Found 938 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 501 through 550


Energy dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions.

We present observations of the radiation belts from the HOPE and MagEIS particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy-dependence and L-shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on March 1 in more detail. The observations show: (a) At all L-shells, lower-energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) Events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) Enhancements of electrons in the inner ...

Reeves, Geoffrey; Friedel, Reiner; Larsen, Brian; Skoug, Ruth; Funsten, Herbert; Claudepierre, Seth; Fennell, Joseph; Turner, Drew; Denton, Mick; Spence, H.; Blake, Bernard; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021569

Acceleration; energetic particles; Inner zone; Outer Zone; Radiation belts; Slot region; Van Allen Probes

Evolution of lower hybrid turbulence in the ionosphere

Three-dimensional evolution of the lower hybrid turbulence driven by a spatially localized ion ring beam perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field in space plasmas is analyzed. It is shown that the quasi-linear saturation model breaks down when the nonlinear rate of scattering by thermal electron is larger than linear damping rates, which can occur even for low wave amplitudes. The evolution is found to be essentially a three-dimensional phenomenon, which cannot be accurately explained by two-dimensional simulations. An im ...

Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C.; Mithaiwala, M.; Rudakov, L.; Scales, W.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1063/1.4936281


Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere

We perform test particle simulations of energetic electrons interacting with whistler mode chorus emissions. We compute trajectories of a large number of electrons forming a delta function with the same energy and equatorial pitch angle. The electrons are launched at different locations along the magnetic field line and different timings with respect to a pair of chorus emissions generated at the magnetic equator. We follow the evolution of the delta function and obtain a distribution function in energy and equatorial pitch ...

Omura, Yoshiharu; Miyashita, Yu; Yoshikawa, Masato; Summers, Danny; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kubota, Yuko;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021563

Chorus; nonlinear wave-particle interaction; Particle acceleration; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; simulation

Global Empirical Models of Plasmaspheric Hiss using Van Allen Probes

Plasmaspheric hiss is a whistler mode emission that permeates the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere and is a significant driver of energetic electron losses through cyclotron-resonant pitch angle scattering. The EMFISIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission provides vastly improved measurements of the hiss wave environment including continuous measurements of the wave magnetic field cross-spectral matrix and enhanced low frequency coverage. Here, we develop empirical models of hiss wave intensity using two years of Van ...

Spasojevic, M.; Shprits, Y.Y.; Orlova, K.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021803

Electron scattering; Empirical Model; inner magnetosphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes

High-resolution in situ observations of electron precipitation-causing EMIC waves

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are thought to be important drivers of energetic electron losses from the outer radiation belt through precipitation into the atmosphere. While the theoretical possibility of pitch angle scattering-driven losses from these waves has been recognized for more than four decades, there have been limited experimental precipitation observations to support this concept. We have combined satellite-based observations of the characteristics of EMIC waves, with satellite and ground-based obser ...

Rodger, Craig; Hendry, Aaron; Clilverd, Mark; Kletzing, Craig; Brundell, James; Reeves, Geoffrey;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.2210.1002/2015GL066581

EMIC waves; energetic electron precipitation; radiation belt electrons; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

In-flight performance of the Van Allen Probes RF telecommunications system

The NASA Van Allen Probes mission (previously called the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) successfully launched on 30 August 2012. The twin spacecraft, designed, built, and operated by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), has been successfully operating within Earth׳s radiation belts since then, returning critical science data revealing new insights into the physics of the radiation belts. Because of the extreme radiation environment, all spacecraft subsystems including the communications system ha ...

Srinivasan, Dipak; Adams, Norm; Wallis, Robert;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2015.05.001

Van Allen Probes

Kinetic Alfv\ en Waves and Particle Response Associated with a Shock-Induced, Global ULF Perturbation of the Terrestrial Magnetosphere

On 2 October 2013, the arrival of an interplanetary shock compressed the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere and triggered a global ULF (ultra low frequency) oscillation. The Van Allen Probe B spacecraft observed this large-amplitude ULF wave in situ with both magnetic and electric field data. Broadband waves up to approximately 100 Hz were observed in conjunction with, and modulated by, this ULF wave. Detailed analysis of fields and particle data reveals that these broadband waves are Doppler-shifted kinetic Alfv\ en waves. ...

