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Particle Dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights Radiation Belts: Review of Current Research and Open Questions

The past decade transformed our observational understanding of energetic particle processes in near-Earth space. An unprecedented suite of observational systems were in operation including the Van Allen Probes, Arase, MMS, THEMIS, Cluster, GPS, GOES, and LANL-GEO magnetospheric missions. They were supported by conjugate low-altitude measurements on spacecraft, balloons, and ground-based arrays. Together these significantly improved our ability to determine and quantify the mechanisms that control the build-up and subsequent ...

Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Claudepierre, Seth; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Colpitts, Chris; Li, Xinlin; Fennell, Joe; Crabtree, Chris;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026735

inner magnetosphere; laboratory plasma experiments; Particle acceleration; particle loss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Earth\textquoterights Van Allen Radiation Belts: From Discovery to the Van Allen Probes Era

Discovery of the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts by instruments flown on Explorer 1 in 1958 was the first major discovery of the Space Age. The observation of distinct inner and outer zones of trapped megaelectron volt (MeV) particles, primarily protons at low altitude and electrons at high altitude, led to early models for source and loss mechanisms including Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay for inner zone protons, radial diffusion for outer zone electrons and loss to the atmosphere due to pitch angle scatter ...

Li, W.; Hudson, M.K.;

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA025940

Particle acceleration; particle loss; particle transport; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions