Bibliography



Found 125 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 1 through 50


2019

Effects of Solar Wind Plasma Flow and Interplanetary Magnetic Field on the Spatial Structure of Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts

Based on the statistical data measured by Van Allen Probes from 2012 to 2016, we analyzed the effects of solar wind plasma flow and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the spatial distribution of Earth\textquoterights radiation belt electrons (>100 keV). The statistical results indicate that the increases in solar wind plasma density and flow speed can exert different effects on the spatial structure of the radiation belts. The high solar wind plasma density (>6 cm-3)/flow pressure (>2.5 nPa) and a large southward IMF (Bz ...

Li, L.Y.; Yang, S.S.; Cao, J.B.; Yu, J.; Luo, X.Y.; Blake, J.B.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027284

Changes in The Spatial Structure of Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts; Increase in Solar Wind Plasma Density; Increase in Solar Wind Plasma Flow Speed; Northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field; Southward interplanetary magnetic field; Van Allen Probes

Remote Detection of Drift Resonance Between Energetic Electrons and Ultralow Frequency Waves: Multisatellite Coordinated Observation by Arase and Van Allen Probes

We report the electron flux modulations without corresponding magnetic fluctuations from unique multipoint satellite observations of the Arase (Exploration of Energization and Radiation in Geospace) and the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probe [RBSP])-B satellites. On 30 March 2017, both Arase and RBSP-B observed periodic fluctuations in the relativistic electron flux with energies ranging from 500 keV to 2 MeV when they were located near the magnetic equator in the morning and dusk local time sectors, respectively. A ...

Teramoto, M.; Hori, T.; Saito, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kurita, S.; Higashio, N.; Matsuoka, A.; Kasahara, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Takashima, T.; Nomura, R.; e, Nos\; Fujimoto, A.; Tanaka, Y.-M.; Shoji, M.; Tsugawa, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Shinohara, I.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.F.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Turner, D.; Kletzing, C.; Sormakov, D.; Troshichev, O.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084379

Van Allen Probes

RBSP-ECT Combined Spin-Averaged Electron Flux Data Product

We describe a new data product combining the spin-averaged electron flux measurements from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration\textquoterights Van Allen Probes. We describe the methodology used to combine each of the data sets and produce a consistent set of spectra for September 2013 to the present. Three-minute-averaged flux spectra are provided spanning energies from 15 eV up to 20 MeV. This new data produ ...

Boyd, A.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Jaynes, A.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026733

ECT; HOPE; MAGEis; Radiation belts; REPT; Van Allen Probes

Characterization and Evolution of Radiation Belt Electron Energy Spectra Based on the Van Allen Probes Measurements

Based on the measurements of ~100-keV to 10-MeV electrons from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) on the Van Allen Probes, the radiation belt electron energy spectra characterization and evolution have been investigated systematically. The results show that the majority of radiation belt electron energy spectra can be represented by one of three types of distributions: exponential, power law, and bump-on-tail (BOT). The exponential spectra are generally domin ...

Zhao, H.; Johnston, W.R.; Baker, D.N.; Li, X.; Ni, B.; Jaynes, A.N.; Kanekal, S.G.; Blake, J.B.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Boyd, A.J.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026697

Bump-on-tail energy spectrum; Energy spectrum; Exponential energy spectrum; Plasmapause; Power law energy spectrum; radiation belt electrons; Van Allen Probes

The Response of Earth\textquoterights Electron Radiation Belts to Geomagnetic Storms: Statistics From the Van Allen Probes Era Including Effects From Different Storm Drivers

A statistical study was conducted of Earth\textquoterights radiation belt electron response to geomagnetic storms using NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission. Data for electrons with energies ranging from 30 keV to 6.3 MeV were included and examined as a function of L-shell, energy, and epoch time during 110 storms with SYM-H <=-50 nT during September 2012 to September 2017 (inclusive). The radiation belt response revealed clear energy and L-shell dependencies, with tens of keV electrons enhanced at all L-shells (2.5 ...

