; Particle acceleration; Magnetosphere: inner; forecasting; Van Allen Probes

Determining the Temporal and Spatial Coherence of Plasmaspheric Hiss Waves in the Magnetosphere

Abstract Plasmaspheric hiss is one of the most important plasma waves in the Earth s magnetosphere to contribute to radiation belt dynamics by pitch-angle scattering energetic electrons via wave-particle interactions. There is growing evidence that the temporal and spatial variability of wave-particle interactions are important factors in the construction of diffusion-based models of the radiation belts. Hiss amplitudes are thought to be coherent across large distances and on long timescales inside the plasmapause, which mea ...

Zhang, Shuai; Rae, Jonathan; Watt, Clare; Degeling, Alexander; Tian, Anmin; Shi, Quanqi; Shen, Xiao-Chen; Smith, Andy; Wang, Mengmeng;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028635

Van Allen Probes

Periodic Rising and Falling Tone ECH Waves from Van Allen Probes Observations

AbstractElectron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are known to precipitate plasma sheet electrons into the upper atmosphere and generate diffuse aurorae. In this study, we report quasi-periodic rising (3 events) and falling tone (22 events) ECH waves observed by Van Allen Probes, and evaluate their properties. These rising and falling tone ECH waves prefer to occur during quiet geomagnetic conditions over the dusk to midnight sector in relatively high-density (10–80 cm-3) regions. Their repetition periods increase with incre ...

Shen, Xiao-Chen; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL091330

ECH wave; falling tone; rising tone; Magnetosphere; plasma wave; Van Allen Probes

A combined neural network- and physics-based approach for modeling plasmasphere dynamics

AbstractIn recent years, feedforward neural networks (NNs) have been successfully applied to reconstruct global plasmasphere dynamics in the equatorial plane. These neural network-based models capture the large-scale dynamics of the plasmasphere, such as plume formation and erosion of the plasmasphere on the nightside. However, their performance depends strongly on the availability of training data. When the data coverage is limited or non-existent, as occurs during geomagnetic storms, the performance of NNs significantly de ...

Zhelavskaya, I.; Aseev, N.; . Y. Shprits, Y;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028077

plasmasphere; plasma density; neural networks; data assimilation; Kalman Filter; Machine learning; Van Allen Probes

Observations of Particle Loss due to Injection-Associated EMIC Waves

AbstractWe report on observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and their interactions with injected ring current particles and high energy radiation belt electrons. The magnetic field experiment aboard the twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft measured EMIC waves near L = 5.5 − 6. Particle data from the spacecraft show that the waves were associated with particle injections. The wave activity was also observed by a ground-based magnetometer near the spacecraft geomagnetic footprint over a more extensive tempora ...

Kim, Hyomin; Schiller, Quintin; Engebretson, Mark; Noh, Sungjun; Kuzichev, Ilya; Lanzerotti, Louis; Gerrard, Andrew; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lessard, Marc; Spence, Harlan; Lee, Dae-Young; Matzka, Jürgen; Fromm, Tanja;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028503

EMIC waves; ring current; Radiation belt; wave particle interaction; injection; Particle precipitation; Van Allen Probes

Multi-Point Observations of Quasiperiodic Emission Intensification and Effects on Energetic Electron Precipitation

AbstractThe two Van Allen Probes simultaneously recorded a coherently modulated quasiperiodic (QP) emission that persisted for 3 hours. The magnetic field pulsation at the locations of the two satellites showed a substantial difference, and their frequencies were close to but did not exactly match the repetition frequency of QP emissions for most of the time, suggesting that those coherent QP emissions probably originated from a common source, which then propagated over a broad area in the magnetosphere. The QP emissions wer ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Shen, Xiaochen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; An, Xin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Wygant, John; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Hartley, David; Reeves, Geoffrey; Funsten, Herbert; Blake, Bernard; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028484

quasiperiodic emissions; electron precipitation; Radiation belt; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes; ULF wave

2020

Equatorial pitch angle distributions of 1 – 50 keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere: an empirical model based on the Van Allen Probes observations

Using seven years of data from the HOPE instrument on the Van Allen Probes, equatorial pitch angle distributions (PADs) of 1 – 50 keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are investigated statistically. An empirical model of electron equatorial PADs as a function of radial distance, magnetic local time, geomagnetic activity, and electron energy is constructed using the method of Legendre polynomial fitting. Model results show that most equatorial PADs of 1 – 10s of keV electrons in Earth s inner magnetosphere are pan ...

