Found 132 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 1 through 50


Whistler-mode waves trapped by density irregularities in the Earth s magnetosphere

Abstract Whistler-mode waves are electromagnetic waves pervasively observed in the Earth s and other planetary magnetospheres. They are considered to be mainly responsible for producing the hazardous radiation and diffuse aurora, which heavily relies on their properties. Density irregularities, frequently observed in the Earth s magnetospheres, are found to change largely the properties of whistler-mode waves. Here we report, using Van Allen Probes measurements, whistler-mode waves strongly modulated by two different density ...

Ke, Yangguang; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Rui; Chen, Huayue; Wang, Shui;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

WHISTLER-MODE WAVES; density irregularities; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; particle-in-cell simulation; Wave trapping; Van Allen Probes

Estimating the Impacts of Radiation Belt Electrons on Atmospheric Chemistry using FIREBIRD II and Van Allen Probes Observations

Abstract This study considers the impact of electron precipitation from Earth s radiation belts on atmospheric composition using observations from the NASA Van Allen Probes and NSF Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD II) CubeSats. Ratios of electron flux between the Van Allen Probes (in near-equatorial orbit in the radiation belts) and FIREBIRD II (in polar low Earth orbit) during spacecraft conjunctions (2015-2017) allow an estimate of precipitation into the atmosph ...

Duderstadt, K.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H.; Smith, S.; Blake, J.; Crew, A.; Johnson, A.; Klumpar, D.; Marsh, D.; Sample, J.; Shumko, M.; Vitt, F.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

electron precipitation; Radiation belts; ozone; Atmospheric Ionization; Van Allen Probes; FIREBIRD

Generation of realistic short chorus wave packets

Abstract Most lower-band chorus waves observed in the inner magnetosphere propagate under the form of moderately intense short wave packets with fast frequency and phase variations. Therefore, understanding the formation mechanism of such short wave packets is crucial for accurately modelling electron nonlinear acceleration or precipitation into the atmosphere by these waves. We compare chorus wave statistics from the Van Allen Probes with predictions from a simple model of short wave packet generation by wave superposition ...

Nunn, D.; Zhang, X.-J.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

chorus waves; Radiation belts; Wave-particle interaction; Van Allen Probes

Reconstruction of the Radiation Belts for Solar Cycles 17 – 24 (1933 – 2017)

AbstractWe present a reconstruction of the dynamics of the radiation belts from Solar Cycles 17 – 24 which allows us to study how radiation belt activity has varied between the different solar cycles. The radiation belt simulations are produced using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB)-3D code. The VERB-3D code simulations incorporate radial, energy, and pitch angle diffusion to reproduce the radiation belts. Our simulations use the historical measurements of Kp (available since Solar Cycle 17, i.e., 1933) to mode ...

Saikin, A.; . Y. Shprits, Y; . Y. Drozdov, A; Landis, D.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Cervantes, S.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Radiation belts; numerical modeling; Particle acceleration; Magnetosphere: inner; forecasting; Van Allen Probes

RBSP-ECT Combined Pitch Angle Resolved Electron Flux Data Product

Abstract We describe a new data product combining pitch angle resolved electron flux measurements from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Van Allen Probes. We describe the methodology used to combine each of the data sets and produce a consistent set of pitch-angle-resolved spectra for the entire Van Allen Probes mission. Three-minute-averaged flux spectra are provided spanning energies from 15 eV up to 20 ...

Boyd, A.J.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.; Funsten, H.O; Skoug, R.K.; Larsen, B.A.; Blake, J.B.; Fennell, J.F.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Baker, D.N.; Kanekal, S.K.; Jaynes, A.N.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI:

Van Allen Probes; Radiation belts; ECT; MAGEis; REPT; HOPE


A New Approach to Constructing Models of Electron Diffusion by EMIC Waves in the Radiation Belts

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in relativistic electron losses in the radiation belts through diffusion via resonant wave-particle interactions. We present a new approach for calculating bounce and drift-averaged EMIC electron diffusion coefficients. We calculate bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients, using quasi-linear theory, for each individual Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) EMIC wave observation using fitted wave properties, the plasma density and the backgrou ...

