Bibliography





Van Allen Probes Bibliography is from August 2012 through September 2021

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Found 400 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 51 through 100


2020

Statistical Evidence for EMIC Wave Excitation Driven by Substorm Injection and Enhanced Solar Wind Pressure in the Earth s Magnetosphere: Two Different EMIC Wave Sources

Substorm injection and solar wind dynamic pressure have long been considered as two main drivers of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave excitation, but clear observational evidence is still lacking. With Van Allen Probes data from 2012–2017, we have investigated the roles of the two EMIC wave drivers separately, by using time-modified AE+ and . Both the occurrence rate and magnetic amplitude of waves significantly increase with the enhancement of each index. During large AE+, EMIC waves are mainly generated in the du ...

Chen, Huayue; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Tsurutani, Bruce; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090275

EMIC wave; wave excitation; source region; substorm injection; solar wind dynamic pressure; Earth s magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Storm Time Plasma Pressure Inferred From Multimission Measurements and Its Validation Using Van Allen Probes Particle Data

The k-nearest-neighbor technique is used to mine a multimission magnetometer database for a subset of data points from time intervals that are similar to the storm state of the magnetosphere for a particular moment in time. These subsets of data are then used to fit an empirical magnetic field model. Performing this for each snapshot in time reconstructs the dynamic evolution of the magnetic and electric current density distributions during storms. However, because weaker storms occur more frequently than stronger storms, th ...

Stephens, G.; Bingham, S.; Sitnov, M.; Gkioulidou, M.; Merkin, V.; Korth, H.; Tsyganenko, N.; Ukhorskiy, A;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 10/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020SW002583

storms; empirical geomagnetic field; ring current; data mining; eastward current; plasma pressure; Van Allen Probes

Suprathermal Electron Evolution Under the Competition Between Plasmaspheric Plume Hiss Wave Heating and Collisional Cooling

Suprathermal electrons are a major heat source of ionospheric plasma. How the suprathermal electrons evolve during their bounces inside the plasmasphere is a fundamental question for the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. On the basis of Van Allen Probes observations and quasi-linear simulations, we present here the first quantitative study on the evolution of suprathermal electrons under the competition between Landau heating by whistler mode hiss waves and Coulomb collisional cooling by background plasma inside a plasmasph ...

Wang, Zhongshan; Su, Zhenpeng; Liu, Nigang; Dai, Guyue; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089649

magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling; whistler mode hiss waves; Landau resonance; Coulomb collisions; suprathermal electrons; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Lower-Band “Monochromatic” Chorus Riser Subelement/Wave Packet Observations

Three lower-band (f < 0.5 fce) chorus riser elements detected in the dayside generation region were studied in detail using the Van Allen Probe data. Two subelements/wave packets within each riser were examined for their wave “frequency” constancy within seven consecutive wave cycles. The seven wave cycles contained the maximum amplitudes of the subelements/packets. Maximum variance B1 zero crossings were used for the identification of wave cycle start and stop times. It is found that the frequency is constant to with ...

Tsurutani, Bruce; Chen, Rui; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Pickett, Jolene; Lakhina, Gurbax; Sen, Abhijit; Hajra, Rajkumar; Park, Sang; Falkowski, Barbara;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028090

chorus coherency; chorus subelement monochromaticity; a modified theory needed; Van Allen Probes

Properties of Lightning Generated Whistlers Based on Van Allen Probes Observations and Their Global Effects on Radiation Belt Electron Loss

Lightning generated whistlers (LGWs) play an important role in precipitating energetic electrons in the Earth s inner radiation belt and beyond. Wave burst data from the Van Allen Probes are used to unambiguously identify LGWs and analyze their properties at L < 4 by extending their frequencies down to ~100 Hz for the first time. The statistical results show that LGWs typically occur at frequencies from 100 Hz to 10 kHz with the major wave power below the equatorial lower hybrid resonance frequency, and their wave ampli ...

