Bibliography





Van Allen Probes Bibliography is from August 2012 through September 2021

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Found 90 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 51 through 90


2015

Source and Seed Populations for Relativistic Electrons: Their Roles in Radiation Belt Changes

Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August-September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen ...

Jaynes, A.N.; Baker, D.N.; Singer, H.J.; Rodriguez, J.V.; Loto\textquoterightaniu, T.M.; Ali, A.; Elkington, S.R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.G.; Fennell, J.F.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.M.; Kletzing, C.A.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021234

Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; substorms; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

The effects of geomagnetic storms on electrons in Earth\textquoterights radiation belts

We use Van Allen Probes data to investigate the responses of 10s of keV to 2 MeV electrons throughout a broad range of the radiation belts (2.5 <= L <= 6.0) during 52 geomagnetic storms from the most recent solar maximum. Electron storm-time responses are highly dependent on both electron energy and L-shell. 10s of keV electrons typically have peak fluxes in the inner belt or near-Earth plasma sheet and fill the inner magnetosphere during storm main phases. ~100 to ~600 keV electrons are enhanced in up to 87\% of cases aroun ...

Turner, D.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Kilpua, E.; Hietala, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064747

electrons; Van Allen Probes; Geomagnetic storms; Radiation belts

Global-scale coherence modulation of radiation-belt electron loss from plasmaspheric hiss

Over 40 years ago it was suggested that electron loss in the region of the radiation belts that overlaps with the region of high plasma density called the plasmasphere, within four to five Earth radii1, 2, arises largely from interaction with an electromagnetic plasma wave called plasmaspheric hiss3, 4, 5. This interaction strongly influences the evolution of the radiation belts during a geomagnetic storm, and over the course of many hours to days helps to return the radiation-belt structure to its \textquoteleftquiet\textqu ...

Breneman, A.; Halford, A.; Millan, R.; McCarthy, M.; Fennell, J.; Sample, J.; Woodger, L.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Cattell, C.; Goldstein, J.; Malaspina, D.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1038/nature14515

Magnetospheric physics; Van Allen Probes

A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagE ...

Claudepierre, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Roeder, J.; Clemmons, J.; Looper, M.; Mazur, J.; Mulligan, T.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Larsen, B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021171

Background contamination; Inner radiation belt; outer radiation belt; Particle measurements; Radiation belt; Spacecraft engineering; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes investigation of the large scale duskward electric field and its role in ring current formation and plasmasphere erosion in the June 1, 2013 storm

Using the Van Allen Probes we investigate the enhancement in the large scale duskward convection electric field during the geomagnetic storm (Dst ~ -120 nT) on June 1, 2013 and its role in ring current ion transport and energization, and plasmasphere erosion. During this storm, enhancements of ~1-2 mV/m in the duskward electric field in the co-rotating frame are observed down to L shells as low as ~2.3. A simple model consisting of a dipole magnetic field and constant, azimuthally westward, electric field is used to calculat ...

Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.; Dai, L.; Breneman, A.W.; Kersten, K.; Cattell, C.A.; Bonnell, J.W.; Fennell, J.F.; Gkioulidou, Matina; Kletzing, C.A.; De Pascuale, S.; Hospodarsky, G.B.; Bounds, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020875

electric field; inner magnetosphere; plasma convection; plasmasphere; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Analysis of plasmaspheric hiss wave amplitudes inferred from low-altitude POES electron data: Technique sensitivity analysis

A novel technique capable of inferring wave amplitudes from low-altitude electron measurements from the POES spacecraft has been previously proposed to construct a global dynamic model of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. In this paper we focus on plasmaspheric hiss, which is an incoherent broadband emission that plays a dominant role in the loss of energetic electrons from the inner magnetosphere. We analyze the sensitivity of the POES technique to different inputs used to infer the hiss wave amplitudes during three conj ...

de Soria-Santacruz, M.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020941

Plasmaspheric Hiss; POES technique; Van Allen Probes; Waves global model

Global Storm-Time Depletion of the Outer Electron Belt

The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity, electron intensities in the belt can vary by ordersof magnitude at different spatial and temporal scale. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the main-phase deplet ...

Ukhorskiy, A; Sitnov, M.; Millan, R.; Kress, B.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Barnes, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020645

dropout; Geomagnetic storms; magnetopause loss; Radial Transport; Radiation belt; ring current; Van Allen Probes

BARREL observations of an ICME-Shock impact with the magnetosphere and the resultant radiation belt electron loss.

The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) mission of opportunity working in tandem with the Van Allen Probes was designed to study the loss of radiation belt electrons to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. BARREL is also sensitive to X-rays from other sources. During the second BARREL campaign the Sun produced an X-class flare followed by a solar energetic particle event (SEP) associated with the same active region. Two days later on 9 January 2014 the shock generated by the coronal mass ej ...

Halford, A.; McGregor, S.; Murphy, K.; Millan, R.; Hudson, M.; Woodger, L.; Cattel, C.; Breneman, A.; Mann, I.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020873

BARREL; Van Allen Probes

Modeling inward diffusion and slow decay of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt

A new 3D diffusion code is used to investigate the inward intrusion and slow decay of energetic radiation belt electrons (>0.5 MeV) observed by the Van Allen Probes during a 10-day quiet period in March 2013. During the inward transport the peak differential electron fluxes decreased by approximately an order of magnitude at various energies. Our 3D radiation belt simulation including radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by plasmaspheric hiss and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves reproduces the esse ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062977

pitch angle scattering; radiation belts modeling; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observations

On the use of drift echoes to characterize on-orbit sensor discrepancies

We describe a method for using drift echo signatures in on-orbit data to resolve discrepancies between different measurements of particle flux. The drift period has a well-defined energy dependence, which gives rise to time dispersion of the echoes. The dispersion can then be used to determine the effective energy for one or more channels given each channel\textquoterights drift period and the known energy for a reference channel. We demonstrate this technique on multiple instruments from the Van Allen probes mission. Drift ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.P.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Looper, M.D.; Blake, J.B.; Fennell, J.F.; Clemmons, J.H.; Roeder, J.L.; Kanekal, S.G.; Manweiler, J.W.; Mitchell, D.G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.; Baker, D.N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020859

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes show the inner radiation zone contains no MeV electrons: ECT/MagEIS data

We present Van Allen Probe observations of electrons in the inner radiation zone. The measurements were made by the ECT/MagEIS sensors that were designed to measure electrons with the ability to remove unwanted signals from penetrating protons, providing clean measurements. No electrons >900 keV were observed with equatorial fluxes above background (i.e. >0.1 electrons/(cm2 s sr keV)) in the inner zone. The observed fluxes are compared to the AE9 model and CRRES observations. Electron fluxes <200 keV exceeded the AE9 model 5 ...

Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Clemmons, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062874

inner magnetosphere; Inner radiation belt; Inner zone; trapped electrons; Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity

From a survey of the first nightside season of NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission (Dec/2012 \textendash Sep/2013), 47 energetic (10s to 100s of keV) electron injection events were found at L-shells <= 4, all of which are deeper than any previously reported substorm-related injections. Preliminary details from these events are presented, including how: all occurred shortly after dipolarization signatures and injections were observed at higher L-shells; the deepest observed injection was at L~2.5; and, surprisingly, ...

Turner, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Blake, J.; Lemon, C.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Reeves, G.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Li, W.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225

energetic particle injections; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; substorms; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron Intensity

No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (10s of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable, thus for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there e ...

Li, X.; Selesnick, R.; Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020777

Van Allen Probes

2014

Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL January 17, 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: a quantitative comparison of simulation with observations

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed at multiple observatory locations for several hours on 17 January 2013. During the wave activity period, a duskside relativistic electron precipitation (REP) event was observed by one of the BARREL balloons, and was magnetically mapped close to GOES-13. We simulate the relativistic electron pitch-angle diffusion caused by gyroresonant interactions with EMIC waves using wave and particle data measured by multiple instruments on board GOES-13 and the Van Allen Probes. We ...