Ross, J.; Glauert, S.; Horne, R.; Watt, C.; Meredith, N.; Woodfield, E.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Radiation belts; EMIC waves; electron diffusion; Van Allen Probes

Unraveling the Formation Mechanism for the Bursts of Electron Butterfly Distributions: Test Particle and Quasilinear Simulations

Energetic electron dynamics is highly affected by plasma waves through quasilinear and/or nonlinear interactions in the Earth s inner magnetosphere. In this letter, we provide physical explanations for a previously reported intriguing event from the Van Allen Probes observations, where bursts of electron butterfly distributions at tens of keV exhibit remarkable correlations with chorus waves. Both test particle and quasilinear simulations are used to reveal the formation mechanism for the bursts of electron butterfly distrib ...

Gan, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Artemyev, A.; Albert, J.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

butterfly distribution; chorus waves; Electron acceleration; Radiation belts; nonlinear interaction; Van Allen Probes

The Role of Hiss, Chorus, and EMIC Waves in the Modeling of the Dynamics of the Multi-MeV Radiation Belt Electrons

In this study, we performed a series of long-term and individual storm simulations with and without hiss, chorus, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. We compared simulation results incorporating different wave modes with Van Allen Probes flux observations to illustrate how hiss and chorus waves aid EMIC waves in depleting multi-MeV electrons. We found that EMIC, hiss, and chorus waves are required to reproduce satellite measurements in our simulations. Our results indicate that hiss waves play a dominant role in ...

. Y. Drozdov, A; Usanova, M.; Hudson, M.; Allison, H.; . Y. Shprits, Y;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

EMIC waves; Radiation belts; Whistler waves; VERB code; Fokker-Planck diffusion equation; Van Allen Probes

Defining Radiation Belt Enhancement Events Based on Probability Distributions

We present a methodology to define moderate, strong, and intense space weather events based on probability distributions. We have illustrated this methodology using a long-duration, uniform data set of 1.8–3.5 MeV electron fluxes from multiple LANL geosynchronous satellite instruments, but a strength of this methodology is that it can be applied uniformly to heterogeneous data sets. It allows quantitative comparison of data sets with different energies, units, orbits, and so forth. The methodology identifies a range of ti ...

Reeves, Geoffrey; Vandegriff, Elizabeth; Niehof, Jonathan; Morley, Steven; Cunningham, Gregory; Henderson, Michael; Larsen, Brian;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

Radiation belts; methods; geosynchronous; energetic particles; hazards; Solar Cycle; Van Allen Probes

Simulations of Electron Flux Oscillations as Observed by MagEIS in Response to Broadband ULF Waves

Coherent electron flux oscillations of hundreds of keV are often observed by the Van Allen Probes in the magnetosphere during quiet times in association with ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. They are observed in the form of periodic flux fluctuations, with a drift frequency that is energy dependent, but are not associated with drift echoes following storm- or substorm-related energetic particle injections. Instead, they are associated with the resonant interaction of electrons with ULF waves and are an indication of ongoing e ...

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Temerin, Michael; Zhao, Hong; Khoo, Leng; Turner, Drew; Liu, Wenlong; Claudepierre, Seth;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

electron flux oscillations; ULF waves; Magnetosphere; Radiation belts; radial diffusion; particle tracing simulations; Van Allen Probes

Global Model of Whistler Mode Chorus in the Near-Equatorial Region (|λm|<  18°)

We extend our database of whistler mode chorus, based on data from seven satellites, by including ∼3 years of data from Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-A and RBSP-B and an additional ∼6 years of data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A, THEMIS-D, and THEMIS-E. The new database allows us to probe the near-equatorial region in detail, revealing new features. In the equatorial source region, |λm|<6°, strong wave power is most extensive in the 0.1–0.4fce bands in the r ...

Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Shen, Xiao-Chen; Li, Wen; Bortnik, Jacob;

YEAR: 2020     DOI:

whistler mode chorus; wave-particle interactions; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Radial Response of Outer Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons During Enhancement Events at Geostationary Orbit

Abstract Forecasting relativistic electron fluxes at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) has been a long-term goal of the scientific community, and significant advances have been made in the past, but the relation to the interior of the radiation belts, that is, to lower L-shells, is still not clear. In this work we have identified 60 relativistic electron enhancement events at GEO to study the radial response of outer belt fluxes and the correlation between the fluxes at GEO and those at lower L-shells. The enhancement events o ...