Turner, D.; Kilpua, E.; Hietala, H.; Claudepierre, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Ripoll, J.-F.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026066

energetic particles; Geomagnetic storms; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

A Revised Look at Relativistic Electrons in the Earth\textquoterights Inner Radiation Zone and Slot Region

We describe a new, more accurate procedure for estimating and removing inner zone background contamination from Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) radiation belt measurements. This new procedure is based on the underlying assumption that the primary source of background contamination in the electron measurements at L shells less than three, energetic inner belt protons, is relatively stable. Since a magnetic spectrometer can readily distinguish between foreground electrons and background signals, we ...

Claudepierre, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Looper, M.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Roeder, J.; Clemmons, J.; Mazur, J.; Turner, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026349

Inner zone; particle detectors; Radiation belt; relativistic electrons; Slot region; Space weather; Van Allen Probes

2018

Rapid loss of relativistic electrons by EMIC waves in the outer radiation belt observed by Arase, Van Allen Probes, and the PWING ground stations

There has been increasing evidence for pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Theoretical studies have predicted that the loss time scale of MeV electrons by EMIC waves can be very fast, suggesting that MeV electron fluxes rapidly decrease in association with the EMIC wave activity. This study reports on a unique event of MeV electron loss induced by EMIC waves based on Arase, Van Allen Probes, and ground-based network observations. Arase observed a signature of MeV el ...

Kurita, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Higashio, N.; Mitani, T.; Takashima, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Shinohara, I.; Kletzing, C.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Connors, M.; Oyama, S.; Nagatsuma, T.; Sakaguchi, K.; Baishev, D.; Otsuka, Y.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080262

EMIC waves; loss; PWING project; Radiation belt; The Arase satellite; Van Allen Probes

Diagnosis of ULF Wave-Particle Interactions With Megaelectron Volt Electrons: The Importance of Ultrahigh-Resolution Energy Channels

Electron flux measurements are an important diagnostic for interactions between ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves and relativistic (\~1 MeV) electrons. Since measurements are collected by particle detectors with finite energy channel width, they are affected by a phase mixing process that can obscure these interactions. We demonstrate that ultrahigh-resolution electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer on the Van Allen Probes mission\textemdashobtained using a data product that improves the energy resolut ...

Hartinger, M.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Reeves, G.; Breneman, A.; Mann, I.; Peek, T.; Chang, E.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Looper, M.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080291

drift resonance; particle detector; Pc5; Radiation belts; ULF wave; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

On the Initial Enhancement of Energetic Electrons and the Innermost Plasmapause Locations: CME-Driven Storm Periods

Using Van Allen Probes\textquoteright observations and established plasmapause location (Lpp) models, we investigate the relationship between the location of the initial enhancement (IE) of energetic electrons and the innermost (among all magnetic local time sectors) Lpp over five intense storm periods. Our study reveals that the IE events for 30 keV to 2MeV electrons always occurred outside of the innermost Lpp. On average, the inner extent of the IE events (LIE) for <800 keV electrons was closer to the innermost Lpp when c ...

Khoo, Leng; Li, Xinlin; Zhao, Hong; Sarris, Theodore; Xiang, Zheng; Zhang, Kun; Kellerman, Adam; Blake, Bernard;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026074

energetic electron; enhancements; plasmasphere; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Evidence of Microbursts Observed Near the Equatorial Plane in the Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt

We present the first evidence of electron microbursts observed near the equatorial plane in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt. We observed the microbursts on March 31st, 2017 with the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer and RBSP Ion Composition Experiment on the Van Allen Probes. Microburst electrons with kinetic energies of 29-92 keV were scattered over a substantial range of pitch angles, and over time intervals of 150-500 ms. Furthermore, the microbursts arrived without dispersion in energy, indicating that they w ...

Shumko, Mykhaylo; Turner, Drew; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Claudepierre, Seth; Sample, John; Hartley, D.; Fennell, Joseph; Blake, Bernard; Gkioulidou, Matina; Mitchell, Donald;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078451

Van Allen Probes

Rapid Enhancements of the Seed Populations in the Heart of the Earth\textquoterights Outer Radiation Belt: A Multicase Study

To better understand rapid enhancements of the seed populations (hundreds of keV electrons) in the heart of the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt (L* ~ 3.5\textendash5.0) during different geomagnetic activities, we investigate three enhancement events measured by Van Allen Probes in detail. Observations of the fluxes and the pitch angle distributions of energetic electrons are analyzed to determine rapid enhancements of the seed populations. Our study shows that three specified processes associated with substorm ele ...