Malaspina, David; Claudepierre, Seth; Takahashi, Kazue; Jaynes, Allison; Elkington, Scot; Ergun, Robert; Wygant, John; Reeves, Geoff; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065935

inner magnetosphere; interplanetary shock; Kinetic Alfven Waves; magnetosphere shock response; plasma waves; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Multifrequency compressional magnetic field oscillations and their relation to multiharmonic toroidal mode standing Alfv\ en waves

The power spectrum of the compressional component of magnetic fields observed by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft near the magnetospheric equator in the dayside plasmasphere sometimes exhibits regularly spaced multiple peaks at frequencies below 50 mHz. We show by detailed analysis of events observed on two separate days in early 2014 that the frequencies change smoothly with the radial distance of the spacecraft and appear at or very near the frequencies of the odd harmonics of mutiharmonic toroidal mode standing Alfv\ en wa ...

Takahashi, Kazue; Waters, Colin; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Smith, Charles;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021780

Compressional oscillations; Field line resonance; Pc3-Pc4 band; plasmasphere; Van Allen Probes

Multiple loss processes of relativistic electrons outside the heart of outer radiation belt during a storm sudden commencement

By examining the compression-induced changes in the electron phase space density and pitch angle distribution observed by two satellites of Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A/B), we find that the relativistic electrons (>2MeV) outside the heart of outer radiation belt (L*>= 5) undergo multiple losses during a storm sudden commencement (SSC). The relativistic electron loss mainly occurs in the field-aligned direction (pitch angle α< 30\textdegree or >150\textdegree), and the flux decay of the field-aligned electrons is independent of ...

Yu, J.; Li, L.Y.; Cao, J.; Yuan, Z.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021460

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves; outer radiation belt; Outward radial diffusion driven by ULF waves; Plasmaspheric Hiss; relativistic electron loss; Storm sudden commencement; Van Allen Probes

Prediction of MeV electron fluxes throughout the outer radiation belt using multivariate autoregressive models

The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth are filled with MeV-energy electrons. This region poses ionizing radiation risks for spacecraft that operate within it, including those in geostationary (GEO) and medium Earth orbit (MEO). To provide alerts of electron flux enhancements, sixteen prediction models of the electron log-flux variation throughout the equatorial outer radiation belt as a function of the McIlwain L parameter were developed using the multivariate autoregressive model and Kalman filter. Measurements ...

Sakaguchi, Kaori; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001254

outer radiation belt; Practical prediction model; Van Allen Probes

Responses of relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt to geomagnetic storms

Geomagnetic storms can either increase or decrease relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt. A statistical survey of 84 isolated storms demonstrates that geomagnetic storms preferentially decrease relativistic electron fluxes at higher energies, while flux enhancements are more common at lower energies. In about 87\% of the storms, 0.3\textendash2.5 MeV electron fluxes show an increase, whereas 2.5\textendash14 MeV electron fluxes increase in only 35\% of the storms. Superposed epoch analyses suggest that suc ...

Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Chen, Lunjin; Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen; Li, Jinxing; Guo, Ruilong; Parks, G.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021440

energy dependence; Geomagnetic storm; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Solar wind

Electron distribution function formation in regions of diffuse aurora

The precipitation of high-energy magnetospheric electrons (E \~ 600 eV\textendash10 KeV) in the diffuse aurora contributes significant energy flux into the Earth\textquoterights ionosphere. To fully understand the formation of this flux at the upper ionospheric boundary, \~700\textendash800 km, it is important to consider the coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system. In the diffuse aurora, precipitating electrons initially injected from the plasma sheet via wave-particle interaction processes degrade in the atmosphere toward ...