Zhao, H.; Friedel, R.; Chen, Y.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Malaspina, D.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Boyd, A.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028322

Pitch angle distribution; energetic electrons; Earth s inner magnetosphere; Anisotropy; Chorus wave; statistical analysis; Van Allen Probes

Study of spatiotemporal development of global distribution of magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves using ground-based and satellite observations, and RAM-SCB simulations, for the March and November 2017 storms

Magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves have an important role in the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere through wave-particle interaction. It is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal development of magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves to quantitatively estimate this effect of wave-particle interaction, a global process not yet well understood. We investigated spatiotemporal development of magnetospheric ELF/VLF waves using 6 PWING ground-based stations at subauroral latitudes, ERG and RBSP satellites, POES/ ...

Takeshita, Yuhei; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Oyama, Shin-Ichiro; Connors, Martin; Manninen, Jyrki; Jordanova, Vania; Baishev, Dmitry; Oinats, Alexey; Kurkin, Vladimir;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028216

ELF/VLF wave; Arase; Van Allen Probes; PWING; RAM-SCB simulation; subauroral latitudes

Mirror instabilities in the inner magnetosphere and their potential for localized ULF wave generation

Results from the NASA Van Allen Probes mission indicate extensive observations of mirror/drift-mirror (M/D-M hereafter) unstable plasma regions in the nightside inner magnetosphere. Said plasmas lie on the threshold between the kinetic and frozen-in plasma regimes and have favorable conditions for the formation of M/D-M modes and subsequent ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave signatures in the surrounding plasma. We present the results of a climatological analysis of plasma-γ (anisotropy measure) and total plasma-β (ratio of pa ...

Cooper, M.; Gerrard, A.; Lanzerotti, L.; Soto-Chavez, A.; Kim, H.; Kuzichev, I.; Goodwin, L.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028773

Mirror mode-unstable plasma; ULF waves; magnetotail injections; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

TWINS Observations of the Dynamics of Ring Currents Ion Spectra on 17th March and 7th October 2015

Direct comparisons between RBSP (Van Allen Probes or Radiation Belt Storm Probes) and TWINS (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers) for the main phase of two storms, 17th March and 7th October 2015, showed agreement between the in–situ ion measurements and the ion spectra from the deconvolved energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements, except when O+ ions were significant. Spatial evolution of individual energy peaks in the ion spectra are studied using TWINS data. O+ ions are seen to result in intense peaks at ...

Shekhar, S.; Perez, J.; Ferradas, C.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028156

Ring Currents; Magnetosphere; energy dependent drift; ion nose; Substorm Injections; Ion Spectra; Van Allen Probes

Ring Current Decay During Geomagnetic Storm Recovery Phase: Comparison Between RBSP Observations and Theoretical Modeling

Ring current decay during storm recovery phase may be affected by different loss processes. In this study, we have investigated the lifetimes of ring current ions (H+ and O+) of energies from 1 keV to several hundred keV at L shell from 3 to 6 during the storm recovery phase through a statistical survey. The observational data of 48 geomagnetic storms from March 2013 to May 2019 are collected based on Van Allen Probe observations. We find that (1) the observed lifetimes of H+ and O+ in general increase with L shell and (2) ...

Chen, Ao; Yue, Chao; Chen, HongFei; Zong, Qiugang; Fu, Suiyan; Wang, Yongfu; Ren, Jie;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028500

charge exchange; lifetime; ring current decay; Van Allen Probes

Ring Current Decay During Geomagnetic Storm Recovery Phase: Comparison Between RBSP Observations and Theoretical Modeling

Ring current decay during storm recovery phase may be affected by different loss processes. In this study, we have investigated the lifetimes of ring current ions (H+ and O+) of energies from 1 keV to several hundred keV at L shell from 3 to 6 during the storm recovery phase through a statistical survey. The observational data of 48 geomagnetic storms from March 2013 to May 2019 are collected based on Van Allen Probe observations. We find that (1) the observed lifetimes of H+ and O+ in general increase with L shell and (2) ...

Chen, Ao; Yue, Chao; Chen, HongFei; Zong, Qiugang; Fu, Suiyan; Wang, Yongfu; Ren, Jie;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028500

charge exchange; lifetime; ring current decay; Van Allen Probes

Correlated Observation on Global Distributions of Magnetosonic Waves and Proton Rings in the Radiation Belts

Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves are excited by the ring distribution of energetic protons preferably when the ring velocity (VR) is within a factor of 2 above or below the local Alfvén speed (VA). Here we examine the global distributions of MS waves and proton rings with 0.5VA ≤ VR ≤ 2VA based on 64 months (from October 25, 2012 to February 28, 2018) of Van Allen Probes observations. The statistical results show that MS waves are present over a broad region of L = 1.2–6.0 and 00–24 magnetic local time (MLT), wit ...