Tang, C.; Xie, X.; Ni, B.; Su, Z.; Reeves, G.; Zhang, J.-C.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Wygant, J.; . Y. Dai, G;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA025142

enhanced convection; Substorm Injections; the outer radiation belt; the seed population; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

What Causes Radiation Belt Enhancements: A Survey of the Van Allen Probes Era

We survey radiation belt enhancement events during the Van Allen Probes era to determine what mechanism is the dominant cause of enhancements and where it is most effective. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed: (1) betatron/Fermi acceleration due to the Earthward radial transport of electrons which produces monotonic gradients in phase space density (PSD) and (2) \textquotedblleftlocal acceleration" due to gyro/Landau resonant interaction with electromagnetic waves which produces radially localized, growing peaks in PS ...

Boyd, A.J.; Turner, D.L.; Reeves, G.D.; Spence, H.E.; Baker, D.N.; Blake, J.B.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077699

Local Acceleration; Phase space density; Radiation belt; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

An empirical model of radiation belt electron pitch angle distributions based on Van Allen Probes measurements

Based on over 4 years of Van Allen Probes measurements, an empirical model of radiation belt electron equatorial pitch angle distribution (PAD) is constructed. The model, developed by fitting electron PADs with Legendre polynomials, provides the statistical PADs as a function of L-shell (L=1 \textendash 6), magnetic local time (MLT), electron energy (~30 keV \textendash 5.2 MeV), and geomagnetic activity (represented by the Dst index), and is also the first empirical PAD model in the inner belt and slot region. For MeV elect ...

Zhao, H.; Friedel, R.; Chen, Y.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025277

Empirical Model; Geomagnetic storms; inner belt and slot region; Pitch angle distribution; radiation belt electrons; Van Allen Probes

The global statistical response of the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms

Using the total radiation belt electron content calculated from Van Allen Probe phase space density (PSD), the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms is statistically studied. Using PSD reduces the impacts of adiabatic changes in the main phase, allowing a separation of adiabatic and non-adiabatic effects, and revealing a clear modality and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. This sequence exhibits an important first adiabatic invariant (μ) depe ...

Murphy, Kyle; Watt, C.; Mann, Ian; Rae, Jonathan; Sibeck, David; Boyd, A.; Forsyth, C.; Turner, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076674

Geomagnetic storms; magnetospheric dynamics; Radiation belts; Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling; statistical analysis; Van Allen Probes

Quantitative Evaluation of Radial Diffusion and Local Acceleration Processes During GEM Challenge Events

We simulate the radiation belt electron flux enhancements during selected Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) challenge events to quantitatively compare the major processes involved in relativistic electron acceleration under different conditions. Van Allen Probes observed significant electron flux enhancement during both the storm time of 17\textendash18 March 2013 and non\textendashstorm time of 19\textendash20 September 2013, but the distributions of plasma waves and energetic electrons for the two events were dramaticall ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Chu, X.; Ozeke, L.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Engebretson, M.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA025114

electron accelerationl whistler mode waves; radial diffusion; radiation belt simulation; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation

2017

SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF LOWER BAND CHORUS EMISSIONS AT THE EQUATOR AND MICROBURST PRECIPITATING ELECTRONS IN THE IONOSPHERE

On December 11, 2016 at 00:12:30 UT, Van Allen Probe-B, at the equator and near midnight, and AC6-B, in the ionosphere, were on magnetic field lines whose 100 km altitude foot points were separated by 600 km. Van Allen Probe-B observed a 30 second burst of lower band chorus waves (with maximum amplitudes >1 nT) at the same time that AC6-B observed intense microburst electrons in the loss cone. One-second averaged variations of the chorus intensity and the microburst electron flux were well-correlated. The low altitude electr ...

Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O.; Blake, J.; . Y. Vasko, I;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076120

chorus makes microbursts; Van Allen Probes

Observations Directly Linking Relativistic Electron Microbursts to Whistler Mode Chorus: Van Allen Probes and FIREBIRD II

We present observations that provide the strongest evidence yet that discrete whistler mode chorus packets cause relativistic electron microbursts. On 20 January 2016 near 1944 UT the low Earth orbiting CubeSat Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Bursts: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD II) observed energetic microbursts (near L = 5.6 and MLT = 10.5) from its lower limit of 220 keV, to 1 MeV. In the outer radiation belt and magnetically conjugate, Van Allen Probe A observed rising-tone, lower band chorus ...

