Found 16 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 16


Radial Response of Outer Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons During Enhancement Events at Geostationary Orbit

Abstract Forecasting relativistic electron fluxes at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) has been a long-term goal of the scientific community, and significant advances have been made in the past, but the relation to the interior of the radiation belts, that is, to lower L-shells, is still not clear. In this work we have identified 60 relativistic electron enhancement events at GEO to study the radial response of outer belt fluxes and the correlation between the fluxes at GEO and those at lower L-shells. The enhancement events o ...

Pinto, Victor; Bortnik, Jacob; Moya, Pablo; Lyons, Larry; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027660

Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; geosynchronous orbit; Outer Belt; flux correlation; enhancement events; Van Allen Probes


Decay of Ultrarelativistic Remnant Belt Electrons Through Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss

Ultrarelativistic electron remnant belts appear frequently following geomagnetic disturbances and are located in-between the inner radiation belt and a reforming outer belt. As remnant belts are relatively stable, here we explore the importance of hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in controlling the observed decay rates of remnant belt ultrarelativistic electrons in a statistical way. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes inside the plasmasphere for 25 remnant belt events that occurred between 2012 and 2017 ...

Pinto, V.; Mourenas, D.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.; Artemyev, A.; Moya, P.; Lyons, L.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026509

Decay rates; EMIC waves; MeV Electron Decay; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; Remnant Belt; Van Allen Probes

Simulations of Electron Energization and Injection by BBFs Using High-Resolution LFM MHD Fields

We study electron injection and energization by bursty bulk flows (BBFs), by tracing electron trajectories using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) field output from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) code. The LFM MHD simulations were performed using idealized solar wind conditions to produce BBFs. We show that BBFs can inject energetic electrons of few to 100 keV from the magnetotatail beyond -24 RE to inward of geosynchronous, while accelerating them in the process. We also show the dependence of energization and injection on the initi ...

Eshetu, W.; Lyon, J.; Hudson, M.; Wiltberger, M.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025789

Van Allen Probes

A Statistical Study of EMIC Waves Associated With and Without Energetic Particle Injection From the Magnetotail

To understand the relationship between generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and energetic particle injections, we performed a statistical study of EMIC waves associated with and without injections based on the Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES; GOES-13 and GOES-15) observations. Using 47 months of observations, we identified wave events seen by the Van Allen Probes relative to the plasmapause and to energetic particle injections seen ...

Jun, C.-W.; Yue, C.; Bortnik, J.; Lyons, L.; Nishimura, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025886

EMIC waves associated with and without injections; Relationship between EMIC wave activity and energetic H+ flux variation; Simultaneous observations using the Van Allen Probes and GOES satellites; Spatial occurrence distributions of EMIC waves; Van Allen Probes


Characteristics, Occurrence and Decay Rates of Remnant Belts associated with Three-Belt events in the Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts

Shortly after the launch of the Van Allen Probes, a new three-belt configuration of the electron radiation belts was reported. Using data between September 2012 and November 2017, we have identified 30 three-belt events and found that about 18\% of geomagnetic storms result in such configuration. Based on the identified events, we evaluated some characteristics of the remnant (intermediate) belt. We determined the energy range of occurrence and found it peaks at E = 5.2 MeV. We also determined that the magnetopause location ...

Pinto, V\; Bortnik, Jacob; Moya, Pablo; Lyons, Larry; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080274

Belt Formation; MeV Electrons; Outer Belt; Radiation belts; Remnant Belt; Three Belts; Van Allen Probes

Pitch Angle Scattering of Energetic Electrons by BBFs

Field line curvature scattering by the magnetic field structure associated with bursty bulk flows (BBFs) has been studied, using simulated output fields from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetohydrodynamic code for specified solar wind input. There are weak magnetic field strength (B) regions adjacent to BBFs observed in the simulations. We show that these regions can cause strong scattering where the first adiabatic invariant changes by several factors within one equatorial crossing of energetic electrons of a few kiloel ...

Eshetu, W.; Lyon, J.; Hudson, M.; Wiltberger, M.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025788

Van Allen Probes


Azimuthal flow bursts in the Inner Plasma Sheet and Possible Connection with SAPS and Plasma Sheet Earthward Flow Bursts

We have combined radar observations and auroral images obtained during the PFISR Ion Neutral Observations in the Thermosphere campaign to show the common occurrence of westward moving, localized auroral brightenings near the auroral equatorward boundary and to show their association with azimuthally moving flow bursts near or within the SAPS region. These results indicate that the SAPS region, rather than consisting of relatively stable proton precipitation and westward flows, can have rapidly varying flows, with speeds vary ...

Lyons, L.; Nishimura, Y.; Gallardo-Lacourt, B.; Nicolls, M.; Chen, S.; Hampton, D.; Bristow, W.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Nishitani, N.; Donovan, E.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021023

aurora; convection; Flow bursts; plasma sheet; SAPS; streamers


Source and structure of bursty hot electron enhancements in the tail magnetosheath: Simultaneous two-probe observation by ARTEMIS

Bursty enhancements of hot electrons (≳0.5 keV) with duration of minutes sometimes occur in the tail magnetosheath. In this study we used the unique simultaneous measurements from the two Acceleration Reconnection Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon\textquoterights Interaction with the Sun probes to investigate the likely sources, spatial structures, and responsible processes for these hot electron enhancements. The enhancements can be seen at any distance across the magnetosheath, but those closer to the magnetopause a ...