Pinto, Victor; Bortnik, Jacob; Moya, Pablo; Lyons, Larry; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027660

Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; geosynchronous orbit; Outer Belt; flux correlation; enhancement events; Van Allen Probes

Analysis of Electric and Magnetic Lightning-Generated Wave Amplitudes Measured by the Van Allen Probes

Abstract We provide a statistical analysis of both electric and magnetic field wave amplitudes of very low frequency lightning-generated waves (LGWs) based on the equivalent of 11.5 years of observations made by the Van Allen Probes encompassing ~24.6 × 106 survey mode measurements. We complement this analysis with data from the ground-based World Wide Lightning Location Network to explore differences between satellite and ground-based measurements. LGW mean amplitudes are found to be low compared with other whistler mod ...

Ripoll, J.-F.; Farges, T.; Malaspina, D.; Lay, E.; Cunningham, G.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2020GL087503

lightning-generated waves; electric wave power; magnetic wave power; WWLLN database; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes


Decay of Ultrarelativistic Remnant Belt Electrons Through Scattering by Plasmaspheric Hiss

Ultrarelativistic electron remnant belts appear frequently following geomagnetic disturbances and are located in-between the inner radiation belt and a reforming outer belt. As remnant belts are relatively stable, here we explore the importance of hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in controlling the observed decay rates of remnant belt ultrarelativistic electrons in a statistical way. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes inside the plasmasphere for 25 remnant belt events that occurred between 2012 and 2017 ...

Pinto, V.; Mourenas, D.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.; Artemyev, A.; Moya, P.; Lyons, L.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026509

Decay rates; EMIC waves; MeV Electron Decay; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; Remnant Belt; Van Allen Probes

Evolution of Pitch Angle-Distributed Megaelectron Volt Electrons During Each Phase of the Geomagnetic Storm

Using Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope measurements onboard Van Allen Probes, the evolution of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) during the different phases of magnetic storms is studied. Electron fluxes are sorted in terms of storm phase, urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra55457:jgra55457-math-0001 value, energy, and magnetic local time (MLT) sectors for 55 magnetic storms from October 2012 through May 2017. To understand the potential mechanisms for the evolution of electron PADs, we fit PADs to a sinusoidal function ...

Pandya, Megha; Bhaskara, Veenadhari; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027086

electron flux; inner magnetosphere; Pitch angle distribution; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Particle Dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts: Review of Current Research and Open Questions

The past decade transformed our observational understanding of energetic particle processes in near-Earth space. An unprecedented suite of observational systems were in operation including the Van Allen Probes, Arase, MMS, THEMIS, Cluster, GPS, GOES, and LANL-GEO magnetospheric missions. They were supported by conjugate low-altitude measurements on spacecraft, balloons, and ground-based arrays. Together these significantly improved our ability to determine and quantify the mechanisms that control the build-up and subsequent ...

Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Claudepierre, Seth; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Colpitts, Chris; Li, Xinlin; Fennell, Joe; Crabtree, Chris;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026735

inner magnetosphere; laboratory plasma experiments; Particle acceleration; particle loss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Comparison of Van Allen Probes Energetic Electron Data with Corresponding GOES-15 Measurements: 2012-2018

Baker, D.N.; Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.G.; Jaynes, A.N.; Kress, B.T.; Rodriguez, J.V.; Singer, H.J.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Fennell, J.F.; Hoxie, V.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027331

energetic particles; Magnetosphere:Inner; Magnetospheric configuration; Radiation belts; Space weather; Van Allen Probes

Direct Observation of Subrelativistic Electron Precipitation Potentially Driven by EMIC Waves

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are known to typically cause electron losses into Earth\textquoterights upper atmosphere at >~1 MeV, while the minimum energy of electrons subject to efficient EMIC-driven precipitation loss is unresolved. This letter reports electron precipitation from subrelativistic energies of ~250 keV up to ~1 MeV observed by the Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range and Dynamics (FIREBIRD-II) CubeSats, while two Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) ...

Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Chen, L.; Shen, X.-C.; Spence, H.; Sample, J.; Johnson, A.; Shumko, M.; Klumpar, D.; Redmon, R.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084202

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; FIREBIRD-II; quasi linear theory; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions

Earth\textquoterights Van Allen Radiation Belts: From Discovery to the Van Allen Probes Era

Discovery of the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts by instruments flown on Explorer 1 in 1958 was the first major discovery of the Space Age. The observation of distinct inner and outer zones of trapped megaelectron volt (MeV) particles, primarily protons at low altitude and electrons at high altitude, led to early models for source and loss mechanisms including Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay for inner zone protons, radial diffusion for outer zone electrons and loss to the atmosphere due to pitch angle scatter ...