Breneman, A.; Crew, A.; Sample, J.; Klumpar, D.; Johnson, A.; Agapitov, O.; Shumko, M.; Turner, D.; Santolik, O.; Wygant, J.; Cattell, C.; Thaller, S.; Blake, B.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075001

Chorus; conjunction; FIREBIRD; microburst; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes measurements of energetic particle deep penetration into the low L region (L<4) during the storm on 8 April 2016

Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, a penetration event of 10s \textendash 100s of keV electrons and 10s of keV protons into the low L-shells (L<4) is studied. Timing and magnetic local time (MLT) differences of energetic particle deep penetration are unveiled and underlying physical processes are examined. During this event, both proton and electron penetrations are MLT-asymmetric. The observed MLT difference of proton penetration is consistent with convection of plasma sheet protons, suggesting enhanced convectio ...

Zhao, H.; Baker, D.; Califf, S.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Kanekal, S.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024558

Examining coherency scales, substructure, and propagation of whistler-mode chorus elements with Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)

Whistler-mode chorus waves are a naturally occurring electromagnetic emission observed in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Here, for the first time, data from NASA\textquoterights Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission were used to analyze chorus waves in detail, including the calculation of chorus wave normal vectors, k. A case study was examined from a period of substorm activity around the time of a conjunction between the MMS constellation and NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission on 07 April 2016. Chorus wa ...

Turner, D.; Lee, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Wilder, F.; Ergun, R.; Baker, D.; Cohen, I.; Mauk, B.; Strangeway, R.; Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu; Torbert, R.; Allen, R.; Burch, J.; Santolik, O.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024474

chorus waves; inner magnetosphere; Magnetospheric multiscale; MMS; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Relativistic electron increase during chorus wave activities on the 6-8 March 2016 geomagnetic storm

There was a geomagnetic storm on 6\textendash8 March 2016, in which Van Allen Probes A and B separated by \~2.5 h measured increase of relativistic electrons with energies \~ several hundred keV to 1 MeV. Simultaneously, chorus waves were measured by both Van Allen Probes and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. Some of the chorus elements were rising-tones, possibly due to nonlinear effects. These measurements are compared with a nonlinear theory of chorus waves incorporating the inhomogeneity ratio and the field equati ...

Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Alm, L.; Farrugia, C.; Kurth, W.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Ergun, R.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024540

chorus waves; Geomagnetic storm; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Multipoint observations of energetic particle injections and substorm activity during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes

This study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between MMS and Van Allen Probes on 07 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from THEMIS, Geotail, and LANL-GEO (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (max. AE < 300 nT) during quiet geomagnetic conditions in steady, below-average solar wind, a complex serie ...

Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Jaynes, A.; Leonard, T.; Baker, D.; Cohen, I.; Gkioulidou, M.; . Y. Ukhorskiy, A; Mauk, B.; Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Strangeway, R.; Kletzing, C.; Le Contel, O.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Burch, J.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024554

energetic particles; injections; inner magnetosphere; plasma sheet; substorms; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Diffusive transport of several hundred keV electrons in the Earth\textquoterights slot region

We investigate the gradual diffusion of energetic electrons from the inner edge of the outer radiation belt into the slot region. The Van Allen Probes observed slow inward diffusion and decay of ~200-600 keV electrons following the intense geomagnetic storm that occurred on 17 March 2013. During the 10-day non-disturbed period following the storm, the peak of electron fluxes gradually moved from L~2.7 to L~2.4, and the flux levels decreased by a factor of ~2-4 depending on the electron energy. We simulated the radial intrusi ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Turner, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024452

Electron transport; Energetic electron diffusion; pitch angle scattering; Slot region dynamics; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation; Waves in plasmasphere

Dominance of high energy (>150 keV) heavy ion intensities in Earth\textquoterights middle to outer magnetosphere

Previous observations have driven the prevailing assumption in the field that energetic ions measured by an instrument using a bare solid state detector (SSD) are predominantly protons. However, new near-equatorial energetic particle observations obtained between 7 and 12 RE during Phase 1 of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission challenge the validity of this assumption. In particular, measurements by the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instruments have revealed that the intensities of heavy ion species (specifically ...