Green, A.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Shen, X.-C.; Bortnik, J.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089584

lightning generated whistlers; electron precipitation; Inner radiation belt; hiss; VLF transmitter waves; global distribution; Van Allen Probes

Can Solar Wind Decompressive Discontinuities Suppress Magnetospheric Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Associated With Fresh Proton Injections?

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the energy transfer among particles of different energies and species in the magnetosphere, whose drivers have been commonly recognized as solar wind compressions and storm/substorm proton injections. However, how the solar wind decompressions related to frequently occurring discontinuities compete with the proton injections in the evolution of EMIC waves has been rarely investigated. Here we present a complete end-to-end observation by Wind, THEMIS, and Va ...

Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL090296

EMIC waves; solar wind discontinuity; storm/substorm injection; wave generation; adiabatic deceleration; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Global Survey of Plasma Sheet Electron Precipitation due to Whistler Mode Chorus Waves in Earth s Magnetosphere

Whistler mode chorus waves can scatter plasma sheet electrons into the loss cone and produce the Earth s diffuse aurora. Van Allen Probes observed plasma sheet electron injections and intense chorus waves on 24 November 2012. We use quasilinear theory to calculate the precipitating electron fluxes, demonstrating that the chorus waves could lead to high differential energy fluxes of precipitating electrons with characteristic energies of 10–30 keV. Using this method, we calculate the precipitating electron flux from 2012 t ...

Ma, Q.; Connor, H.; Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Shen, X.-C.; Gillespie, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088798

Chorus wave; electron precipitation; plasma sheet electron; Van Allen Probes observation; Van Allen Probes

Origin of Electron Boomerang Stripes: Localized ULF Wave-Particle Interactions

Ultralow frequency (ULF) wave-particle interactions play a significant role in the radiation belt dynamic process, during which drift resonance can accelerate and transport energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Observations of wave-electron drift resonance are characterized by quasiperiodic straight or “boomerang-shaped” stripes in the pitch angle spectrogram. Here we present an ULF wave event on 1 December 2015, during which both kinds stripes were observed by Van Allen Probes A and B, respectively. Using the ...

Zhao, X.; Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Yue, Chao; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087960

boomerang-shaped stripes; ULF waves; drift resonance; time of flight; Van Allen Probes

Electron Diffusion by Coexisting Plasmaspheric Hiss and Chorus Waves: Multisatellite Observations and Simulations

We report a rare event of intense plasmaspheric hiss and chorus waves simultaneously observed at the same L shell but different magnetic local times by Van Allen Probes and Magnetospheric Multiscale. Based on the measured waves and electron distributions, we calculate the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and subsequently simulate the temporal evolution of electron distributions. The simulations show that the dynamics of tens to hundreds of keV electrons are jointly controlled by hiss and chorus. The dynamics of MeV ele ...

Yu, J.; Wang, J.; Li, L; Cui, J.; Cao, J.; He, Z.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088753

electron diffusion; Plasmaspheric Hiss; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes; MMS

A Short-lived Three-Belt Structure for sub-MeV Electrons in the Van Allen Belts: Time Scale and Energy Dependence

In this study we focus on the radiation belt dynamics driven by the geomagnetic storms during September 2017. Besides the long-lasting three-belt structures of ultrarelativistic electrons (>2 MeV, existing for tens of days), which has been studied intensively during the Van Allen Probe era, it is found that magnetospheric electrons of hundreds of keVs can also have three-belt structures at similar L extent during storm time. Measurements of 500–800 keV electrons from MagEIS instrument onboard Van Allen Probes show double- ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zou, H.; Rankin, R.; Sun, Y.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, S; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028031

storage ring; three-belt structure; hiss wave; electron lifetime; Radial Transport; Van Allen Probes

Electron-Driven Magnetic Dip Embedded Within the Proton-Driven Magnetic Dip and the Related Echoes of Butterfly Distribution of Relativistic Electrons

In this study, a magnetic dip event in which a small-scale magnetic dip is embedded within a large-scale magnetic dip is analyzed based on the observations of the Van Allen Probes. The small-scale dip is contributed by a sharp electron injection at the energy range of 1 to 10 keV, but the large-scale dip is contributed by a smooth proton injection at the energy range higher than 10 keV. The formation of dip caused by the suprathermal electrons is supported by the self-consistent magnetic model. Moreover, the echoes of bu ...

