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Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the presen ...
Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022517
On 23 November 2012, a sudden dropout of the relativistic electron flux was observed after an interplanetary shock arrival. The dropout peaks at \~1MeV and more than 80\% of the electrons disappeared from the drift shell. Van Allen twin Probes observed a sharp electron flux dropout with clear energy dispersion signals. The repeating flux dropout and recovery signatures, or \textquotedblleftdropout echoes\textquotedblright, constitute a new phenomenon referred to as a \textquotedblleftdrifting electron dropout\textquotedblrig ...
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069140
Asymmetries in the magnetospheric magnetic field produce drift shell splitting, which causes the radial (drift shell) invariant to sometimes depend on pitch angle. Where drift shell splitting is significant, pitch angle scattering leads to diffusion in all three invariants of the particle\textquoterights motion, including cross diffusion. We examine the magnitude of drift shell splitting-related anomalous diffusion for outer zone electrons compared to conventional diffusion in the absence of drift shell splitting. We assume ...
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020422