Li, W.; Hudson, M.K.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025940

Particle acceleration; particle loss; particle transport; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Storm Time Depletions of Multi-MeV Radiation Belt Electrons Observed at Different Pitch Angles

During geomagnetic storms, the rapid depletion of the high-energy (several MeV) outer radiation belt electrons is the result of loss to the interplanetary medium through the magnetopause, outward radial diffusion, and loss to the atmosphere due to wave-particle interactions. We have performed a statistical study of 110 storms using pitch angle resolved electron flux measurements from the Van Allen Probes mission and found that inside of the radiation belt (L* = 3 - 5) the number of storms that result in depletion of electron ...

. Y. Drozdov, A; Aseev, N.; Effenberger, F.; Turner, D.; Saikin, A.; . Y. Shprits, Y;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027332

EMIC waves; multi-MeV electrons; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

On the Acceleration Mechanism of Ultrarelativistic Electrons in the Center of the Outer Radiation Belt: A Statistical Study

Using energetic particle and wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), the acceleration mechanism of ultrarelativistic electrons (>3 MeV) in the center of the outer radiation belt is investigated statistically. A superposed epoch analysis is conducted using 19 storms, which caused flux enhancements of 1.8\textendash7.7 MeV electrons. The evolution of electron phase space density radial profile suggests an energy-d ...

Zhao, H.; Baker, D.N.; Li, X.; Malaspina, D.M.; Jaynes, A.N.; Kanekal, S.G.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027111

Acceleration mechanism; Inward radial diffusion; Local Acceleration; Phase space density; Radiation belts; ultrarelativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

RBSP-ECT Combined Spin-Averaged Electron Flux Data Product

We describe a new data product combining the spin-averaged electron flux measurements from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration\textquoterights Van Allen Probes. We describe the methodology used to combine each of the data sets and produce a consistent set of spectra for September 2013 to the present. Three-minute-averaged flux spectra are provided spanning energies from 15 eV up to 20 MeV. This new data produ ...

Boyd, A.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Jaynes, A.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026733

ECT; HOPE; MAGEis; Radiation belts; REPT; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Distribution of Whistler Mode Waves in the Radiation Belts With Large Magnetic Field Amplitudes and Comparison to Large Electric Field Amplitudes

We present a statistical analysis with 100\% duty cycle and non-time-averaged amplitudes of the prevalence and distribution of high-amplitude >50-pT whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belt using 5 years of Van Allen Probes data. Whistler mode waves with high magnetic field amplitudes are most common above L=4.5 and between magnetic local time of 0\textendash14 where they are present approximately 1\textendash6\% of the time. During high geomagnetic activity, high-amplitude whistler mode wave occurrence rises above 25 ...

Tyler, E.; Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Thaller, S.; Malaspina, D.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026913

Magnetosphere; magnetospheric chorus; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; whistler wave

Triggered Plasmaspheric Hiss: Rising Tone Structures

In this study, a rare hiss event observed by Van Allen Probe is reported and the possible generation is investigated based on wave and plasma measurements. The results suggest that the normal hiss (from 0.05fce to 0.5fce) with dominantly equatorward Poynting fluxes is locally generated by plasma sheet electrons via cyclotron instability. The low-frequency band (from 30 Hz to 0.05fce) with a mixture of equatorward and poleward Poynting fluxes is probably due to multiple reflections inside the plasmasphere. Such difference in ...

Zhu, Hui; Liu, Xu; Chen, Lunjin;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082688

Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; Rising tone structure; Van Allen Probes

Cyclotron Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons Through Landau Resonance With Obliquely Propagating Whistler-Mode Chorus Emissions

Efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons at Landau resonance with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus emissions is confirmed by theory, simulation, and observation. The acceleration is due to the perpendicular component of the wave electric field. We first review theoretical analysis of nonlinear motion of resonant electrons interacting with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus. We have derived formulae of inhomogeneity factors for Landau and cyclotron resonances to analyze nonlinear wave trapping of ene ...

Omura, Yoshiharu; Hsieh, Yi-Kai; Foster, John; Erickson, Philip; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026374

inner magnetosphere; nonlinear process; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interaction; whistler-mode chorus

Modulation of Locally Generated Equatorial Noise by ULF Wave

In this paper we report a rare and fortunate event of fast magnetosonic (MS, also called equatorial noise) waves modulated by compressional ultralow frequency (ULF) waves measured by Van Allen Probes. The characteristics of MS waves, ULF waves, proton distribution, and their potential correlations are analyzed. The results show that ULF waves can modulate the energetic ring proton distribution and in turn modulate the MS generation. Furthermore, the variation of MS intensities is attributed to not only ULF wave activities bu ...