Li, Zan; Millan, Robyn; Hudson, Mary; Woodger, Leslie; Smith, David; Chen, Yue; Friedel, Reiner; Rodriguez, Juan; Engebretson, Mark; Goldstein, Jerry; Fennell, Joseph; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 12/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062273

BARREL; EMIC waves; GOES; pitch angle diffusion; RBSP; relativistic electron precipitation; Van Allen Probes

Characteristics of pitch angle distributions of 100 s keV electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt

The pitch angle distribution (PAD) of energetic electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt received little attention in the past decades due to the lack of quality measurements. Using the state-of-art pitch-angle-resolved data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes, a detailed analysis of 100 s keV electron PADs below L = 4 is performed, in which the PADs is categorized into three types: normal (flux peaking at 90o), cap (exceedingly peaking narrowly around 90o ...

Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Malaspina, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020386

energetic electrons; Inner radiation belt; Pitch angle distribution; plasmasphere; Slot region; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

Early observations1, 2 indicated that the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts could be separated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies3, 4 showed that electrons of moderate energy (less than about one megaelectronvolt) often populate both zones, with a deep \textquoteleftslot\textquoteright region largely devoid of particles between them. There is a region of dense cold plasma around the Earth known as the plasmasphere, the out ...

Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Hoxie, V.; Thorne, R.; Foster, J.; Li, X.; Fennell, J.; Wygant, J.; Kanekal, S.; Erickson, P.; Kurth, W.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Malaspina, D.; Gerrard, A.; Lanzerotti, L.;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1038/nature13956

Magnetospheric physics; ultrarelativistic electrons; Van Allen Belts; Van Allen Probes

On long decays of electrons in the vicinity of the slot region observed by HEO3

Long decay periods of electron counts, which follow abrupt rises and last from weeks to months, have been observed by the HEO3 spacecraft in the vicinity of the slot region between the years 1998 and 2007. During the most stable decay periods as selected, e-folding timescales are extracted and statistically analyzed from observations as a function of L-shell and electron energy. A challenge is to reproduce the observed timescales from simulations of pitch angle diffusion by three acting waves\textendashthe plasmaspheric hiss ...

Ripoll, J.-F.; Chen, Y.; Fennell, J.; Friedel, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020449

electron; HEO; Slot region

Acceleration and loss driven by VLF chorus: Van Allen Probes observations and DREAM model results

For over a decade now we have understood the response of the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts to solar wind driving are a delicate balance of acceleration and loss processes. Theory has shown that the interaction of relativistic electrons with VLF whistler mode chorus can produce both energization through momentum diffusion and loss through pitch angle diffusion. Recent results from the Van Allen Probes mission has confirmed observationally that chorus can produce both acceleration and loss. The Van Allen Probes satelli ...

Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Henderson, M.; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Chen, Y.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Baker, D.;

Published by:       Published on: 08/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929879

Van Allen Probes

Generation of Unusually Low Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss

It has been reported from Van Allen Probe observations that plasmaspheric hiss intensification in the outer plasmasphere, associated with a substorm injection on Sept 30 2012, occurred with a peak frequency near 100 Hz, well below the typical plasmaspheric hiss frequency range, extending down to ~20 Hz. We examine this event of unusually low frequency plasmaspheric hiss to understand its generation mechanism. Quantitative analysis is performed by simulating wave ray paths via the HOTRAY ray tracing code with measured plasma ...

Chen, Lunjin; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Horne, Richard; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060628

Chorus; Generation; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Ray Tracing; Van Allen Probes

The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation and the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of 5 fields-and-particles investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. MMS comprises 4 spacecraft flying in close formation in highly elliptical, near-Earth-equatorial orbits targeting understanding of the fundamental physics of the important physical process called magnetic reconnection using Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory. EPD comprises two sensor types, the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) with one instrument on each o ...