Zhu, Hui; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088983

magnetic dips; echoes of butterfly distributions; ring current-radiation belt coupling; Van Allen Probes

Defining Radiation Belt Enhancement Events Based on Probability Distributions

We present a methodology to define moderate, strong, and intense space weather events based on probability distributions. We have illustrated this methodology using a long-duration, uniform data set of 1.8–3.5 MeV electron fluxes from multiple LANL geosynchronous satellite instruments, but a strength of this methodology is that it can be applied uniformly to heterogeneous data sets. It allows quantitative comparison of data sets with different energies, units, orbits, and so forth. The methodology identifies a range of ti ...

Reeves, Geoffrey; Vandegriff, Elizabeth; Niehof, Jonathan; Morley, Steven; Cunningham, Gregory; Henderson, Michael; Larsen, Brian;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 06/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020SW002528

Radiation belts; methods; geosynchronous; energetic particles; hazards; Solar Cycle; Van Allen Probes

Global Model of Whistler Mode Chorus in the Near-Equatorial Region (|λm|<  18°)

We extend our database of whistler mode chorus, based on data from seven satellites, by including ∼3 years of data from Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-A and RBSP-B and an additional ∼6 years of data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A, THEMIS-D, and THEMIS-E. The new database allows us to probe the near-equatorial region in detail, revealing new features. In the equatorial source region, |λm|<6°, strong wave power is most extensive in the 0.1–0.4fce bands in the r ...

Meredith, Nigel; Horne, Richard; Shen, Xiao-Chen; Li, Wen; Bortnik, Jacob;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087311

whistler mode chorus; wave-particle interactions; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous Observations of Localized and Global Drift Resonance

In this study, we present Van Allen Probe observations showing that seed (hundreds of keV) and core ( 1 MeV) electrons can resonate with ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave modes with distinctive m values simultaneously. An unusual electron energy spectrogram with double-banded resonant structure was recorded by energetic particle, composition, and thermal plasma (ECT)-magnetic electron ion spectrometer (MagEIS) and, meanwhile, boomerang stripes in pitch angle spectrogram appeared at the lower energy band. A localized drift reson ...

Hao, Y.; Zhao, X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, S; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Claudepierre, S.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088019

drift resonance; ULF waves; Radiation Belt Dynamics; boomerang stripes; azimuthal wave number; multiple resonances; Van Allen Probes

Bayesian Inference of Quasi-Linear Radial Diffusion Parameters using Van Allen Probes

Abstract The Van Allen radiation belts in the magnetosphere have been extensively studied using models based on radial diffusion theory, which is derived from a quasi-linear approach with prescribed inner and outer boundary conditions. The 1D diffusion model requires the knowledge of a diffusion coefficient and an electron loss timescale, which is typically parameterized in terms of various quantities such as the spatial (L) coordinate or a geomagnetic index (e.g., Kp). These terms are typically empirically derived, not dire ...

Sarma, Rakesh; Chandorkar, Mandar; Zhelavskaya, Irina; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander; Camporeale, Enrico;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027618

radial diffusion; Magnetosphere; Bayesian inference; Van Allen radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

The Relation Between Electron Cyclotron Harmonic Waves and Plasmapause: Case and Statistical Studies

Abstract Observationally, electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are often terminated at the outer boundary of the plasmasphere boundary layer (PBL, i.e., plasmapause). Physics of this empirical relation is not well established. In this study, two categories of ECH waves are shown by their different behaviors near PBL. For Category I, all bands of ECH waves terminate at PBL because the density ratio (nh/nc) between hot and cold electrons decreases dramatically across PBL. For Category II, ECH waves, especially the lower har ...