Zhu, Hui; Chen, Lunjin; Liu, Xu; Shprits, Yuri;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026199

linear growth rate; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

EMIC Wave-Driven Bounce Resonance Scattering of Energetic Electrons in the Inner Magnetosphere

While electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been long studied as a scattering mechanism for ultrarelativistic (megaelectron volt) electrons via cyclotron-resonant interactions, these waves are also of the right frequency to resonate with the bounce motion of lower-energy (approximately tens to hundreds of kiloelectron volts) electrons. Here we investigate the effectiveness of this bounce resonance interaction to better determine the effects of EMIC waves on subrelativistic electron populations in Earth\textquoterig ...

Blum, L.W.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Boardsen, S.; Schiller, Q.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026427

bounce resonance; EMIC wave; energetic electrons; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Local and Statistical Maps of Lightning-Generated Wave Power Density Estimated at the Van Allen Probes Footprints From the World-Wide Lightning Location Network Database

We propose a new method that uses the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) to estimate both the local and the drift lightning power density at the Van Allen Probes footprints during 4.3 years (~2 \texttimes 108 strokes.). The ratio of the drift power density to the local power density defines a time-resolved WWLLN-based model of lightning-generated wave (LGW) power density ratio, RWWLLN. RWWLLNis computed every ~34 s. This ratio multiplied by the time-resolved LGW intensity measured by the Probes allows direct compu ...

Ripoll, J.-F.; Farges, T.; Lay, E.; Cunningham, G.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081146

drift wave power density; lightning power density; lightning-generated waves; occurrence rate; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; WWLLN database

Multiyear Measurements of Radiation Belt Electrons: Acceleration, Transport, and Loss

In addition to clarifying morphological structures of the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts, it has also been a major achievement of the Van Allen Probes mission to understand more thoroughly how highly relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons are accelerated deep inside the radiation belts. Prior studies have demonstrated that electrons up to energies of 10 megaelectron volts (MeV) can be produced over broad regions of the outer Van Allen zone on timescales of minutes to a few hours. It often is seen that geomagneti ...

Baker, Daniel; Hoxie, Vaughn; Zhao, Hong; Jaynes, Allison; Kanekal, Shri; Li, Xinlin; Elkington, Scot;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026259

convection electric field; Energetic particle deep penetration; Low L Region; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt Response to Interacting Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

We study the response of the outer Van Allen radiation belt during an intense magnetic storm on 15\textendash22 February 2014. Four interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) arrived at Earth, of which the three last ones were interacting. Using data from the Van Allen Probes, we report the first detailed investigation of electron fluxes from source (tens of kiloelectron volts) to core (megaelectron volts) energies and possible loss and acceleration mechanisms as a response to substructures (shock, sheath and ejecta, and ...

Kilpua, E.; Turner, D.; Jaynes, A.; Hietala, H.; Koskinen, H.; Osmane, A.; Palmroth, M.; Pulkkinen, T.; Vainio, R.; Baker, D.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026238

interplanetary coronal mass ejections; magnetospheric storm; magnetospheric waves; Outer Belt; Radiation belts; Solar wind; Van Allen Probes

Contribution of ULF wave activity to the global recovery of the outer radiation belt during the passage of a high-speed solar wind stream observed in September 2014

Energy coupling between the solar wind and the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere can affect the electron population in the outer radiation belt. However, the precise role of different internal and external mechanisms that leads to changes of the relativistic electron population is not entirely known. This paper describes how Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) wave activity during the passage of Alfv\ enic solar wind streams contributes to the global recovery of the relativistic electron population in the outer radiation belt. To in ...

Da Silva, L.; Sibeck, D.; Alves, L.; Souza, V.; Jauer, P.; Claudepierre, S.; Marchezi, J.; Agapitov, O.; Medeiros, C.; Vieira, L.; Wang, C.; Jiankui, S.; Liu, Z.; Gonzalez, W.; Dal Lago, A.; Rockenbach, M.; Padua, M.; Alves, M.; Barbosa, M.; Fok, M.-C.; Baker, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kanekal, S.; Georgiou, M.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026184

alfv\ en fluctuations; Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere; high speed stream; Radiation belts; relativistic electron flux; ULF wave; Van Allen Probes

Electron intensity measurements by the Cluster/RAPID/IES instrument in Earth\textquoterights radiation belts and ring current

The Cluster mission, launched in 2000, has produced a large database of electron flux intensity measurements in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere by the Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detector (RAPID)/ Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) instrument. However, due to background contamination of the data with high-energy electrons (<400 keV) and inner-zone protons (230-630 keV) in the radiation belts and ring current, the data have been rarely used for inner-magnetospheric science. The current paper presents two ...