Zhou, Qinghua; Jiang, Zheng; Yang, Chang; He, Yihua; Liu, Si; Xiao, Fuliang;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028354

Fast Magnetosonic Waves; global occurrences; proton ring distribution; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probe observation; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Study of Chorus Modulations by Background Magnetic Field and Plasma Density

In this study, we use observations of THEMIS and Van Allen Probes to statistically study the modulations of chorus emissions by variations of background magnetic field and plasma density in the ultra low frequency range. The modulation events are identified automatically and divided into three types according to whether the chorus intensity correlates to the variations of the magnetic field only (Type B), plasma density only (Type N), or both (Type NB). For the THEMIS observations, the occurrences of the Types B and N are la ...

Xia, Zhiyang; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089344

Van Allen Probes

Alpha Transmitter Signal Reflection and Triggered Emissions

Russian Alpha radio navigation system (RSDN-20) emits F1 = 11.9 kHz signals into the magnetosphere which propagate as whistler mode waves. Observed by waveform continuous burst mode from Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on Van Allen Probes, a case is presented and featured with ducted propagation, multiple reflections, and triggered emissions. Both risers and fallers appear in the triggered emissions. We use a ray tracing method to demonstrate ducted propagation, which has a s ...

Gu, Wenyao; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang; An, Xin; Horne, Richard;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090165

VLF transmitter; ducted propagation; triggered emission; Van Allen Probes

Long-Term Dropout of Relativistic Electrons in the Outer Radiation Belt During Two Sequential Geomagnetic Storms

On 31 January 2016, the flux of >2 MeV electrons observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 dropped to the background level during a minor storm main phase (−48 nT). Then, a second storm (−53 nT) occurred on 2 February; during the 3 days after its main phase, the flux remained at background level. Using data from various instruments on the GOES, Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), Meteor-M2, and Fengyun-series spacecraft, we study this long ...

Wu, H.; Chen, T.; Kalegaev, V.; Panasyuk, M.; Vlasova, N.; Duan, S.; Zhang, X.; He, Z.; Luo, J.; Wang, C.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028098

Radiation belt; relativistic electron dropout; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Long-Term Dropout of Relativistic Electrons in the Outer Radiation Belt During Two Sequential Geomagnetic Storms

On 31 January 2016, the flux of >2 MeV electrons observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 dropped to the background level during a minor storm main phase (−48 nT). Then, a second storm (−53 nT) occurred on 2 February; during the 3 days after its main phase, the flux remained at background level. Using data from various instruments on the GOES, Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), Meteor-M2, and Fengyun-series spacecraft, we study this long ...

Wu, H.; Chen, T.; Kalegaev, V.; Panasyuk, M.; Vlasova, N.; Duan, S.; Zhang, X.; He, Z.; Luo, J.; Wang, C.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028098

Radiation belt; relativistic electron dropout; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Precipitation Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons by Two-Band Plasmaspheric Hiss Waves

A two-band plasmaspheric hiss consisting of a low-frequency band (normal hiss with the frequency below 2 kHz) and a high-frequency band (locally generated hiss with the frequency up to 10 kHz) was observed on 6 January 2014 by the Van Allen Probes (He et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081578). The electron scattering effect driven by this kind of two-band plasmaspheric hiss is evaluated by the quasi-linear diffusion simulation for the first time. Realistic wave characteristic parameters of the two-band plasmasp ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yan, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yu, Jiang; Ma, Yonghui; Cao, Yong; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028157

two-band hiss; radiation belt electron; loss; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Study on Locally Generated High-Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss and Its Effect on Suprathermal Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observation and Quasi-linear Simulation

The local generation of high-frequency plasmaspheric hiss has recently been reported by a case study (He et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081578). In this research, we perform statistics of global distributions of the locally generated high-frequency plasmaspheric hiss (LHFPH) for different levels of substorm activity, using 6-year observational data from Van Allen Probes. The statistics find that the LHFPH amplitude presents a strong magnetic local time (MLT) asymmetry and highly depends on substorm activity, and ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yu, Jiang; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang; Wang, Wenrui; Li, Kun; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028526