Khazanov, G.; Tripathi, A.; Sibeck, D.; Himwich, E.; Glocer, A.; Singhal, R.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021728

diffuse aurora; electron distribution; Wave-particle interaction

Estimation of pitch angle diffusion rates and precipitation time scales of electrons due to EMIC waves in a realistic field model

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are closely related to precipitating loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts, and thereby, a model of the radiation belts requires inclusion of the pitch angle diffusion caused by EMIC waves. We estimated the pitch angle diffusion rates and the corresponding precipitation time scales caused by H and He band EMIC waves using the Tsyganenko 04 (T04) magnetic field model at their probable regions in terms of geomagnetic conditions. The results correspond to enhanced pitch ...

Bin Kang, Suk-; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Fok, Mei-Ching; Hwang, Junga; Choi, Cheong-Rim;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020644

EMIC waves; pitch angle diffusion rate; precipitation time scale; quasi-linear theory; realistic field model; Relativistic electron

On the formation and origin of substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs inferred from conjugate space-ground observations

Magnetotail processes and structures related to substorm growth phase/onset auroral arcs remain poorly understood mostly due to the lack of adequate observations. In this study we make a comparison between ground-based optical measurements of the premidnight growth phase/onset arcs at subauroral latitudes and magnetically conjugate measurements made by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) at ~780 km in altitude and by the Van Allen Probe B (RBSP-B) spacecraft crossing L values o ...

Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Anderson, B.; Korth, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Shiokawa, K.; Connors, M.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v120.1010.1002/2015JA021676

FACs; growth phase/onset arc; M-I coupling; Van Allen Probes

Giant pulsations on the afternoonside: Geostationary satellite and ground observations

Giant pulsations (Pgs) are a special class of oscillations recognized in ground magnetometer records as exhibiting highly regular sinusoidal waveforms in the east-west component with periods around 100s. Previous statistical studies showed that Pgs occur almost exclusively on the morningside with peak occurrence in the postmidnight sector. In this paper, we present observations of Pgs extending to the afternoonside, using data from the GOES13 and 15 geostationary satellites and multiple ground magnetometers located in North ...

Motoba, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazue; Rodriguez, Juan; Russell, Christopher;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021592

giant pulsations; ground-space conjunction; wave-particle interactions

Heavy-ion dominance near Cluster perigees

Time periods in which heavy ions dominate over H+ in the energy range of 1-40 keV were observed by the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS)/COmposition DIstribution Function (CODIF) instrument onboard Cluster Spacecraft 4 at L-values less than 4. The characteristic feature is a narrow flux peak at around 10 keV that extends into low L-values, with He+ and/or O+ dominating. In the present work we perform a statistical study of these events and examine their temporal occurrence and spatial distribution. The observed features, both t ...

Ferradas, C.; Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021063

charge exchange; Cluster; heavy ions; inner magnetosphere; plasma sheet; ring current

Local time distributions of repetition periods for rising tone lower band chorus waves in the magnetosphere

Whistler mode chorus waves generally occur outside the plasmapause in the magnetosphere. The most striking feature of the waves is their occurrence in discrete elements. One of the parameters that describe the discrete elements is the repetition period (Trp), the time between consecutive elements. The Trp has not been studied statistically before. We use high-resolution waveform data to derive distributions of Trp for different local times. We find that the average Trp for the nightside (0.56 s) and dawnside (0.53 s) are sma ...

Shue, Jih-Hong; Hsieh, Yi-Kai; W. Y. Tam, Sunny; Wang, Kaiti; Fu, Hui; Bortnik, Jacob; Tao, Xin; Hsieh, Wen-Chieh; Pi, Gilbert;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066107

Chorus; local time distribution; repetition period

Measurement of inner radiation belt electrons with kinetic energy above 1~MeV

Data from the Proton-Electron Telescope on the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite, taken during 1992\textendash2009, are analyzed for evidence of inner radiation belt electrons with kinetic energy E > 1 MeV. It is found that most of the data from a detector combination with a nominal energy threshold of 1 MeV were, in fact, caused by a chance coincidence response to lower energy electrons or high-energy protons. In particular, there was no detection of inner belt or slot region electron ...