Cohen, Ian; Mitchell, Donald; Kistler, Lynn; Mauk, Barry; Anderson, Brian; Westlake, Joseph; Ohtani, Shinichi; Hamilton, Douglas; Turner, Drew; Blake, Bern; Fennell, Joseph; Jaynes, Allison; Leonard, Trevor; Gerrard, Andrew; Lanzerotti, Louis; Allen, Robert; Burch, James;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024351

energetic ion composition; magnetospheric ion composition; Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS); outer magnetosphere; ring current composition; suprathermal ions; Van Allen Probes

Dominance of high energy (>150 keV) heavy ion intensities in Earth\textquoterights middle to outer magnetosphere

Previous observations have driven the prevailing assumption in the field that energetic ions measured by an instrument using a bare solid state detector (SSD) are predominantly protons. However, new near-equatorial energetic particle observations obtained between 7 and 12 RE during Phase 1 of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission challenge the validity of this assumption. In particular, measurements by the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instruments have revealed that the intensities of heavy ion species (specifically ...

Cohen, Ian; Mitchell, Donald; Kistler, Lynn; Mauk, Barry; Anderson, Brian; Westlake, Joseph; Ohtani, Shinichi; Hamilton, Douglas; Turner, Drew; Blake, Bern; Fennell, Joseph; Jaynes, Allison; Leonard, Trevor; Gerrard, Andrew; Lanzerotti, Louis; Allen, Robert; Burch, James;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024351

energetic ion composition; magnetospheric ion composition; Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS); outer magnetosphere; ring current composition; suprathermal ions; Van Allen Probes

Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions

We present an analysis of \textquotedblleftboomerang-shaped\textquotedblright pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on June 7th, 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90o pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180o, and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of th ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; . Y. Fu, S; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074006

drift resonance; interplanetary shock; localized waves; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study

Using the particle data measured by Van Allen Probe A from October 2012 to March 2016, we investigate in detail the radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storms. The period of the storm recovery phase was limited to 72 h. The statistical study shows that geomagnetic storms and substorms play important roles in the radiation belt seed population (336 keV electrons) dynamics. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, ...

Tang, C.; Wang, Y.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.; Reeves, G.; Su, Z.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA023905

relativistic electrons; Substorm Injections; the outer radiation belt; the seed population; Van Allen Probes

Spatial Scale and Duration of One Microburst Region on 13 August 2015

Prior studies of microburst precipitation have largely relied on estimates of the spatial scale and temporal duration of the microburst region in order to determine the radiation belt loss rate of relativistic electrons. These estimates have often relied on the statistical distribution of microburst events. However, few studies have directly observed the spatial and temporal evolution of a single microburst event. In this study, we combine BARREL balloon-borne X-ray measurements with FIREBIRD-II and AeroCube-6 CubeSat electr ...

Anderson, B.; Shekhar, S.; Millan, R.; Crew, A.; Spence, H.; Klumpar, D.; Blake, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Turner, D.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023752

Microbursts; Radiation Belt Dynamics; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus waves

Generation of extremely low frequency chorus in Van Allen radiation belts

Recent studies have shown that chorus can efficiently accelerate the outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Chorus, previously often observed above 0.1 equatorial electron gyrofrequency fce, was generated by energetic electrons originating from Earth\textquoterights plasma sheet. Chorus below 0.1 fce has seldom been reported until the recent data from Van Allen Probes, but its origin has not been revealed so far. Because electron resonant energy can approach the relativistic level at extremely low frequency ...

Xiao, Fuliang; Liu, Si; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023561

ELF chorus waves; RBSP results; relativistic distribution; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

The hidden dynamics of relativistic electrons (0.7-1.5~MeV) in the inner zone and slot region

We present measurements of relativistic electrons (0.7\textendash1.5 MeV) in the inner zone and slot region obtained by the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument on Van Allen Probes. The data presented are corrected for background contamination, which is primarily due to inner-belt protons in these low-L regions. We find that \~1 MeV electrons were transported into the inner zone following the two largest geomagnetic storms of the Van Allen Probes era to date, the March and June 2015 events. As \~1 MeV e ...