Smirnov, A.; Kronberg, E.; Latallerie, F.; Daly, P.; Aseev, N.; . Y. Shprits, Y; Kellerman, A.; Kasahara, S.; Turner, D.; Taylor, M.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018SW001989

electrons; Radiation belts; Solar Cycle; Space weather; Van Allen Probes

The Response of Earth\textquoterights Electron Radiation Belts to Geomagnetic Storms: Statistics From the Van Allen Probes Era Including Effects From Different Storm Drivers

A statistical study was conducted of Earth\textquoterights radiation belt electron response to geomagnetic storms using NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission. Data for electrons with energies ranging from 30 keV to 6.3 MeV were included and examined as a function of L-shell, energy, and epoch time during 110 storms with SYM-H <=-50 nT during September 2012 to September 2017 (inclusive). The radiation belt response revealed clear energy and L-shell dependencies, with tens of keV electrons enhanced at all L-shells (2.5 ...

Turner, D.; Kilpua, E.; Hietala, H.; Claudepierre, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Ripoll, J.-F.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026066

energetic particles; Geomagnetic storms; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions


Observations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the L-shell, energy, and pitch-angle structure of Earth\textquoterights electron radiation belts during quiet times

The evolution of the radiation belts in L-shell (L), energy (E), and equatorial pitch-angle (α0) is analyzed during the calm 11-day interval (March 4 \textendashMarch 15) following the March 1 storm 2013. Magnetic Electron and Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) observations from Van Allen Probes are interpreted alongside 1D and 3D Fokker-Planck simulations combined with consistent event-driven scattering modeling from whistler mode hiss waves. Three (L, E, α0)-regions persist through 11 days of hiss wave scattering; the pitch-angle ...

Ripoll, -F.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; Cunningham, G.; Reeves, G.; ik, O.; Fennell, J.; Turner, D.; . Y. Drozdov, A; Villa, J.; . Y. Shprits, Y; Thaller, S.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Henderson, M.; . Y. Ukhorskiy, A;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026111

electron lifetime; hiss waves; pitch-angle diffusion coefficient; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions

The outer radiation belt response to the storm time development of seed electrons and chorus wave activity during CME and CIR storms

Gyroresonant wave-particle interactions with very low frequency whistler mode chorus waves can accelerate subrelativistic seed electrons (hundreds of keV) to relativistic energies in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. In this study, we conduct a superposed epoch analysis of the chorus wave activity, the seed electron development, and the outer radiation belt electron response between L* = 2.5 and 5.5, for 25 coronal mass ejection and 35 corotating interaction region storms using Van Allen Probes observations ...

Bingham, S.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L.; Boyd, A.; Paulson, K.; Farrugia, C.; Huang, C.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025963

CIR storms; CME storms; Radiation belts; seed electrons; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Determination of the Equatorial Electron Differential Flux From Observations at Low Earth Orbit

Variations in the high-energy relativistic electron flux of the radiation belts depend on transport, acceleration, and loss processes, and importantly on the lower-energy seed population. However, data on the seed population is limited to a few satellite missions. Here we present a new method that utilizes data from the Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector on board the low-altitude Polar Operational Environmental Satellites to retrieve the seed population at a pitch angle of 90\textdegree. The integral flux values measured ...

Allison, Hayley; Horne, Richard; Glauert, Sarah; Del Zanna, Giulio;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025786

electrons; integral flux; Radiation belts; seed population; Van Allen Probes

Characteristics, Occurrence and Decay Rates of Remnant Belts associated with Three-Belt events in the Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts

Shortly after the launch of the Van Allen Probes, a new three-belt configuration of the electron radiation belts was reported. Using data between September 2012 and November 2017, we have identified 30 three-belt events and found that about 18\% of geomagnetic storms result in such configuration. Based on the identified events, we evaluated some characteristics of the remnant (intermediate) belt. We determined the energy range of occurrence and found it peaks at E = 5.2 MeV. We also determined that the magnetopause location ...