Selesnick, R.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021387

electrons; Inner zone; Radiation belt

Thermal electron acceleration by electric field spikes in the outer radiation belt: Generation of field-aligned pitch angle distributions

Van Allen Probes observations in the outer radiation belt have demonstrated an abundance of electrostatic electron-acoustic double layers (DL). DLs are frequently accompanied by field-aligned (bidirectional) pitch angle distributions (PAD) of electrons with energies from hundred eVs up to several keV. We perform numerical simulations of the DL interaction with thermal electrons making use of the test particle approach. DL parameters assumed in the simulations are adopted from observations. We show that DLs accelerate thermal ...

. Y. Vasko, I; Agapitov, O.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021644

double layers; Fermi mechanism; field-aligned pitch angle distributions; outer radiation belt; thermal electron acceleration; Van Allen Probes

\textquotedblleftTrunk-like\textquotedblright heavy ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

Dynamic ion spectral features in the inner magnetosphere are the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. We report \textquotedbllefttrunk-like\textquotedblright ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes on 2 November 2012. This new type of ion structure looks like an elephant\textquoterights trunk on an energy-time spectrogram, with the energy of the peak flux decreasing Earthward. The trunks are present in He+ and O+ ions but not in H+. During the event, ion energ ...

Zhang, J.-C.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.; Wolf, R.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Larsen, B.; Niehof, J.; MacDonald, E.; Friedel, R.; Ferradas, C.; Luo, H.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021822

inner magnetosphere; ion injection; Ion structure; magnetic cloud; magnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Analysis of plasmaspheric hiss wave amplitudes inferred from low-altitude POES electron data: Validation with conjunctive Van Allen Probes observations

Plasmaspheric hiss plays an important role in controlling the overall structure and dynamics of the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. The interaction of plasmaspheric hiss with radiation belt electrons is commonly evaluated using diffusion codes, which rely on statistical models of wave observations that may not accurately reproduce the instantaneous global wave distribution, or the limited in-situ satellite wave measurements from satellites. This paper evaluates the performance and limitations of a novel technique capa ...

de Soria-Santacruz, M.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021148

Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions; Waves global model

First joint in situ and global observations of the medium-energy oxygen and hydrogen in the inner magnetosphere

We present the first simultaneous observations of the in situ ions and global Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) images of the composition-separated, medium-energy (~1\textendash50 keV) particle populations of the inner magnetosphere. The ENA emissions are mapped into L shell/magnetic local time space based on the exospheric density along the line of sight (LOS). The ENA measurement can then be scaled to determine an average ion flux along a given LOS. The in situ ion flux tends to be larger than the scaled ENAs at the same local ...

Valek, P.; Goldstein, J.; Jahn, J.-M.; McComas, D.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021151

ENAs; oxygen; storms; TWINS; Van Allen Probes

Internal Charging Hazards in Near-Earth Space during Solar Cycle 24 Maximum: Van Allen Probes Measurements

The Van Allen Probes mission provides an unprecedented opportunity to make detailed measurements of electrons and protons in the inner magnetosphere during the weak solar maximum period of cycle 24. Data from the MagEIS suite of sensors measures energy spectra, fluxes, and yields electron deposition rates that can cause internal charging. We use omni-directional fluxes of electrons and protons to calculate the dose under varying materials and thicknesses of shielding (similar to Fennell et al., 2010). We show examples of cha ...

Skov, Mulligan; Fennell, J.F.; Roeder, J.L.; Blake, J.B.; Claudepierre, S.G.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2015.2468214

Van Allen Probes

Internal Charging Hazards in Near-Earth Space During Solar Cycle 24 Maximum: Van Allen Probes Measurements

The Van Allen Probes mission provides an unprecedented opportunity to make detailed measurements of electrons and protons in the inner magnetosphere during the weak solar maximum period of cycle 24. The MagEIS suite of sensors measures energy spectra and fluxes of charged particles in the space environment. The calculations show that these fluxes result in electron deposition rates high enough to cause internal charging. We use omnidirectional fluxes of electrons and protons to calculate the dose under varying materials and ...