Liu, Xu; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2020GL087365

two types of ECH wave; Plasmapause; instability; excitation and attenuation mechanism; statistical characteristics of two types of ECH wave; Van Allen Probes

The Effect of Plasma Boundaries on the Dynamic Evolution of Relativistic Radiation Belt Electrons

Abstract Understanding the dynamic evolution of relativistic electrons in the Earth s radiation belts during both storm and nonstorm times is a challenging task. The U.S. National Science Foundation s Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) focus group “Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling” has selected two storm time and two nonstorm time events that occurred during the second year of the Van Allen Probes mission for in-depth study. Here, we perform simulations for these GEM challenge events using the 3D Versa ...

Wang, Dedong; Shprits, Yuri; Zhelavskaya, Irina; Effenberger, Frederic; Castillo, Angelica; Drozdov, Alexander; Aseev, Nikita; Cervantes, Sebastian;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027422

Radiation belt; simulation; relativistic electrons; magnetopause shadowing; Wave-particle interaction; Plasmapause; Van Allen Probes

Localization of the Source of Quasiperiodic VLF Emissions in the Magnetosphere by Using Simultaneous Ground and Space Observations: A Case Study

Abstract We study quasiperiodic very low frequency (VLF) emissions observed simultaneously by Van Allen Probes spacecraft and Kannuslehto and Lovozero ground-based stations on 25 December 2015. Both Van Allen Probes A and B detected quasiperiodic emissions, probably originated from a common source, and observed on the ground. In order to locate possible regions of wave generation, we analyze wave-normal angles with respect to the geomagnetic field, Poynting flux direction, and cyclotron instability growth rate calculated by ...

Demekhov, A.; Titova, E.; Maninnen, J.; Pasmanik, D.; Lubchich, A.; Santolik, O.; Larchenko, A.; Nikitenko, A.; Turunen, T.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2020JA027776

quasiperiodic VLF emissions; Cyclotron instability; wave propagation; Magnetosphere; whistler mode waves; Van Allen Probes

Bayesian Inference of Quasi-Linear Radial Diffusion Parameters using Van Allen Probes

The Van Allen radiation belts in the magnetosphere have been extensively studied using models based on radial diffusion theory, which is derived from a quasi-linear approach with prescribed inner and outer boundary conditions. The 1D diffusion model requires the knowledge of a diffusion coefficient and an electron loss timescale, which is typically parameterized in terms of various quantities such as the spatial (L) coordinate or a geomagnetic index (e.g., Kp). These terms are typically empirically derived, not directly meas ...

Sarma, Rakesh; Chandorkar, Mandar; Zhelavskaya, Irina; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander; Camporeale, Enrico;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA027618

radial diffusion; Magnetosphere; Bayesian inference; Van Allen radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

The Relation Between Electron Cyclotron Harmonic Waves and Plasmapause: Case and Statistical Studies

Observationally, electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are often terminated at the outer boundary of the plasmasphere boundary layer (PBL, i.e., plasmapause). Physics of this empirical relation is not well established. In this study, two categories of ECH waves are shown by their different behaviors near PBL. For Category I, all bands of ECH waves terminate at PBL because the density ratio (nh/nc) between hot and cold electrons decreases dramatically across PBL. For Category II, ECH waves, especially the lower harmonic ban ...

Liu, Xu; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087365

two types of ECH wave; Plasmapause; instability; excitation and attenuation mechanism; statistical characteristics of two types of ECH wave; Van Allen Probes

The Effect of Plasma Boundaries on the Dynamic Evolution of Relativistic Radiation Belt Electrons

Understanding the dynamic evolution of relativistic electrons in the Earth s radiation belts during both storm and nonstorm times is a challenging task. The U.S. National Science Foundation s Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) focus group “Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling” has selected two storm time and two nonstorm time events that occurred during the second year of the Van Allen Probes mission for in-depth study. Here, we perform simulations for these GEM challenge events using the 3D Versatile Elec ...