Pinto, V\; Bortnik, Jacob; Moya, Pablo; Lyons, Larry; Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Spence, Harlan; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080274

Belt Formation; MeV Electrons; Outer Belt; Radiation belts; Remnant Belt; Three Belts; Van Allen Probes

Diagnosis of ULF Wave-Particle Interactions With Megaelectron Volt Electrons: The Importance of Ultrahigh-Resolution Energy Channels

Electron flux measurements are an important diagnostic for interactions between ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves and relativistic (\~1 MeV) electrons. Since measurements are collected by particle detectors with finite energy channel width, they are affected by a phase mixing process that can obscure these interactions. We demonstrate that ultrahigh-resolution electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer on the Van Allen Probes mission\textemdashobtained using a data product that improves the energy resolut ...

Hartinger, M.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Reeves, G.; Breneman, A.; Mann, I.; Peek, T.; Chang, E.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Looper, M.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080291

drift resonance; particle detector; Pc5; Radiation belts; ULF wave; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

An event on simultaneous amplification of exohiss and chorus waves associated with electron density enhancements

Whistler mode exohiss are the structureless hiss waves observed outside the plasmapause with featured equatorward Poynting flux. An event of the amplification of exohiss as well as chorus waves was recorded by Van Allen Probes during the recovery phase of a weak geomagnetic storm. Amplitudes of both types of the waves showed a significant increase at the regions of electron density enhancements. It is found that the electrons resonant with exohiss and chorus showed moderate pitch-angle anisotropies. The ratio of the number o ...

Zhu, Hui; Shprits, Yuri; Chen, Lunjin; Liu, Xu; Kellerman, Adam;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA025023

electromagnetic waves; Exohiss; linear theory; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Impact of Background Magnetic Field for EMIC Wave-Driven Electron Precipitation

Wave-particle interaction between relativistic electrons and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is a highly debated loss process contributing to the dynamics of Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. Theoretical studies show that EMIC waves can result in strong loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts (Summers \& Thorne, 2003, However, many of these studies have not been validated by observations. Li et al. (2014, modeled the re ...

Woodger, L.; Millan, R.; Li, Z.; Sample, J.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025315

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Fast diffusion of ultra-relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt: 17 March 2015 storm event

Inward radial diffusion driven by ULF waves has long been known to be capable of accelerating radiation belt electrons to very high energies within the heart of the belts, but more recent work has shown that radial diffusion values can be highly event-specific and mean values or empirical models may not capture the full significance of radial diffusion to acceleration events. Here we present an event of fast inward radial diffusion, occurring during a period following the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. Ultra-relativisti ...

Jaynes, A.; Ali, A.; Elkington, S.; Malaspina, D.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079786

Magnetosphere; radial diffusion; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Pitch Angle Scattering and Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons in Broadband Electromagnetic Waves

A magnetic conjunction between Van Allen Probes spacecraft and the Balloon Array for Radiation-belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) reveals the simultaneous occurrence of broadband Alfv\ enic fluctuations and multi-timescale modulation of enhanced atmospheric X-ray bremsstrahlung emission. The properties of the Alfv\ enic fluctuations are used to build a model for pitch angle scattering in the outer radiation belt on electron gyro-radii scale field structures. It is shown that this scattering may lead to the transport ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Halford, A.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079527

Alfven waves; drift-bounce resonance; energetic particles; Geomagnetic storms; pitch-angle scattering; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Variation in Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Power With Plasma Density

Plasmaspheric hiss waves are commonly observed in the inner magnetosphere. These waves efficiently scatter electrons, facilitating their precipitation into the atmosphere. Predictive inner magnetosphere simulations often model hiss waves using parameterized empirical maps of observed hiss power. These maps nearly always include parameterization by magnetic L value. In this work, data from the Van Allen Probes are used to compare variation in hiss wave power with variation in both L value and cold plasma density. It is found ...

Malaspina, David; Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Chu, Xiangning; Hospodarsky, George; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078564

inner magnetosphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; Wave models

Nonlinear drift resonance between charged particles and ultra-low frequency waves: Theory and Observations

In Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere, electromagnetic waves in the ultra-low frequency (ULF) range play an important role in accelerating and diffusing charged particles via drift resonance. In conventional drift-resonance theory, linearization is applied under the assumption of weak wave-particle energy exchange so particle trajectories are unperturbed. For ULF waves with larger amplitudes and/or durations, however, the conventional theory becomes inaccurate since particle trajectories are strongly perturbed. Here, ...