Mauk, B.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Clemmons, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Jaskulek, S.; Schlemm, C.; Brown, L.; Cooper, S.; Craft, J.; Fennell, J.; Gurnee, R.; Hammock, C.; Hayes, J.; Hill, P.; Ho, G.; Hutcheson, J.; Jacques, A.; Kerem, S.; Mitchell, D.; Nelson, K.; Paschalidis, N.; Rossano, E.; Stokes, M.; Westlake, J.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 06/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0055-5

Magnetic reconnection; Magnetosphere; Magnetospheric multiscale; NASA mission; Particle acceleration; Space plasma

Radiation belt electron acceleration by chorus waves during the 17 March 2013 storm

Local acceleration driven by whistler-mode chorus waves is fundamentally important for accelerating seed electron populations to highly relativistic energies in the outer radiation belt. In this study, we quantitatively evaluate chorus-driven electron acceleration during the 17 March 2013 storm, when the Van Allen Probes observed very rapid electron acceleration up to several MeV within ~12 hours. A clear radial peak in electron phase space density (PSD) observed near L* ~4 indicates that an internal local acceleration proce ...

Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ma, Q.; Ni, B.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Kanekal, S.; Green, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.610.1002/2014JA019945

Van Allen Probes

Peculiar pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons in the inner radiation belt and slot region

The relativistic electrons in the inner radiation belt have received little attention in the past due to sparse measurements and unforgiving contamination from the inner belt protons. The high-quality measurements of the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instrument onboard Van Allen Probes provide a great opportunity to investigate the dynamics of relativistic electrons in the low L region. In this letter, we report the newly unveiled pitch angle distribution (PAD) of the energetic electrons with minima at 90\textdegree nea ...

Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Malaspina, D.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059725

Van Allen Probes

Quantifying the radiation belt seed population in the 17 March 2013 electron acceleration event

We present phase space density (PSD) observations using data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instrument on the Van Allen Probes for the 17 March 2013 electron acceleration event. We confirm previous results and quantify how PSD gradients depend on the first adiabatic invariant. We find a systematic difference between the lower-energy electrons (1 MeV with a source region within the radiation belts. Our observations show that the source p ...

Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Turner, D.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059626

Van Allen Probes

Simulations of inner magnetosphere dynamics with an expanded RAM-SCB model and comparisons with Van Allen Probes observations

Simulations from our newly expanded ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB), now valid out to 9 RE, are compared for the first time with Van Allen Probes observations. The expanded model reproduces the storm time ring current buildup due to the increased convection and inflow of plasma from the magnetotail. It matches Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) observations of the trapped high-energy (>50 keV) ion flux; however, it underestimates the low-energy (<10 keV) Heliu ...

Jordanova, V.; Yu, Y.; Niehof, J.; Skoug, R.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Fennell, J.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059533

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations of direct wave-particle interactions

Quasiperiodic increases, or \textquotedblleftbursts,\textquotedblright of 17\textendash26 keV electron fluxes in conjunction with chorus wave bursts were observed following a plasma injection on 13 January 2013. The pitch angle distributions changed during the burst events, evolving from sinN(α) to distributions that formed maxima at α = 75\textendash80\textdegree, while fluxes at 90\textdegree and <60\textdegree remained nearly unchanged. The observations occurred outside of the plasmasphere in the postmidnight region and ...

Fennell, J.; Roeder, J.; Kurth, W.; Henderson, M.; Larsen, B.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Claudepierre, J.; Blake, J.; Spence, H.; Clemmons, J.; Funsten, H.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059165

Van Allen Probes

Gradual diffusion and punctuated phase space density enhancements of highly relativistic electrons: Van Allen Probes observations

The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. Observations (up to E ~10 MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) ch ...

Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Henderson, M.; Kanekal, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Thorne, R.; Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Malaspina, D.; Wygant, J.; Boyd, A.; Kletzing, C.; Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058942

Van Allen Probes

Resonant scattering of energetic electrons by unusual low-frequency hiss

We quantify the resonant scattering effects of the unusual low-frequency dawnside plasmaspheric hiss observed on 30 September 2012 by the Van Allen Probes. In contrast to normal (~100\textendash2000 Hz) hiss emissions, this unusual hiss event contained most of its wave power at ~20\textendash200 Hz. Compared to the scattering by normal hiss, the unusual hiss scattering speeds up the loss of ~50\textendash200 keV electrons and produces more pronounced pancake distributions of ~50\textendash100 keV electrons. It is demonstrate ...

Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Chen, Lunjin; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Blake, Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059389

Van Allen Probes

Quantifying hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation: A detailed conjunction event analysis

We analyze a conjunction event between the Van Allen Probes and the low-altitude Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) to quantify hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation. A physics-based technique based on quasi-linear diffusion theory is used to estimate the ratio of precipitated and trapped electron fluxes (R), which could be measured by the two-directional POES particle detectors, using wave and plasma parameters observed by the Van Allen Probes. The remarkable agreement between modeling and observations sug ...

Li, W.; Ni, B.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Green, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Gu, X.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059132

Van Allen Probes

An empirically observed pitch-angle diffusion eigenmode in the Earth\textquoterights electron belt near L * = 5.0

Using data from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, we have identified a synchronized exponential decay of electron flux in the outer zone, near L* = 5.0. Exponential decays strongly indicate the presence of a pure eigenmode of a diffusion operator acting in the synchronized dimension(s). The decay has a time scale of about 4 days with no dependence on pitch angle. While flux at nearby energies and L* is also decaying exponentially, the decay time varies in those dimensions. This suggests the primary decay mechanism is el ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Clemmons, J.; Roeder, J.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058713

Van Allen Probes

2013

Rapid local acceleration of relativistic radiation-belt electrons by magnetospheric chorus

Recent analysis of satellite data obtained during the 9 October 2012 geomagnetic storm identified the development of peaks in electron phase space density1, which are compelling evidence for local electron acceleration in the heart of the outer radiation belt2, 3, but are inconsistent with acceleration by inward radial diffusive transport4, 5. However, the precise physical mechanism responsible for the acceleration on 9 October was not identified. Previous modelling has indicated that a magnetospheric electromagnetic emissio ...

Thorne, R.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Nature      Published on: 12/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1038/nature12889

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Discovery of the action of a geophysical synchrotron in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts

Although the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts were discovered over 50 years ago, the dominant processes responsible for relativistic electron acceleration, transport and loss remain poorly understood. Here we show evidence for the action of coherent acceleration due to resonance with ultra-low frequency waves on a planetary scale. Data from the CRRES probe, and from the recently launched multi-satellite NASA Van Allen Probes mission, with supporting modeling, collectively show coherent ultra-low frequency inte ...

Mann, Ian; Lee, E.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Degeling, A.; Rae, I.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Ozeke, L.; Rankin, R.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Friedel, R.; Honary, F.;

Published by: Nature Communications      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3795

Van Allen Probes

The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft

This paper describes the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the RBSP spacecraft from an instrumentation and engineering point of view. There are four magnetic spectrometers aboard each of the two spacecraft, one low-energy unit (20\textendash240 keV), two medium-energy units (80\textendash1200 keV), and a high-energy unit (800\textendash4800 keV). The high unit also contains a proton telescope (55 keV\textendash20 MeV). The magnetic spectrometers focus electrons within a selected energy pass band ...

Blake, J.; Carranza, P.; Claudepierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Crain, W.; Dotan, Y.; Fennell, J.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; George, J.; Henderson, M.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A; Looper, M.; Mabry, D.; Mazur, J.; McCarthy, B.; Nguyen, C.; textquoterightBrien, T.; Perez, M.; Redding, M.; Roeder, J.; Salvaggio, D.; Sorensen, G.; Spence, H.; Yi, S.; Zakrzewski, M.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9991-8

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Science Goals and Overview of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite on NASA\textquoterights Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Mission

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite contains an innovative complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the inner magnetosphere and radiation belts. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling, are necessary for understanding the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ...

Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Bolton, M.; Bourdarie, S.; Chan, A.; Claudpierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Cravens, J.; Elkington, S.; Fennell, J.; Friedel, R.; Funsten, H.; Goldstein, J.; Green, J.; Guthrie, A.; Henderson, M.; Horne, R.; Hudson, M.; Jahn, J.-M.; Jordanova, V.; Kanekal, S.; Klatt, B.; Larsen, B.; Li, X.; MacDonald, E.; Mann, I.R.; Niehof, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Onsager, T.; Salvaggio, D.; Skoug, R.; Smith, S.; Suther, L.; Thomsen, M.; Thorne, R.;

Published by: Space Science Reviews      Published on: 11/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0007-5

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

First Results from CSSWE CubeSat: Characteristics of Relativistic Electrons in the Near-Earth Environment During the October 2012 Magnetic Storms

Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) on board the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat mission, which was launched into a highly inclined (65\textdegree) low Earth orbit, are analyzed along with measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes, which are in a low inclination (10\textdegree) geo-transfer-like orbit. Both REPT ...

Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Califf, S.; Zhao, H.; Tu, W.; Turner, D.; Gerhardt, D.; Palo, S.; Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Looper, M.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019342

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observation of localized drift-resonance between poloidal mode ultra-low frequency waves and 60 keV electrons

[1] We present NASA Van Allen Probes observations of wave-particle interactions between magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves and energetic electrons (20\textendash500 keV) on 31 October 2012. The ULF waves are identified as the fundamental poloidal mode oscillation and are excited following an interplanetary shock impact on the magnetosphere. Large amplitude modulations in energetic electron flux are observed at the same period (≈ 3 min) as the ULF waves and are consistent with a drift-resonant interaction. The a ...

Claudepierre, S.; Mann, I.R.; Takahashi, K; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Blake, J.; Roeder, J.; Clemmons, J.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50901

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Excitation of Poloidal standing Alfven waves through the drift resonance wave-particle interaction

Drift-resonance wave-particle interaction is a fundamental collisionless plasma process studied extensively in theory. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (Eφ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed, associated w ...

Dai, L.; Takahashi, K; Wygant, J.; Chen, L.; Bonnell, J; Cattell, C.; Thaller, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50800

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

An unusual enhancement of low-frequency plasmaspheric hiss in the outer plasmasphere associated with substorm-injected electrons

Both plasmaspheric hiss and chorus waves were observed simultaneously by the two Van Allen Probes in association with substorm-injected energetic electrons. Probe A, located inside the plasmasphere in the postdawn sector, observed intense plasmaspheric hiss, whereas Probe B observed chorus waves outside the plasmasphere just before dawn. Dispersed injections of energetic electrons were observed in the dayside outer plasmasphere associated with significant intensification of plasmaspheric hiss at frequencies down to ~20 Hz, m ...

Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Wygant, J.; Thaller, S.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50787

Van Allen Probes

Electron Acceleration in the Heart of the Van Allen Radiation Belts

The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside the radiation belts (radial acceleration) or acceleration of lower-energy electrons to relativistic energies in situ in the heart of the radiation belts (local ...

Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Henderson, M.; Morley, S.; Friedel, R.; Funsten, H.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Thorne, R.; Turner, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Larsen, B.; Niehof, J.;

Published by: Science      Published on: 07/2013

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1126/science.1237743

Van Allen Probes

2006

Outward radial diffusion driven by losses at magnetopause

Loss mechanisms responsible for the sudden depletions of the outer electron radiation belt are examined based on observations and radial diffusion modeling, with L*-derived boundary conditions. SAMPEX data for October\textendashDecember 2003 indicate that depletions often occur when the magnetopause is compressed and geomagnetic activity is high, consistent with outward radial diffusion for L* > 4 driven by loss to the magnetopause. Multichannel Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) satellite observations show that depletions at hig ...

Shprits, Y; Thorne, R.; Friedel, R.; Reeves, G.; Fennell, J.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 11/2006

YEAR: 2006     DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011657

Magnetopause Losses

2003

Energization of relativistic electrons in the presence of ULF power and MeV microbursts: Evidence for dual ULF and VLF acceleration

We examine signatures of two types of waves that may be involved in the acceleration of energetic electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belts. We have compiled a database of ULF wave power from SAMNET and IMAGE ground magnetometer stations for 1987\textendash2001. Long-duration, comprehensive, in situ VLF/ELF chorus wave observations are not available, so we infer chorus wave activity from low-altitude SAMPEX observations of MeV electron microbursts for 1996\textendash2001 since microbursts are thought to be cau ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Lorentzen, K.; Mann, I.; Meredith, N.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Looper, M.; Milling, D.; Anderson, R.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research      Published on: 08/2003

YEAR: 2003     DOI: 10.1029/2002JA009784

Local Acceleration due to Wave-Particle Interaction



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