Skov, Tamitha; Fennell, Joseph; Roeder, James; Blake, Bernard; Claudepierre, Seth;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2015.2468214

artificial satellites; dielectric materials; electrons; Energy measurement; MAGEis; Magnetosphere; particle detectors; protons; Van Allen Probes

Laboratory studies of nonlinear whistler wave processes in the Van Allen radiation belts

Important nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions that occur in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts are investigated in a laboratory experiment. Predominantly electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone with measured wave normal angle greater than 85\textdegree . When the pump amplitude exceeds a threshold \~5\texttimes10-6 times the background magnetic field, wave power at frequencies below the pump frequency is observed at wave normal angles (\~5 ...

Tejero, E.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D.; Amatucci, W.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1063/1.4928944

Nonlinear waves; Van Allen Belts

A novel data assimilation technique for the plasmasphere

We present a novel technique for imaging and data assimilation of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere. The methodology is based upon the 3 dimensional variational technique (3DVAR), where an empirical background model is utilized. However, to prevent non-physical vertical variation in density estimates, we devise statistical methods to enforce a roughness penalty in the traditional 3DVAR optimization. The upward looking total electron content (TEC) observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver onboard Co ...

Nikoukar, Romina; Bust, Gary; Murr, David;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021455

GPS Techniques; Plasmasphere Data assimilation; Plasmasphere Imaging; Regularization

The occurrence and wave properties of H + -, He + -, and O + -band EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

We perform a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected by the Van Allen Probes mission to investigate the spatial distribution of their occurrence, wave power, ellipticity, and normal angle. The Van Allen Probes have been used which allow us to explore the inner magnetosphere (1.1 to 5.8 Re). Magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science onboard the Van Allen Probes are used to identify EMIC wave events for the first 22 months of the mi ...

Saikin, A.; Zhang, J.-C.; Allen, R.C.; Smith, C.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Kletzing, C.; Jordanova, V.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021358

EMIC waves; Fast Fourier Transform; spatial distribution; Van Allen Probes

Penetration of magnetosonic waves into the plasmasphere observed by the Van Allen Probes

During the small storm on 14\textendash15 April 2014, Van Allen Probe A measured a continuously distinct proton ring distribution and enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves along its orbit outside the plasmapause. Inside the plasmasphere, strong MS waves were still present but the distinct proton ring distribution was falling steeply with distance. We adopt a sum of subtracted bi-Maxwellian components to model the observed proton ring distribution and simulate the wave trajectory and growth. MS waves at first propagate toward lowe ...

Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Yihua; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065745

Geomagnetic storms; magnetosonic waves; proton ring distribution; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probe results; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Relativistic electron response to the combined magnetospheric impact of a coronal mass ejection overlapping with a high-speed stream: Van Allen Probes observations

During early November 2013, the magnetosphere experienced concurrent driving by a coronal mass ejection (CME) during an ongoing high-speed stream (HSS) event. The relativistic electron response to these two kinds of drivers, i.e., HSS and CME, is typically different, with the former often leading to a slower buildup of electrons at larger radial distances, while the latter energizing electrons rapidly with flux enhancements occurring closer to the Earth.We present a detailed analysis of the relativistic electron response inc ...

Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Henderson, M.; Li, W.; Fennell, J.; Zheng, Y.; Richardson, I.; Jones, A.; Ali, A.; Elkington, S.; Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021395

CME; HSS; Van Allen Probes; IP shock; relativistic electrons

Resonant scattering of outer zone relativistic electrons by multiband EMIC waves and resultant electron loss time scales

To improve our understanding of the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in radiation belt electron dynamics, we perform a comprehensive analysis of EMIC wave-induced resonant scattering of outer zone relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons and resultant electron loss time scales with respect to EMIC wave band, L shell, and wave normal angle model. The results demonstrate that while H+-band EMIC waves dominate the scattering losses of ~1\textendash4 MeV outer zone relativistic electrons, it is He+-band and O+-band wa ...