Van Allen Probes

Statistical Study on Locally Generated High-Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss and Its Effect on Suprathermal Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observation and Quasi-linear Simulation

The local generation of high-frequency plasmaspheric hiss has recently been reported by a case study (He et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081578). In this research, we perform statistics of global distributions of the locally generated high-frequency plasmaspheric hiss (LHFPH) for different levels of substorm activity, using 6-year observational data from Van Allen Probes. The statistics find that the LHFPH amplitude presents a strong magnetic local time (MLT) asymmetry and highly depends on substorm activity, and ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yu, Jiang; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang; Wang, Wenrui; Li, Kun; Cui, Jun;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028526

Van Allen Probes

Statistical Evidence for EMIC Wave Excitation Driven by Substorm Injection and Enhanced Solar Wind Pressure in the Earth s Magnetosphere: Two Different EMIC Wave Sources

Substorm injection and solar wind dynamic pressure have long been considered as two main drivers of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave excitation, but clear observational evidence is still lacking. With Van Allen Probes data from 2012–2017, we have investigated the roles of the two EMIC wave drivers separately, by using time-modified AE+ and . Both the occurrence rate and magnetic amplitude of waves significantly increase with the enhancement of each index. During large AE+, EMIC waves are mainly generated in the du ...

Chen, Huayue; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Tsurutani, Bruce; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090275

EMIC wave; wave excitation; source region; substorm injection; solar wind dynamic pressure; Earth s magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Storm Time Plasma Pressure Inferred From Multimission Measurements and Its Validation Using Van Allen Probes Particle Data

The k-nearest-neighbor technique is used to mine a multimission magnetometer database for a subset of data points from time intervals that are similar to the storm state of the magnetosphere for a particular moment in time. These subsets of data are then used to fit an empirical magnetic field model. Performing this for each snapshot in time reconstructs the dynamic evolution of the magnetic and electric current density distributions during storms. However, because weaker storms occur more frequently than stronger storms, th ...

Stephens, G.; Bingham, S.; Sitnov, M.; Gkioulidou, M.; Merkin, V.; Korth, H.; Tsyganenko, N.; . Y. Ukhorskiy, A;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020SW002583

storms; empirical geomagnetic field; ring current; data mining; eastward current; plasma pressure; Van Allen Probes

Suprathermal Electron Evolution Under the Competition Between Plasmaspheric Plume Hiss Wave Heating and Collisional Cooling

Suprathermal electrons are a major heat source of ionospheric plasma. How the suprathermal electrons evolve during their bounces inside the plasmasphere is a fundamental question for the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. On the basis of Van Allen Probes observations and quasi-linear simulations, we present here the first quantitative study on the evolution of suprathermal electrons under the competition between Landau heating by whistler mode hiss waves and Coulomb collisional cooling by background plasma inside a plasmasph ...

Wang, Zhongshan; Su, Zhenpeng; Liu, Nigang; Dai, Guyue; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089649

magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling; whistler mode hiss waves; Landau resonance; Coulomb collisions; suprathermal electrons; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Lower-Band “Monochromatic” Chorus Riser Subelement/Wave Packet Observations

Three lower-band (f < 0.5 fce) chorus riser elements detected in the dayside generation region were studied in detail using the Van Allen Probe data. Two subelements/wave packets within each riser were examined for their wave “frequency” constancy within seven consecutive wave cycles. The seven wave cycles contained the maximum amplitudes of the subelements/packets. Maximum variance B1 zero crossings were used for the identification of wave cycle start and stop times. It is found that the frequency is constant to with ...

Tsurutani, Bruce; Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Pickett, Jolene; Lakhina, Gurbax; Sen, Abhijit; Hajra, Rajkumar; Park, Sang; Falkowski, Barbara;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028090

chorus coherency; chorus subelement monochromaticity; a modified theory needed; Van Allen Probes

Properties of Lightning Generated Whistlers Based on Van Allen Probes Observations and Their Global Effects on Radiation Belt Electron Loss

Lightning generated whistlers (LGWs) play an important role in precipitating energetic electrons in the Earth s inner radiation belt and beyond. Wave burst data from the Van Allen Probes are used to unambiguously identify LGWs and analyze their properties at L < 4 by extending their frequencies down to ~100 Hz for the first time. The statistical results show that LGWs typically occur at frequencies from 100 Hz to 10 kHz with the major wave power below the equatorial lower hybrid resonance frequency, and their wave ampli ...

