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Time Domain Structures: what and where they are, what they do, and how they are made

Time Domain Structures (TDS) (electrostatic or electromagnetic electron holes, solitary waves, double layers, etc.) are >=1 msec pulses having significant parallel (to the background magnetic field) electric fields. They are abundant through space and occur in packets of hundreds in the outer Van Allen radiation belts where they produce magnetic-field-aligned electron pitch angle distributions at energies up to a hundred keV. TDS can provide the seed electrons that are later accelerated to relativistic energies by whistlers ...

Mozer, F.S.; Agapitov, O.V.; Artemyev, A.; Drake, J.F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.; Vasko, I.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063946

Time Domain Structures; TDS