Ni, Binbin; Cao, Xing; Zou, Zhengyang; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong; Bortnik, Jacob; Zhang, Jichun; Fu, Song; Zhao, Zhengyu; Shi, Run; Xie, Lun;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021466

electron loss time scales; EMIC waves; outer radiation belt; relativistic electrons; resonant wave-particle interactions

Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

Determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged sout ...

Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Kanekal, S.; Spence, H.; Green, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065342

Chorus wave; Electron acceleration; solar wind conditions; Van Allen Probes

THEMIS observation of intermittent turbulence behind the quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks

Turbulence is complex behavior that is ubiquitous in nature, but its mechanism is still not sufficiently clear. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is analysis of intermittent turbulence in magnetospheric and solar wind plasmas using a statistical approach based on experimental data acquired from space missions. The quintet spacecraft of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) allows us to investigate the details of turbulent plasma parameters behind the collisionless shocks. We investi ...

Macek, W.; Wawrzaszek, A.; Sibeck, D.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021656

intermittency; magnetosheath; shocks; Solar wind; Space plasma; turbulence

Van Allen Probes observations of unusually low frequency whistler mode waves observed in association with moderate magnetic storms: Statistical study

We show the first evidence for locally excited chorus at frequencies below 0.1 fce (electron cyclotron frequency) in the outer radiation belt. A statistical study of chorus during geomagnetic storms observed by the Van Allen Probes found that frequencies are often dramatically lower than expected. The frequency at peak power suddenly stops tracking the equatorial 0.5 fce and f/fce decreases rapidly, often to frequencies well below 0.1 fce (in situ and mapped to equator). These very low frequency waves are observed both when ...

Cattell, C.; Breneman, A.; Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065565

Chorus; outer radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves in the inner magnetosphere

A prominent yet largely unrecognized feature of the inner magnetosphere associated with particle injections, and more generally geomagnetic storms, is the occurrence of broadband electromagnetic field fluctuations over spacecraft frame frequencies (fsc) extending from effectively zero to fsc ≳ 100 Hz. Using observations from the Van Allen Probes we show that these waves most commonly occur pre-midnight but are observed over a range of local times extending into the dayside magnetosphere. We find that the variation of magne ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Smith, C.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021690

Alfven waves; Geomagnetic storms; ring current; turbulence; Van Allen Probes

Combined Convective and Diffusive Simulations: VERB-4D Comparison with March 17, 2013 Van Allen Probes Observations

This study is focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the March 17, 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. Analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on t ...

Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Spense, Harlan; Reeves, Geoffrey; Baker, Daniel;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065230

inner magnetosphere; numerical simulations; Radiation belts; ring current; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Combined effects of concurrent Pc5 and chorus waves on relativistic electron dynamics

We present electron phase space density (PSD) calculations as well as concurrent Pc5 and chorus wave activity observations during two intense geomagnetic storms caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) resulting in contradicting net effect. We show that, during the 17 March 2013 storm, the coincident observation of chorus and relativistic electron enhancements suggests that the prolonged chorus wave activity seems to be responsible for the enhancement of the electron population in the outer radiation belt even ...

Katsavrias, C.; Daglis, I.; Li, W.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Georgiou, M.; Turner, D.; Papadimitriou, C.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-1173-2015

Magnetospheric physics

The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements

Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the MagEIS, HOPE, and RBSPICE instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies < 50 keV contribute m ...

Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Rodriguez, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021533

Geomagnetic storms; Ring current energy content; Ring current ions; The DPS relation; The Dst index; Van Allen Probes

Global and comprehensive analysis of the inner magnetosphere as a coupled system: Physical understanding and applications

The third Inner Magnetosphere Coupling (IMC III) workshop was held March 2015 at University of California, Los Angeles. The workshop included extensive discussion of space weather and applications bring together scientists from the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionospheric communities as well as space weather stakeholders and researchers focusing on translational research and applications in industry.

