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Van Allen Probes Bibliography is from August 2012 through September 2021
Found 27 entries in the Bibliography.
Showing entries from 1 through 27
Observational evidence of the excitation of magnetosonic waves by an He ion ring distribution
Abstract We report plasma wave observations of equatorial magnetosonic waves at integer harmonics of the local gyrofrequency of doubly-ionized helium (He). The waves were observed by Van Allen Probe A on 08 Feb 2014 when the spacecraft was in the afternoon magnetic local time sector near inside of the plasmasphere. Analysis of the complementary in-situ energetic ion measurements (1-300 keV) reveals the presence of a helium ion ring distribution centered near 30 keV. Theoretical linear growth rate calculations suggest that th ...
Claudepierre, S.; Liu, X.; Chen, L.; Takahashi, K.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 07/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029532
magnetosonic waves; ion Bernstein waves; ring distribution; alpha particles; Plasma instability; ring current; Van Allen Probes
Statistics of Magnetosonic Waves in the Slot Region Observed by Van Allen Probes
Abstract We perform a statistical analysis of magnetosonic waves in the slot region based on Van Allen Probes observations from September 2012 to February 2018. Our results demonstrate that the wave occurrence rate increases with enhanced geomagnetic activity and decreasing magnetic latitude, with the presence of strongest slot region magnetosonic waves near the geomagnetic equator within the 08-20 MLT sector. Power spectral densities of slot region magnetosonic waves also intensify during geomagnetically active times, with ...
Yan, Ling; Cao, Xing; Hua, Man; Ni, Binbin; Zhang, Yuannong;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 06/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL094015
magnetosonic waves; Slot region; Statistical distribution; Van Allen Probes
A dynamical model of equatorial magnetosonic waves in the inner magnetosphere: A machine learning approach
Abstract Equatorial magnetosonic waves, together with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss, play key roles in the dynamics of energetic electron fluxes in the magnetosphere. Numerical models, developed following a first principles approach, that are used to study the evolution of high energy electron fluxes are mainly based on quasilinear diffusion. The application of such numerical codes requires statistical models for the distribution of key magnetospheric wave modes to estimate the appropriate diffusion coefficients. These waves ...
Boynton, R.; Walker, S.; Aryan, H.; Hobara, Y.; Balikhin, M.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 06/2021
YEAR: 2021   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028439
magnetosonic waves; Machine learning; NARMAX; Van Allen Probes
Ionospheric Signatures of Ring Current Ions Scattered by Magnetosonic Waves
In this letter, we present unique conjugated satellite observations of ionospheric signatures of ring current (RC) ions scattered by fast magnetosonic (MS) waves. In the plasmasphere, the Van Allen Probe in situ observed MS waves. At ionospheric altitudes, the NOAA 16 satellite at the footprint of Van Allen Probe simultaneously observed obvious enhancements of mirroring RC ions, but no obvious variations of precipitating RC ions at subauroral latitudes. Theoretical calculations of pitch angle diffusion coefficients for RC io ...
Yuan, Zhigang; Yao, Fei; Yu, Xiongdong; Ouyang, Zhihai; Huang, Shiyong;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 08/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089032
magnetosonic waves; mirroring ions; pitch angle scatter; precipitating ions; Van Allen Probes; Ring current ions
The Modulation of Plasma and Waves by Background Electron Density Irregularities in the Inner Magnetosphere
The background cold electron density plays an important role in plasma and wave dynamics. Here, we investigate an event with clear modulation of the particle fluxes and wave intensities by background electron density irregularities based on Van Allen Probes observations. The energies at the peak fluxes of protons and Helium ions of 100 eV to several keV are well correlated with the total electron density variation. Intense electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) and magnetosonic (MS) waves are simultaneously observed in the hi ...
Yue, Chao; Ma, Qianli; Jun, Chae-Woo; Bortnik, Jacob; Zong, Qiugang; Zhou, Xuzhi; Jang, Eunjin; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Wygant, John;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 07/2020
YEAR: 2020   DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088855
electron density irregularities; electromagnetic ion cyclotron; magnetosonic waves; suprathermal particles; Wave-particle interaction; wave growth rate; Van Allen Probes
Global Survey and Empirical Model of Fast Magnetosonic Waves Over Their Full Frequency Range in Earth\textquoterights Inner Magnetosphere
We investigate the global distribution and provide empirical models of fast magnetosonic waves using the combined observations by the magnetometer and waveform receiver on board Van Allen Probes. The magnetometer measurements of magnetosonic waves indicate a significant wave power within the frequency range from the helium gyrofrequency to 20 Hz at L >= 4 in the afternoon sector, both inside and outside the plasmapause. The waveform receiver measurements indicate a significant wave power from 20 Hz to the lower hybrid resona ...
Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027407
Empirical Fitting; Global Survey; magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation
Effect of Low-Harmonic Magnetosonic Waves on the Radiation Belt Electrons Inside the Plasmasphere
In this paper, we presented two observational cases and simulations to indicate the relationship between the formation of butterfly-like electron pitch angle distributions and the emission of low-harmonic (LH) fast magnetosonic (MS) waves inside the high-density plasmasphere. In the wave emission region, the pitch angle of relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons becomes obvious butterfly-like distributions for both events (near-equatorially mirroring electrons are transported to lower pitch angles). Unlike relativistic (>1 MeV) elec ...
Yu, J.; Li, L; Cui, J.; Cao, J.; Wang, J.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 05/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026328
bounce resonance; Electron acceleration; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; transit-time scattering; Van Allen Probes
Modulation of Locally Generated Equatorial Noise by ULF Wave
In this paper we report a rare and fortunate event of fast magnetosonic (MS, also called equatorial noise) waves modulated by compressional ultralow frequency (ULF) waves measured by Van Allen Probes. The characteristics of MS waves, ULF waves, proton distribution, and their potential correlations are analyzed. The results show that ULF waves can modulate the energetic ring proton distribution and in turn modulate the MS generation. Furthermore, the variation of MS intensities is attributed to not only ULF wave activities bu ...
Zhu, Hui; Chen, Lunjin; Liu, Xu; Shprits, Yuri;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2019
YEAR: 2019   DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026199
linear growth rate; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes
Combined Scattering of Outer Radiation Belt Electrons by Simultaneously Occurring Chorus, Exohiss, and Magnetosonic Waves
We report a typical event that fast magnetosonic (MS) waves, exohiss, and two-band chorus waves occurred simultaneously on the dayside observed by Van Allen Probes on 25 December 2013. By combining calculations of electron diffusion coefficients and 2-D Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we quantitatively analyze the combined scattering effect of multiple waves to demonstrate that the net impact of combined scattering does not simply depend on the wave intensity dominance of various plasma waves. Although the observed MS w ...
Hua, Man; Ni, Binbin; Fu, Song; Gu, Xudong; Xiang, Zheng; Cao, Xing; Zhang, Wenxun; He, Ying; Huang, He; Lou, Yuequn; Zhang, Yang;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1029/2018GL079533
Combined scattering effect; diffusion simulations; Exohiss; magnetosonic waves; resonant wave-particle interactions; two-band chorus waves; Van Allen Probes
Cold Ion Heating by Magnetosonic Waves in a Density Cavity of the Plasmasphere
Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves play an important role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Theoretical prediction and simulation have demonstrated that MS waves can heat cold ions. However, direct observational evidence of cold ion heating by MS waves has so far remained elusive. In this paper, we show a typical event of cold ion heating by magnetosonic waves in a density cavity of the plasmasphere with observations of the Van Allen Probe mission on 22 August 2013. During enhancements of the MS wave intensity in the den ...
Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Qiao, Zheng; Yao, Fei; Funsten, Herbert;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024919
cold ion heating; Density cavities; local linear growth rates; magnetosonic waves; Ring current ions; Van Allen Probes; \textquoteleftring\textquoteright distributions
The Effect of Hot Protons on Magnetosonic Waves Inside and Outside the Plasmapause: New Observations and Theoretic Results
Based on the wave and proton observations by Van Allen Probes A and B, we examined the effects of hot protons (0.01\textendash50 keV) on fast magnetosonic (MS) waves inside and outside the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere. In the low-density plasma trough outside the plasmapause, the gyroresonance interactions between hot protons and MS waves not only cause the MS wave growth at some frequencies but also lead to the damping of MS waves at other frequencies, which depends on the proton phase space density gradient and the a ...
Liu, Bin; Li, Liuyuan; Yu, Jiang; Cao, Jinbin;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 01/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024676
damping of magnetosonic waves; growth of magnetosonic waves; magnetosonic waves; magnetospheric hot protons; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions
Prompt Disappearance and Emergence of Radiation Belt Magnetosonic Waves Induced by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Variations
Magnetosonic waves are highly oblique whistler mode emissions transferring energy from the ring current protons to the radiation belt electrons in the inner magnetosphere. Here we present the first report of prompt disappearance and emergence of magnetosonic waves induced by the solar wind dynamic pressure variations. The solar wind dynamic pressure reduction caused the magnetosphere expansion, adiabatically decelerated the ring current protons for the Bernstein mode instability, and produced the prompt disappearance of magn ...
Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 01/2018
YEAR: 2018   DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076382
magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; ring current; solar wind dynamic pressure; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction
Direct observation of generation and propagation of magnetosonic waves following substorm injection
Magnetosonic whistler mode waves play an important role in the radiation belt electron dynamics. Previous theory has suggested that these waves are excited by the ring distributions of hot protons and can propagate radially and azimuthally over a broad spatial range. However, because of the challenging requirements on satellite locations and data-processing techniques, this theory was difficult to validate directly. Here we present some experimental tests of the theory on the basis of Van Allen Probes observations of magneto ...
Su, Zhenpeng; Wang, Geng; Liu, Nigang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 07/2018
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074362
Bernstein mode instability; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; rising tone; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction
In situ observations of magnetosonic waves modulated by background plasma density
We report in situ observations by the Van Allen Probe mission that magnetosonic (MS) waves are clearly relevant to appear relevant to the background plasma number density. As the satellite moved across dense and tenuous plasma alternatively, MS waves occurred only in lower density region. As the observed protons with \textquoteleftring\textquoteright distributions provide free energy, local linear growth rates are calculated and show that magnetosonic waves can be locally excited in tenuous plasma. With variations of the bac ...
Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Funsten, Herbert;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 07/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074681
\textquoterightring\textquoteright distributions; local linear growth rates; magnetosonic waves; Ring current ions; Van Allen Probes
Roles of whistler-mode waves and magnetosonic waves in changing the outer radiation belt and the slot region
Using the Van Allen Probe long-term (2013 \textendash 2015) observations and quasi-linear simulations of wave-particle interactions, we examine the combined or competing effects of whistler-mode waves (chorus or hiss) and magnetosonic (MS) waves on energetic (<0.5 MeV) and relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons inside and outside the plasmasphere. Although whistler-mode chorus waves and MS waves can singly or jointly accelerate electrons from the hundreds of keV energy to the MeV energy in the low-density trough, most of the rela ...
Li, L; Yu, J.; Cao, J.; Yang, J; Li, X.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2017
YEAR: 2017   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023634
magnetosonic waves; Plasmapause movement; Spatial variation of outer radiaton belt; Spatial variation of slot region; Temporal-spatial variations of chorus waves; Temporal-spatial variations of plasmaspheric hiss; Van Allen Probes
Formation of Energetic Electron Butterfly Distributions by Magnetosonic Waves via Landau Resonance
Radiation belt electrons can exhibit different types of pitch angle distributions in response to various magnetospheric processes. Butterfly distributions, characterized by flux minima at pitch angles around 90\textdegree, are broadly observed in both the outer and inner belts and the slot region. Butterfly distributions close to the outer magnetospheric boundary have been attributed to drift shell splitting and losses to the magnetopause. However, their occurrence in the inner belt and the slot region has hitherto not been ...
Li, Jinxing; Ni, Binbin; Ma, Qianli; Xie, Lun; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen; Baker, Daniel; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Fennell, Joseph; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Funsten, Herbert; Summers, Danny;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 04/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016GL067853
butterfly distributions; energetic electrons; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes
Ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions created by parallel acceleration due to magnetosonic waves
The Van Allen Probe observations during the recovery phase of a large storm that occurred on 17 March 2015 showed that the ultrarelativistic electrons at the inner boundary of the outer radiation belt (L* = 2.6\textendash3.7) exhibited butterfly pitch angle distributions, while the inner belt and the slot region also showed evidence of sub-MeV electron butterfly distributions. Strong magnetosonic waves were observed in the same regions and at the same time periods as these butterfly distributions. Moreover, when these magnet ...
Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Baker, Daniel; Reeves, Geoffrey; Fennell, Joseph; Spence, Harlan; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Blake, Bernard.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2016
YEAR: 2016   DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022370
butterfly distributions; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes
Electron scattering by magnetosonic waves in the inner magnetosphere
We investigate the importance of electron scattering by magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere. A statistical survey of the magnetosonic wave amplitude and wave frequency spectrum, as a function of geomagnetic activity, is performed using the Van Allen Probes wave measurements, and is found to be generally consistent with the wave distribution obtained from previous spacecraft missions. Outside the plasmapause the statistical frequency distribution of magnetosonic waves follows the variation of t ...
Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 12/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021992
Electron scattering; magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes statistics
Penetration of magnetosonic waves into the plasmasphere observed by the Van Allen Probes
During the small storm on 14\textendash15 April 2014, Van Allen Probe A measured a continuously distinct proton ring distribution and enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves along its orbit outside the plasmapause. Inside the plasmasphere, strong MS waves were still present but the distinct proton ring distribution was falling steeply with distance. We adopt a sum of subtracted bi-Maxwellian components to model the observed proton ring distribution and simulate the wave trajectory and growth. MS waves at first propagate toward lowe ...
Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Yihua; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065745
Geomagnetic storms; magnetosonic waves; proton ring distribution; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probe results; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction
Low-harmonic magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes
Purely compressional electromagnetic waves (fast magnetosonic waves), generated at multiple harmonics of the local proton gyrofrequency, have been observed by various types of satellite instruments (fluxgate and search coil magnetometers and electric field sensors), but most recent studies have used data from search coil sensors, and many have been restricted to high harmonics. We report here on a survey of low-harmonic waves, based on electric and magnetic field data from the EFW double probe and EMFISIS fluxgate magnetomet ...
Posch, J.; Engebretson, M.; Olson, C.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Boardsen, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; Reeves, G.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 07/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021179
equatorial noise; inner magnetosphere; magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; waves in plasmas
Nonlinear Bounce Resonances between Magnetosonic Waves and Equatorially Mirroring Electrons
Equatorially mirroring energetic electrons pose an interesting scientific problem, since they generally cannot resonate with any known plasma waves and hence cannot be scattered down to lower pitch angles. Observationally it is well known that the fluxof these equatorial particles does not simply continue to build up indefinitely, and so a mechanism must necessarily exist that transports these particles from a equatorial pitch angle of 90 degrees down to lower values. However this mechanism has not been uniquely identified y ...
Chen, Lunjin; Maldonado, Armando; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Li, Jinxing; Dai, Lei; Zhan, Xiaoya;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 06/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021174
bounce resonance; equatorioal noise; magnetosonic waves; nonlinear; Radiation belt; wave particle interaction
Equatorial noise emissions with quasiperiodic modulation of wave intensity
Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic wave events at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, and they exhibit a harmonic line structure characteristic of the proton cyclotron frequency in the source region. However, they were generally believed to be continuous in time. We investigate more than 2000 EN events observed by the Spatio-Temporal An ...
emec, F.; Santolik, O.; a, Hrb\; Pickett, J.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 04/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020816
equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves; quasiperiodic modulation
Intensities and spatiotemporal variability of equatorial noise emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft
Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic waves observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. We present the analysis of 2229 EN events identified in the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment data of the Cluster spacecraft during the years 2001\textendash2010. EN emissions are distinguished using the polarization analysis, and their intensity is determined based on the evaluation of the P ...
emec, F.; Santolik, O.; a, Hrb\; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 03/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020814
Systematic analysis of occurrence of equatorial noise emissions using 10 years of data from the Cluster mission
We report results of a systematic analysis of equatorial noise (EN) emissions which are also known as fast magnetosonic waves. EN occurs in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator at frequencies between the local proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. Our analysis is based on the data collected by the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations\textendashSpectrum Analyzer instruments on board the four Cluster spacecraft. The data set covers the period from January 2001 to December 2010. We have develop ...
a, Hrb\; Santolik, O.; emec, F.; a, Mac\; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2015
YEAR: 2015   DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020268
equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves; plasmasphere; Radiation belts
Trapping waves in Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere
Earth\textquoterights magnetic field traps donut-shaped bands of radiation in a belt around the planet that react to solar eruptions by growing and shrinking. The Van Allen belts consist of two rings filled with particles from the solar wind and cosmic rays. Within the outer ring of the Van Allen belt sits the plasmasphere, which is the innermost part of the planet\textquoterights magnetic field and home to low-energy charged particles.
Published by: Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union Published on: 12/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014EO490016
magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; wave excitation; wave propagation
The trapping of equatorial magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights outer plasmasphere
We investigate the excitation and propagation of equatorial magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and describe evidence for a trapping mechanism for magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere. Intense equatorial magnetosonic waves were observed inside the plasmasphere in association with a pronounced proton ring distribution, which provides free energy for wave excitation. Instability analysis along the inbound orbit demonstrates that broadband magnetosonic waves can be excited over a localize ...
Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, L.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Spence, H.;
Published by: Geophysical Research Letters Published on: 09/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061414
magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; wave excitation; wave propagation
Magnetosonic wave excitation by ion ring distributions in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere
Combining Time History of Events and Macroscale Interaction during Substorms (THEMIS) wave and particle observations and a quantitative calculation of linear wave growth rate, we demonstrate that magnetosonic (MS) waves can be locally excited by ion ring distributions in the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere when the ion ring energy is comparable to the local Alfven energy. MS waves in association with ion ring distributions were observed by THEMIS A on 24 November 2010 in the afternoon sector, both outside the plasmapause ...
Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Chen, Lunjin; Thorne, Richard; Angelopoulos, Vassilis;
Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics Published on: 02/2014
YEAR: 2014   DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019591
magnetosonic waves; ring current; THEMIS observation; wave excitation