Li, Li; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Omura, Yoshiharu; Wang, Zi-Han; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Liu, Ying; Hao, Yi-Xin; Fu, Sui-Yan; Kivelson, Margaret; Rankin, Robert; Claudepierre, Seth; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079038

drift resonance; nonlinear process; Particle acceleration; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Understanding the Driver of Energetic Electron Precipitation Using Coordinated Multisatellite Measurements

Magnetospheric plasma waves play a significant role in ring current and radiation belt dynamics, leading to pitch angle scattering loss and/or stochastic acceleration of the particles. During a non-storm time dropout event on 24 September 2013, intense electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were detected by Van Allen Probe A (Radiation Belt Storm Probes-A). We quantitatively analyze a conjunction event when Van Allen Probe A was located approximately along the same magnetic field line as MetOp-01, which detected simultan ...

Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Zhang, X.-J.; Redmon, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Engebretson, M.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078604

EMIC waves; energetic particle precipitation; pitch angle scattering; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions

The Acceleration of Ultrarelativistic Electrons During a Small to Moderate Storm of 21 April 2017

The ultrarelativistic electrons (E > ~3 MeV) in the outer radiation belt received limited attention in the past due to sparse measurements. Nowadays, the Van Allen Probes measurements of ultrarelativistic electrons with high energy resolution provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the dynamics of this population. In this study, using data from the Van Allen Probes, we report significant flux enhancements of ultrarelativistic electrons with energies up to 7.7 MeV during a small to moderate geomagnetic storm. The underl ...

Zhao, H.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL078582

Energy-dependent acceleration; Geomagnetic storms; Inward radial diffusion; Local Acceleration; Radiation belts; Ultra-relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Electron Distributions in Kinetic Scale Field Line Resonances: A Comparison of Simulations and Observations

Observations in kinetic scale field line resonances, or eigenmodes of the geomagnetic field, reveal highly field-aligned plateaued electron distributions. By combining observations from the Van Allen Probes and Cluster spacecraft with a hybrid kinetic gyrofluid simulation we show how these distributions arise from the nonlocal self-consistent interaction of electrons with the wavefield. This interaction is manifested as electron trapping in the standing wave potential. The process operates along most of the field line and qu ...

Damiano, P.A.; Chaston, C.C.; Hull, A.J.; Johnson, J.R.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077748

Alfven waves; field line resonances; kinetic effects; numerical modeling; particle trapping; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Determining the mode, frequency, and azimuthal wave number of ULF waves during a HSS and moderate geomagnetic storm

Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the inner-magnetosphere and outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. Broadband ULF wave power can transport energetic electrons via radial diffusion and discrete ULF wave power can energize electrons through a resonant interaction. Using observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we characterize the evolution of ULF waves during a high-speed solar wind stream (HSS) and moderate geomagnetic storm while there is an enhancement ...

Murphy, Kyle; Inglis, Andrew; Sibeck, David; Rae, Jonathan; Watt, Clare; Silveira, Marcos; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Claudepierre, Seth; Nakamura, Rumi;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2017JA024877

azimuthal wave number; Geomagnetic storms; mode structure; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Electron nonlinear resonant interaction with short and intense parallel chorus wave-packets

One of the major drivers of radiation belt dynamics, electron resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves, is traditionally described using the quasi-linear diffusion approximation. Such a description satisfactorily explains many observed phenomena, but its applicability can be justified only for sufficiently low intensity, long duration waves. Recent spacecraft observations of a large number of very intense lower band chorus waves (with magnetic field amplitudes sometimes reaching \~1\% of the background) therefore ...

Mourenas, D.; Zhang, X.-J.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Neishtadt, A.; Vasiliev, A.;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025417

chorus waves; ; kinetic equation; nonlinear interaction; Radiation belts; short wave-packets; trapping; Van Allen Probes

Global model of plasmaspheric hiss from multiple satellite observations

We present a global model of plasmaspheric hiss, using data from eight satellites, extending the coverage and improving the statistics of existing models. We use geomagnetic activity dependent templates to separate plasmaspheric hiss from chorus. In the region 22-14 MLT the boundary between plasmaspheric hiss and chorus moves to lower L* values with increasing geomagnetic activity. The average wave intensity of plasmaspheric hiss is largest on the dayside and increases with increasing geomagnetic activity from midnight throu ...

Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Kersten, Tobias; Li, Wen; Bortnik, Jacob; Sicard-Piet, elica; Yearby, Keith;

YEAR: 2018     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025226

plasmasphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

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