Green, A.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Shen, X.-C.; Bortnik, J.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089584

lightning generated whistlers; electron precipitation; Inner radiation belt; hiss; VLF transmitter waves; global distribution; Van Allen Probes

Can Solar Wind Decompressive Discontinuities Suppress Magnetospheric Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Associated With Fresh Proton Injections?

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the energy transfer among particles of different energies and species in the magnetosphere, whose drivers have been commonly recognized as solar wind compressions and storm/substorm proton injections. However, how the solar wind decompressions related to frequently occurring discontinuities compete with the proton injections in the evolution of EMIC waves has been rarely investigated. Here we present a complete end-to-end observation by Wind, THEMIS, and Va ...

Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090296

EMIC waves; solar wind discontinuity; storm/substorm injection; wave generation; adiabatic deceleration; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Global Survey of Plasma Sheet Electron Precipitation due to Whistler Mode Chorus Waves in Earth s Magnetosphere

Whistler mode chorus waves can scatter plasma sheet electrons into the loss cone and produce the Earth s diffuse aurora. Van Allen Probes observed plasma sheet electron injections and intense chorus waves on 24 November 2012. We use quasilinear theory to calculate the precipitating electron fluxes, demonstrating that the chorus waves could lead to high differential energy fluxes of precipitating electrons with characteristic energies of 10–30 keV. Using this method, we calculate the precipitating electron flux from 2012 t ...

Ma, Q.; Connor, H.; Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Shen, X.-C.; Gillespie, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088798

Chorus wave; electron precipitation; plasma sheet electron; Van Allen Probes observation; Van Allen Probes

Origin of Electron Boomerang Stripes: Localized ULF Wave-Particle Interactions

Ultralow frequency (ULF) wave-particle interactions play a significant role in the radiation belt dynamic process, during which drift resonance can accelerate and transport energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Observations of wave-electron drift resonance are characterized by quasiperiodic straight or “boomerang-shaped” stripes in the pitch angle spectrogram. Here we present an ULF wave event on 1 December 2015, during which both kinds stripes were observed by Van Allen Probes A and B, respectively. Using the ...

Zhao, X.; Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Yue, Chao; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087960

boomerang-shaped stripes; ULF waves; drift resonance; time of flight; Van Allen Probes

Electron Diffusion by Coexisting Plasmaspheric Hiss and Chorus Waves: Multisatellite Observations and Simulations

We report a rare event of intense plasmaspheric hiss and chorus waves simultaneously observed at the same L shell but different magnetic local times by Van Allen Probes and Magnetospheric Multiscale. Based on the measured waves and electron distributions, we calculate the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and subsequently simulate the temporal evolution of electron distributions. The simulations show that the dynamics of tens to hundreds of keV electrons are jointly controlled by hiss and chorus. The dynamics of MeV ele ...

Yu, J.; Wang, J.; . Y. Li, L; Cui, J.; Cao, J.; He, Z.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088753

electron diffusion; Plasmaspheric Hiss; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes; MMS

A Short-lived Three-Belt Structure for sub-MeV Electrons in the Van Allen Belts: Time Scale and Energy Dependence

In this study we focus on the radiation belt dynamics driven by the geomagnetic storms during September 2017. Besides the long-lasting three-belt structures of ultrarelativistic electrons (>2 MeV, existing for tens of days), which has been studied intensively during the Van Allen Probe era, it is found that magnetospheric electrons of hundreds of keVs can also have three-belt structures at similar L extent during storm time. Measurements of 500–800 keV electrons from MagEIS instrument onboard Van Allen Probes show double- ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zou, H.; Rankin, R.; Sun, Y.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; . Y. Fu, S; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028031

storage ring; three-belt structure; hiss wave; electron lifetime; Radial Transport; Van Allen Probes

Electron-Driven Magnetic Dip Embedded Within the Proton-Driven Magnetic Dip and the Related Echoes of Butterfly Distribution of Relativistic Electrons

In this study, a magnetic dip event in which a small-scale magnetic dip is embedded within a large-scale magnetic dip is analyzed based on the observations of the Van Allen Probes. The small-scale dip is contributed by a sharp electron injection at the energy range of 1 to 10 keV, but the large-scale dip is contributed by a smooth proton injection at the energy range higher than 10 keV. The formation of dip caused by the suprathermal electrons is supported by the self-consistent magnetic model. Moreover, the echoes of bu ...

Zhu, Hui; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088983

magnetic dips; echoes of butterfly distributions; ring current-radiation belt coupling; Van Allen Probes



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