. Y. Shprits, Y; Spasojevic, M.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001295

inner magnetosphere; Space weather; workshop

Identification of the source of quasiperiodic VLF emissions using ground-based and Van Allen Probes satellite observations

We report on simultaneous spacecraft and ground-based observations of quasiperiodic VLF emissions and related energetic-electron dynamics. Quasiperiodic emissions in the frequency range 2\textendash6 kHz were observed during a substorm on 25 January 2013 by Van Allen Probe-A and a ground-based station in the Northern Finland. The spacecraft detected the VLF signals near the geomagnetic equator in the night sector at L = 3.0\textendash4.2 when it was inside the plasmasphere. During the satellite motion toward higher latitudes ...

Titova, E.; Kozelov, B.; Demekhov, A.; Manninen, J.; Santolik, O.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.1510.1002/2015GL064911

energetic electrons; quasiperiodic emissions; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Imprints of impulse-excited hydromagnetic waves on electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

Ultralow frequency electromagnetic oscillations, interpreted as standing hydromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere, are a major energy source that accelerates electrons to relativistic energies in the Van Allen radiation belt. Electrons can rapidly gain energy from the waves when they resonate via a process called drift resonance, which is observationally characterized by energy-dependent phase differences between electron flux and electromagnetic oscillations. Such dependence has been recently observed and interpreted as spa ...

Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Wang, Zi-Han; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Claudepierre, Seth; Mann, Ian; Kivelson, Margaret; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Hao, Yi-Xin; Wang, Yong-Fu; Pu, Zu-Yin;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v42.1510.1002/2015GL064988

drift resonance; Radiation belt; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; wave growth; Wave-particle interaction

Laboratory studies of nonlinear whistler wave processes in the Van Allen radiation belts

Important nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions that occur in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts are investigated in a laboratory experiment. Predominantly electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone with measured wave normal angle greater than 85\textordmasculine. When the pump amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 x10^6 times the back- ground magnetic field, wave power at frequencies below the pump frequency is observed at wave normal angles (~55\t ...

Tejero, E.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D.; Amatucci, W.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1063/1.4928944

Electrostatic Waves; magnetic fields; Nonlinear scattering; Plasma electromagnetic waves; Whistler waves

Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of three Van Allen Probes storms in 2012 and 2013

Coronal mass ejection (CME)-shock compression of the dayside magnetopause has been observed to cause both prompt enhancement of radiation belt electron flux due to inward radial transport of electrons conserving their first adiabatic invariant and prompt losses which at times entirely eliminate the outer zone. Recent numerical studies suggest that enhanced ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave activity is necessary to explain electron losses deeper inside the magnetosphere than magnetopause incursion following CME-shock arrival. A ...

Paral, J.; Hudson, M.; Kress, B.; Wiltberger, M.; Wygant, J.; Singer, H.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-1037-2015

MHD; Van Allen Probes

Stability of relativistic electron trapping by strong whistler or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

In the present paper, we investigate the trapping of relativistic electrons by intense whistler-mode waves or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. We consider the non-resonant impact of additional, lower amplitude magnetic field fluctuations on the stability of electron trapping. We show that such additional non-resonant fluctuations can break the adiabatic invariant corresponding to trapped electron oscillations in the effective wave potential. This destruction results in a diffu ...

Artemyev, A.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O.; Vainchtein, D.; Mozer, F.; Krasnoselskikh, V.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1063/1.4927774

Cyclotron resonances; magnetic fields; Particle fluctuations; Plasma electromagnetic waves; Whistler waves

Sub-packet structures in EMIC rising tone emissions observed by the THEMIS probes

We report sub-packet structures found in electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) rising tone emissions observed by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probles. We investigate three typical cases in detail. The first case shows a continuous single rising tone with obvious four sub-packets, and the second case is characterized by a patchy emission with multiple sub-packets triggered in a broadband frequency. The third case looks like a smooth rising tone without any obvious sub-packet ...

Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Shoji, Masafumi; e, Masahito; Summers, Danny; Angelopoulos, Vassilis;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020764

EMIC wave; inner magnetosphere; The nonlinear wave growth; THEMIS

Approximate analytical formulation of radial diffusion and whistler-induced losses from a pre-existing flux peak in the plasmasphere

Modeling the spatio-temporal evolution of relativistic electron fluxes trapped in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts in the presence of radial diffusion coupled with wave-induced losses should address one important question: how deep can relativistic electrons penetrate into the inner magnetosphere? However, a full modelling requires extensive numerical simulations solving the comprehensive quasi-linear equations describing pitch-angle and radial diffusion of the electron distribution, making it rather difficult to pe ...

Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.V.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021623

inner belt; Keywords: radial diffusion; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Low-harmonic magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

Purely compressional electromagnetic waves (fast magnetosonic waves), generated at multiple harmonics of the local proton gyrofrequency, have been observed by various types of satellite instruments (fluxgate and search coil magnetometers and electric field sensors), but most recent studies have used data from search coil sensors, and many have been restricted to high harmonics. We report here on a survey of low-harmonic waves, based on electric and magnetic field data from the EFW double probe and EMFISIS fluxgate magnetomet ...

Posch, J.; Engebretson, M.; Olson, C.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Boardsen, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021179

equatorial noise; inner magnetosphere; magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; waves in plasmas

Near-Earth Injection of MeV Electrons associated with Intense Dipolarization Electric Fields: Van Allen Probes observations

Substorms generally inject 10s-100s keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the pre-midnight sector at L\~5.5, Van Allen Probes (RBSP)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50mV/m) over \~40s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to \~3 MeV. P ...

Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew; Reeves, Geoffrey; Funsten, Herbert; Spence, Harlan; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064955

electric fields; radiation belt electrons; substorm dipolarization; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes

Neutral Oxygen Effects at Low Earth Altitudes: A Critical Uncertainty for Spacecraft Operations and Space Weather Effects

Space Weather sits at the intersection of natural phenomena interacting with modern technology\textemdasheither in space or on Earth\textquoterights surface. A key aspect of space weather is the interaction of Earth\textquoterights extended neutral atmosphere with satellite surfaces [e.g., Samwel, 2014, and references therein]. Because neutral oxygen causes spacecraft surface erosion and oxidation, detailed knowledge of the atmosphere below 1000 km is essential for spacecraft design and operations.

Bonnell, John; Lanzerotti, Louis;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001229

atmosphere oxygen; Space weather

Observations of coincident EMIC wave activity and duskside energetic electron precipitation on 18-19 January 2013

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been suggested to be a cause of radiation belt electron loss to the atmosphere. Here simultaneous, magnetically conjugate measurements are presented of EMIC wave activity, measured at geosynchronous orbit and on the ground, and energetic electron precipitation, seen by the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) campaign, on two consecutive days in January 2013. Multiple bursts of precipitation were observed on the duskside of the magnetosphere at ...

Blum, L.; Halford, A.; Millan, R.; Bonnell, J.; Goldstein, J.; Usanova, M.; Engebretson, M.; Ohnsted, M.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Clilverd, M.; Li, X.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065245

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Pileup accident hypothesis of magnetic storm on 17 March 2015

We propose a \textquotedblleftpileup accident\textquotedblright hypothesis, based on the solar wind data analysis and magnetohydrodynamics modeling, to explain unexpectedly geoeffective solar wind structure which caused the largest magnetic storm so far during the solar cycle 24 on 17 March 2015: First, a fast coronal mass ejection with strong southward magnetic fields both in the sheath and in the ejecta was followed by a high-speed stream from a nearby coronal hole. This combination resulted in less adiabatic expansion tha ...

Kataoka, Ryuho; Shiota, Daikou; Kilpua, Emilia; Keika, Kunihiro;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064816

coronal hole; coronal mass ejection; corotating interaction region; magnetic storm

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