Wang, Dedong; Shprits, Yuri; Zhelavskaya, Irina; Effenberger, Frederic; Castillo, Angelica; Drozdov, Alexander; Aseev, Nikita; Cervantes, Sebastian;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA027422

Radiation belt; simulation; relativistic electrons; magnetopause shadowing; Wave-particle interaction; Plasmapause; Van Allen Probes

Localization of the Source of Quasiperiodic VLF Emissions in the Magnetosphere by Using Simultaneous Ground and Space Observations: A Case Study

We study quasiperiodic very low frequency (VLF) emissions observed simultaneously by Van Allen Probes spacecraft and Kannuslehto and Lovozero ground-based stations on 25 December 2015. Both Van Allen Probes A and B detected quasiperiodic emissions, probably originated from a common source, and observed on the ground. In order to locate possible regions of wave generation, we analyze wave-normal angles with respect to the geomagnetic field, Poynting flux direction, and cyclotron instability growth rate calculated by using the ...

Demekhov, A.; Titova, E.; Maninnen, J.; Pasmanik, D.; Lubchich, A.; Santolik, O.; Larchenko, A.; Nikitenko, A.; Turunen, T.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA027776

quasiperiodic VLF emissions; Cyclotron instability; wave propagation; Magnetosphere; whistler mode waves; Van Allen Probes

A Multi-Instrument Approach to Determining the Source-Region Extent of EEP-Driving EMIC Waves

Abstract Recent years have seen debate regarding the ability of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves to drive EEP (energetic electron precipitation) into the Earth s atmosphere. Questions still remain regarding the energies and rates at which these waves are able to interact with electrons. Many studies have attempted to characterize these interactions using simulations; however, these are limited by a lack of precise information regarding the spatial scale size of EMIC activity regions. In this study we examine a fort ...

Hendry, A.; Santolik, O.; Miyoshi, Y.; Matsuoka, A.; Rodger, C.; Clilverd, M.; Kletzing, C.; Shoji, M.; Shinohara, I.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086599

EMIC waves; electron precipitation; subionospheric VLF; Van Allen Probes; AARDDVARK; Arase

Global Simulation of Electron Cyclotron Harmonic Wave Instability in a Storm-Time Magnetosphere

Abstract Electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are electrostatic emissions between the ECHs and play a dominant role for precipitating energetic electrons in the magnetotail. Statistically, the ECH wave intensity is stronger at nightside and dawnside than at dayside and duskside. In this study, we, for the first time, simulate the global ECH wave evolution during a geomagnetic storm event using Ring current Atmosphere interactions Model with Self-Consistent Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combined with a linear growth rate solver ...

Liu, Xu; Chen, Lunjin; Engel, Miles; Jordanova, Vania;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL086368

ECH wave global instability; RAM-SCB model; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Comprehensive Observations of Substorm-Enhanced Plasmaspheric Hiss Generation, Propagation, and Dissipation

Plasmaspheric hiss is an important whistler-mode emission shaping the Van Allen radiation belt environment. How the plasmaspheric hiss waves are generated, propagate, and dissipate remains under intense debate. With the five spacecraft of Van Allen Probes, Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (Arase), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites missions at widely spaced locations, we present here the first comprehensive observations of hiss waves growing from the substorm-injected electron instabi ...

Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Shinohara, Iku; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Matsuda, Shoya; Shoji, Masafumi; Mitani, Takefumi; Takashima, Takeshi; Kazama, Yoichi; Wang, Bo-Jhou; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Jun, Chae-Woo; Chang, Tzu-Fang; W. Y. Tam, Sunny; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Ayako;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086040

plasmasphere; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes; Wave Dissipation; wave generation; wave propagation

Direct evidence of the pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons induced by EMIC waves

In this study, we analyze an EMIC wave event of rising tone elements recorded by the Van Allen Probes. The pitch angle distributions of relativistic electrons exhibit a direct response to the two elements of EMIC waves: at the intermediate pitch angle the fluxes are lower and at the low pitch angle the fluxes are higher than those when no EMIC was observed. In particular, the observed changes in the pitch angle distributions are most likely to be caused by nonlinear wave particle interaction. The calculation of the minimum r ...