Claudepierre, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Clemmons, J.; Looper, M.; Mazur, J.; Roeder, J.; Turner, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023719

Inner zone; particle detectors; Radiation belt; relativistic electrons; Slot region; Space weather; Van Allen Probes

The hidden dynamics of relativistic electrons (0.7-1.5~MeV) in the inner zone and slot region

We present measurements of relativistic electrons (0.7\textendash1.5 MeV) in the inner zone and slot region obtained by the Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument on Van Allen Probes. The data presented are corrected for background contamination, which is primarily due to inner-belt protons in these low-L regions. We find that \~1 MeV electrons were transported into the inner zone following the two largest geomagnetic storms of the Van Allen Probes era to date, the March and June 2015 events. As \~1 MeV e ...

Claudepierre, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Clemmons, J.; Looper, M.; Mazur, J.; Roeder, J.; Turner, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023719

Inner zone; particle detectors; Radiation belt; relativistic electrons; Slot region; Space weather; Van Allen Probes

A positive correlation between energetic electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves in the radiation belt slot region

Energetic (hundreds of keV) electrons in the radiation belt slot region have been found to exhibit the butterfly pitch angle distributions. Resonant interactions with magnetosonic and whistler-mode waves are two potential mechanisms for the formation of these peculiar distributions. Here we perform a statistical study of energetic electron pitch angle distribution characteristics measured by Van Allen Probes in the slot region during a three-year period from May 2013 to May 2016. Our results show that electron butterfly dist ...

Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073116

butterfly distributions; Electron acceleration; Landau resonance; magnetosonic wave; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Van Allen Probes observation of a 360\textdegree phase shift in the flux modulation of injected electrons by ULF waves

We present Van Allen Probe observation of drift-resonance interaction between energetic electrons and ultralow frequency (ULF) waves on 29 October 2013. Oscillations in electron flux were observed at the period of \~450 s, which is also the dominant period of the observed ULF magnetic pulsations. The phase shift of the electron fluxes (\~50 to 150 keV) across the estimated resonant energy (\~104 keV) is \~360\textdegree. This phase relationship is different from the characteristic 180\textdegree phase shift as expected from ...

Chen, X.-R.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Blake, Bernard; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071252

drift resonance; injection; PSD gradient; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Investigating the source of near-relativistic and relativistic electrons in Earth\textquoterights inner radiation belt

Using observations from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, we study the role of sudden particle enhancements at low L shells (SPELLS) as a source of inner radiation belt electrons. SPELLS events are characterized by electron intensity enhancements of approximately an order of magnitude or more in less than 1 day at L < 3. During quiet and average geomagnetic conditions, the phase space density radial distributions for fixed first and second adiabatic invariants are peaked at 2 < L < 3 for electrons ranging in energy from ...

Turner, D.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Baker, D.; Kaneka, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Henderson, M.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900445

energetic particle injections; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous disappearances of plasmaspheric hiss, exohiss, and chorus waves triggered by a sudden decrease in solar wind dynamic pressure

Magnetospheric whistler mode waves are of great importance in the radiation belt electron dynamics. Here on the basis of the analysis of a rare event with the simultaneous disappearances of whistler mode plasmaspheric hiss, exohiss, and chorus triggered by a sudden decrease in the solar wind dynamic pressure, we provide evidences for the following physical scenarios: (1) nonlinear generation of chorus controlled by the geomagnetic field inhomogeneity, (2) origination of plasmaspheric hiss from chorus, and (3) leakage of plas ...

Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071987

Chorus; Exohiss; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; wave disappearance; wave generation

2016

Investigating the source of near-relativistic and relativistic electrons in Earth\textquoterights inner radiation belt

Using observations from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, we study the role of sudden particle enhancements at low L-shells (SPELLS) as a source of inner radiation belt electrons. SPELLS events are characterized by electron intensity enhancements of approximately an order of magnitude or more in less than one day at L < 3. During quiet and average geomagnetic conditions, the phase space density radial distributions for fixed first and second adiabatic invariants are peaked at 2 < L < 3 for electrons ranging in energy fr ...