Wang, Chih-Ping; Xing, Xiaoyan; Nakamura, T.; Lyons, Larry; Angelopoulos, Vassilis;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020603

ARTEMIS; hot electrons; magnetosheath

Evolution of nightside subauroral proton aurora caused by transient plasma sheet flows

While nightside subauroral proton aurora shows rapid temporal variations, the cause of this variability has rarely been investigated. Using well-coordinated observations by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) all-sky imagers, THEMIS satellites in the equatorial magnetosphere, and the low-altitude NOAA 17 satellite, we examined the rapid temporal evolution of subauroral proton aurora in the premidnight sector. An isolated proton aurora occurred soon after an auroral poleward bounda ...

Nishimura, Y.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Lyons, L.; Donovan, E.; Angelopoulos, V.; Mende, S.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020029

EMIC waves; plasma sheet flow burst; plasmasphere; proton aurora; THEMIS ASI; THEMIS satellite


Global MHD test particle simulations of solar energetic electron trapping in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts

Test-particle trajectories are computed in fields from a global MHD magnetospheric model simulation of the 29 October 2003 Storm Commencement to investigate trapping and transport of solar energetic electrons (SEEs) in the magnetosphere during severe storms. SEEs are found to provide a source population for a newly formed belt of View the MathML source electrons in the Earth\textquoterights inner zone radiation belts, which was observed following the 29 October 2003 storm. Energy and pitch angle distributions of the new belt ...


YEAR: 2008     DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.05.018

Shock-Induced Transport. Slot Refilling and Formation of New Belts.


Global MHD test particle simulations of >10 MeV radiation belt electrons during storm sudden commencement

[1] Prior to 2003, there are two known cases where ultrarelativistic (≳10 MeV) electrons appeared in the Earth\textquoterights inner zone radiation belts in association with high speed interplanetary shocks: the 24 March 1991 and the less well studied 21 February 1994 storms. During the March 1991 event electrons were injected well into the inner zone on a timescale of minutes, producing a new stably trapped radiation belt population that persisted for \~10 years. More recently, at the end of solar cycle 23, a number of vi ...

Kress, B.; Hudson, M.; Looper, M.; Albert, J.; Lyon, J.; Goodrich, C.;

YEAR: 2007     DOI: 10.1029/2006JA012218

Shock-Induced Transport. Slot Refilling and Formation of New Belts.

Refilling of the slot region between the inner and outer electron radiation belts during geomagnetic storms

[1] Energetic electrons (>=50 keV) are injected into the slot region (2 < L < 4) between the inner and outer radiation belts during the early recovery phase of geomagnetic storms. Enhanced convection from the plasma sheet can account for the storm-time injection at lower energies but does not explain the rapid appearance of higher-energy electrons (>=150 keV). The effectiveness of either radial diffusion (driven by enhanced ULF waves) or local acceleration (during interactions with enhanced whistler mode chorus emissions), a ...

Thorne, R.; . Y. Shprits, Y; Meredith, N.; Horne, R.; Li, W.; Lyons, L.;

YEAR: 2007     DOI: 10.1029/2006JA012176

Shock-Induced Transport. Slot Refilling and Formation of New Belts.


MHD/particle simulations of radiation belt dynamics

Particle fluxes in the outer radiation belts can show substantial variation in time, over scales ranging from a few minutes, such as during the sudden commencement phase of geomagnetic storms, to the years-long variations associated with the progression of the solar cycle. As the energetic particles comprising these belts can pose a hazard to human activity in space, considerable effort has gone into understanding both the source of these particles and the physics governing their dynamical behavior. Computationally tracking ...

ELKINGTON, S; Hudson, M.; Wiltberger, M.J; Lyon, J.;

YEAR: 2002     DOI: 10.1016/S1364-6826(02)00018-4

Shock-Induced Transport. Slot Refilling and Formation of New Belts.


Simulation of Radiation Belt Dynamics Driven by Solar Wind Variations

The rapid rise of relativistic electron fluxes inside geosynchronous orbit during the January 10-11, 1997, CME-driven magnetic cloud event has been simulated using a relativistic guiding center test particle code driven by out-put from a 3D global MHD simulation of the event. A comparison can be made of this event class, characterized by a moderate solar wind speed (< 600 km/s), and those commonly observed at the last solar maximum with a higher solar wind speed and shock accelerated solar energetic proton component. Relati ...

Hudson, M.; Elkington, S.; Lyon, J.; Goodrich, C.; Rosenberg, T.;

YEAR: 1999     DOI: 10.1029/GM10910.1029/GM109p0171


Equilibrium Structure of Radiation Belt Electrons

The detailed quiet time structure of energetic electrons in the earth\textquoterights radiation belts is explained on the basis of a balance between pitch angle scattering loss and inward radial diffusion from an average outer zone source. Losses are attributed to a combination of classical Coulomb scattering at low L and whistler mode turbulent pitch angle diffusion throughout the outer plasmasphere. Radial diffusion is driven by substorm associated fluctuations of the magnetospheric convection electric field.

Lyons, Lawrence; Thorne, Richard;

YEAR: 1973     DOI: 10.1029/JA078i013p02142

Local Loss due to VLF/ELF/EMIC Waves


Parasitic Pitch Angle Diffusion of Radiation Belt Particles by Ion Cyclotron Waves

The resonant pitch angle scattering of protons and electrons by ion cyclotron turbulence is investigated. The analysis is analogous to that recently performed for electron interactions with whistler mode waves. The role played by the intense band of ion cyclotron waves, predicted to be generated just within the plasmapause during the decay of the magnetospheric ring current, is evaluated in detail. Loss rates resulting from parasitic interactions with this turbulence are determined for energetic protons and relativistic elec ...

Lyons, Lawrence; Thorne, Richard;

YEAR: 1972     DOI: 10.1029/JA077i028p05608

Local Loss due to VLF/ELF/EMIC Waves