Turner, D.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Henderson, M.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023600

2720 Energetic Particles; trapped; 2730 Magnetosphere: inner; 2774 Radiation belts; 7807 Charged particle motion and acceleration; 7984 Space radiation environment; energetic particle injections; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observation of a 360\textdegree phase shift in the flux modulation of injected electrons by ULF waves

We present Van Allen Probe observation of drift-resonance interaction between energetic electrons and ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves on October 29, 2013. Oscillations in electron flux were observed at the period of \~450s, which is also the dominant period of the observed ULF magnetic pulsations. The phase shift of the electron fluxes (\~50 to 150 keV) across the estimated resonant energy (\~104 keV) is \~360\textdegree. This phase relationship is different from the characteristic 180\textdegree phase shift as expected from ...

Chen, X.-R.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Blake, Bernard; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071252

drift-resonance; injection; PSD gradient; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Characteristic energy range of electron scattering due to plasmaspheric hiss

We investigate the characteristic energy range of electron flux decay due to the interaction with plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere. The Van Allen Probes have measured the energetic electron flux decay profiles in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during a quiet period following the geomagnetic storm that occurred on 7 November 2015. The observed energy of significant electron decay increases with decreasing L shell and is well correlated with the energy band corresponding to th ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023311

electron flux decay; pitch angle scattering; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation

EMIC waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation on 25-26 January 2013

Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes and the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), we perform a case study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation (REP) observed on 25\textendash26 January 2013. Among all the EMIC wave and REP events from the two missions, the pair of the events is the closest both in space and time. The Van Allen Probe-B detected significant EMIC waves at L = 2.1\textendash3.9 and magnetic local time (MLT) = 21.0\texten ...

Zhang, Jichun; Halford, Alexa; Saikin, Anthony; Huang, Chia-Lin; Spence, Harlan; Larsen, Brian; Reeves, Geoffrey; Millan, Robyn; Smith, Charles; Torbert, Roy; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig; Blake, Bernard; Fennel, Joseph; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022918

BARREL; EMIC waves; FFT; Geomagnetic storm; relativistic electron precipitation (REP); Van Allen Probes

Current energetic particle sensors

Several energetic particle sensors designed to make measurements in the current decade are described and their technology and capabilities discussed and demonstrated. Most of these instruments are already on orbit or approaching launch. These include the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometers (MagEIS) and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) that are flying on the Van Allen Probes, the Fly\textquoterights Eye Electron Proton Spectrometers (FEEPS) flying on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, and Dosimeters ...

Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Mazur, J.; Kanekal, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, P.; Baker, D.; Crain, W.; Mabry, D.; Clemmons, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022588

energetic particles; sensors; Van Allen Probes

The permeability of the magnetopause to a multispecies substorm injection of energetic particles

Leakage of ions from the magnetosphere into the magnetosheath remains an important topic in understanding the plasma physics of Earth\textquoterights magnetopause and the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. Here using sophisticated instrumentation from two spacecraft (Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment on the Van Allen Probes and Energetic Ion Spectrometer on the Magnetospheric Multiscale) spaced uniquely near and outside the dayside magnetopause, we are able to determine the escape mech ...

Westlake, J.; Cohen, I.; Mauk, B.; Anderson, B.; Mitchell, D.; Gkioulidou, M.; Walsh, B.; Lanzerotti, L.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070189

energetic particles; magnetopause; magnetosheath; MMSEPD; Van Allen Probes

Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the presen ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022517

Drift shell splitting; dropouts; magnetic storm; magnetopause shadowing; outer radiation belt; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes

Control of the innermost electron radiation belt by large-scale electric fields

Electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instruments on Van Allen Probes, for kinetic energies \~100 to 400 keV, show characteristic dynamical features of the innermost ( inline image) radiation belt: rapid injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra. There are also periods of steady or slowly increasing intensity and of fast decay following injections. Local time asymmetry, with higher intensity near dawn, is interpreted as evidence for drift shell distortion by a convection electric field ...

Selesnick, R.; Su, Y.-J.; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022973

electric field; electrons; Inner radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Energy limits of electron acceleration in the plasma sheet during substorms: A case study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

We present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASA\textquoterights Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at ~7\textendash9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially ...

Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Clemmons, J.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I.; Jaynes, A.; Craft, J.; Wilder, F.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Dorelli, J.; Giles, B.; Pollock, C.; Schmid, D.; Nakamura, R.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.; Artemyev, A.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Burch, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069691

energetic particle injections; magnetotail; Particle acceleration; plasma sheet; reconnection; substorm; Van Allen Probes

Formation of the inner electron radiation belt by enhanced large-scale electric fields

A two-dimensional bounce-averaged test particle code was developed to examine trapped electron trajectories during geomagnetic storms with the assumption of conservation of the first and second adiabatic invariants. The March 2013 storm was selected as an example because the geomagnetic activity Kp index sharply increased from 2 + to 7- at 6:00 UT on 17 March. Electron measurements with energies between 37 and 460 keV from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument onboard Van Allen Probes (VAP) are used as i ...

Su, Yi-Jiun; Selesnick, Richard; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022881

DC electric fields; electron injections; Inner radiation belt; test particle simulation; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes electron measurements

Prompt acceleration of magnetospheric electrons to ultrarelativistic energies by the 17 March 2015 interplanetary shock

Trapped electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impac ...

Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.; Li, X.; Turner, D.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S.; Wilson, L.; Jaynes, A.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022596

electron; energizaiton; IP shock; ultrarelativsti; Van Allen Probes

The relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons

We quantify the spatial relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons for a 5 day period, 15\textendash20 January 2013, by comparing locations of relativistic electron flux peaks to the plasmapause. A peak-finding algorithm is applied to 1.8\textendash7.7 MeV relativistic electron flux data. A plasmapause gradient finder is applied to wave-derived electron number densities >10 cm-3. We identify two outer belts. Outer belt 1 is a stable zone of >3 MeV electrons located 1\textendash2 RE inside the plasmapause. ...

Goldstein, J.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; De Pascuale, S.; Funsten, H.; Jaynes, A.; Jahn, J.-M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Li, W.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023046

Plasmapause; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; simulation; storm-time dropouts; Van Allen Probes

Direct evidence for EMIC wave scattering of relativistic electrons in space

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause efficient losses of highly relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons via gyroresonant interactions. Simultaneous observations of EMIC waves and equatorial electron pitch angle distributions, which can be used to directly quantify the EMIC wave scattering effect, are still very limited, however. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of EMIC waves on pitch angle scattering of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, wh ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, L.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022521

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; equatorial pitch angle distribution; Fokker-Planck equation; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Inner zone and slot electron radial diffusion revisited

Using recent data from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, we estimate the quiet time radial diffusion coefficients for electrons in the inner radiation belt (L < 3) with energies from ~50 to 750 keV. The observations are consistent with dynamics dominated by pitch angle scattering and radial diffusion. We use a coordinate system in which these two modes of diffusion are separable. Then we integrate phase space density over pitch angle to obtain a \textquotedblleftbundle content\textquotedblright that is invariant to pitc ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Claudepierre, S.; Guild, T.; Fennell, J.; Turner, D.; Blake, J.; Clemmons, J.; Roeder, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069749

Inner zone; radial diffusion; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Nonstorm time dropout of radiation belt electron fluxes on 24 September 2013

Radiation belt electron flux dropouts during the main phase of geomagnetic storms have received increasing attention in recent years. Here we focus on a rarely reported nonstorm time dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes on 24 September 2013. Within several hours, the radiation belt electron fluxes exhibited a significant (up to 2 orders of magnitude) depletion over a wide range of radial distances (L > 4.5), energies (\~500 keV to several MeV) and equatorial pitch angles (0\textdegree<=αe<=180\textdegree). STEERB simu ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zhu, Hui; Li, Wen; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022546

EMIC; numerical modeling; Plasmaspheric Hiss; precipitation loss; radiation belt dropout; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Statistical Properties of the Radiation Belt Seed Population

We present a statistical analysis of phase space density data from the first 26 months of the Van Allen Probes mission. In particular we investigate the relationship between the 10s-100s keV seed electrons and >1 MeV core radiation belt electron population. Using a cross correlation analysis, we find that the seed and core populations are well correlated with a coefficient of ≈ 0.73 with a time lag of 10-15 hours. We present evidence of a seed population threshold that is necessary for subsequent acceleration. The depth of ...

Boyd, A.J.; Spence, H.E.; Huang, C.-L.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Turner, D.L.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Shprits, Y.Y.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022652

Phase space density; Radiation belt; seed population; Van Allen Probes



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