Zhu, Hui; Chen, Lunjin; Claudepierre, Seth; Zheng, Liheng;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL085637

EMIC waves; nonlinear wave-particle interaction; pitch angle scattering; Van Allen Probes

Direct evidence of the pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons induced by EMIC waves

In this study, we analyze an EMIC wave event of rising tone elements recorded by the Van Allen Probes. The pitch angle distributions of relativistic electrons exhibit a direct response to the two elements of EMIC waves: at the intermediate pitch angle the fluxes are lower and at the low pitch angle the fluxes are higher than those when no EMIC was observed. In particular, the observed changes in the pitch angle distributions are most likely to be caused by nonlinear wave particle interaction. The calculation of the minimum r ...

Zhu, Hui; Chen, Lunjin; Claudepierre, Seth; Zheng, Liheng;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL085637

EMIC waves; nonlinear wave-particle interaction; pitch angle scattering; Van Allen Probes

Episodic Occurrence of Field-Aligned Energetic Ions on the Dayside

The tens of kiloelectron volt ions observed in the ring current region at L ~ 3\textendash7 generally have pancake pitch angle distributions, that is, peaked at 90\textdegree. However, in this study, by using the Van Allen Probe observations on the dayside, unexpectedly, we have found that about 5\% time, protons with energies of ~30 to 50 keV show two distinct populations, having an additional field-aligned population overlapping with the original pancake population. The newly appearing field-aligned populations have higher ...

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Zou, Shasha; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Foster, John; Coppeans, Thomas; Ma, Qianli; Zong, Qiugang; Hull, A.; Henderson, Mike; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2020

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086384

Van Allen Probes

Comprehensive Observations of Substorm-Enhanced Plasmaspheric Hiss Generation, Propagation, and Dissipation

Abstract Plasmaspheric hiss is an important whistler-mode emission shaping the Van Allen radiation belt environment. How the plasmaspheric hiss waves are generated, propagate, and dissipate remains under intense debate. With the five spacecraft of Van Allen Probes, Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (Arase), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites missions at widely spaced locations, we present here the first comprehensive observations of hiss waves growing from the substorm-injected electro ...

Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Shinohara, Iku; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Matsuda, Shoya; Shoji, Masafumi; Mitani, Takefumi; Takashima, Takeshi; Kazama, Yoichi; Wang, Bo-Jhou; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Jun, Chae-Woo; Chang, Tzu-Fang; W. Y. Tam, Sunny; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Ayako;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL086040

Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belt; plasmasphere; wave generation; wave propagation; Wave Dissipation

Statistical Dependence of EMIC Wave Scattering on Wave and Plasma Parameters

Abstract A recent statistical study (Qin et al., 2018, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JA025419) has suggested that not all electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can scatter relativistic electrons. However, knowledge of the factors that influence the EMIC wave scattering efficiency is still limited in observations. In our study, we perform 6 years of analysis of data from 2013 to 2018, with relativistic electron precipitation (REP) observed by POES and EMIC wave observations from Van Allen Probes. The coincidence occurrence ...

Qin, Murong; Hudson, Mary; Millan, Robyn; Woodger, Leslie; Shen, Xiaochen;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on:

YEAR: 2020     DOI: 10.1029/2020JA027772

EMIC waves; relativistic electron precipitation; coincidence occurrence rate; parametric dependence; Van Allen Probes

2019

On the Observation of Electrostatic Harmonics Associated With EMIC Waves

In this study, we report two events of electrostatic harmonics associated with electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves recorded by the Van Allen Probes. Based on the wave and plasma measurements, the wave features are investigated and the possible generation mechanism is discussed. The frequencies of these electrostatic emissions are at the integer and fractional frequencies of the fundamental EMIC waves, which can be across and above the local proton gyrofrequencies. When the frequencies increase, the electric power spec ...

Zhu, Hui; Chen, Lunjin;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 12/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL085528

EMIC waves; Harmonics; Van Allen Probes

Direct Observation of Subrelativistic Electron Precipitation Potentially Driven by EMIC Waves

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are known to typically cause electron losses into Earth\textquoterights upper atmosphere at >~1 MeV, while the minimum energy of electrons subject to efficient EMIC-driven precipitation loss is unresolved. This letter reports electron precipitation from subrelativistic energies of ~250 keV up to ~1 MeV observed by the Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range and Dynamics (FIREBIRD-II) CubeSats, while two Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) ...

Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Chen, L.; Shen, X.-C.; Spence, H.; Sample, J.; Johnson, A.; Shumko, M.; Klumpar, D.; Redmon, R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084202

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; FIREBIRD-II; quasi linear theory; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions

Direct Observation of Subrelativistic Electron Precipitation Potentially Driven by EMIC Waves

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are known to typically cause electron losses into Earth\textquoterights upper atmosphere at >~1 MeV, while the minimum energy of electrons subject to efficient EMIC-driven precipitation loss is unresolved. This letter reports electron precipitation from subrelativistic energies of ~250 keV up to ~1 MeV observed by the Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range and Dynamics (FIREBIRD-II) CubeSats, while two Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) ...

Capannolo, L.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Chen, L.; Shen, X.-C.; Spence, H.; Sample, J.; Johnson, A.; Shumko, M.; Klumpar, D.; Redmon, R.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084202

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; FIREBIRD-II; quasi linear theory; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions

Eastward Propagating Second Harmonic Poloidal Waves Triggered by Temporary Outward Gradient of Proton Phase Space Density: Van Allen Probe A Observation

Two wave packets of second harmonic poloidal Pc 4 waves with a wave frequency of ~7 mHz were detected by Van Allen Probe A at a radial distance of ~5.8 RE and magnetic local time of 13 hr near the magnetic equator, where plasmaspheric refilling was in progress. Proton butterfly distributions with energy dispersions were also measured at the same time; the proton fluxes at 10-30 keV oscillated with the same frequency as the Pc 4 waves. Using the ion sounding technique, we find that the Pc 4 waves propagated eastward with an a ...

Yamamoto, K.; e, Nos\; Keika, K.; Hartley, D.P.; Smith, C.W.; MacDowall, R.J.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Mitchell, D.G.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.; Wygant, J.R.; Bonnell, J.W.; Oimatsu, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA027158

drift-bounce resonance; Geomagnetic storm; plasmasphere; ring current; substorm; ULF wave; Van Allen Probes

Effects of a Realistic O + Source on Modeling the Ring Current

We use the UNH-IMEF electric field model to simulate the convection of O+ from the near-earth plasma sheet into the ring current during the March 17, 2015 storm. Using Van Allen Probes data from the night side apogee, we reconstruct a realistic O+ source. Modeling this storm using the UNH-IMEF electric field and a dipole magnetic field has previously been found to have good agreement. Using the realistic source along with drift times and charge exchange loss from these results, we model an inbound pass near the peak of the s ...

Menz, A.M.; Kistler, L.M.; Mouikis, C.G.; Spence, H.E.; Henderson, M.G.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026859

Van Allen Probes

Identifying STEVE\textquoterights Magnetospheric Driver Using Conjugate Observations in the Magnetosphere and on the Ground

The magnetospheric driver of strong thermal emission velocity enhancement (STEVE) is investigated using conjugate observations when Van Allen Probes\textquoteright footprint directly crossed both STEVE and stable red aurora (SAR) arc. In the ionosphere, STEVE is associated with subauroral ion drift features, including electron temperature peak, density gradient, and westward ion flow. The SAR arc at lower latitudes corresponds to regions inside the plasmapause with isotropic plasma heating, which causes redline-only SAR emis ...

Chu, Xiangning; Malaspina, David; Gallardo-Lacourt, Bea; Liang, Jun; Andersson, Laila; Ma, Qianli; Artemyev, Anton; Liu, Jiang; Ergun, Robert; Thaller, Scott; Akbari, Hassanali; Zhao, Hong; Larsen, Brian; Reeves, Geoffrey; Wygant, John; Breneman, Aaron; Tian, Sheng; Connors, Martin; Donovan, Eric; Archer, William; MacDonald, Elizabeth;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082789

aurora; kinetic Alfven wave; Plasmapause; STEVE; subauroral ion drift; table red auroral arc; Van Allen Probes

Remote Detection of Drift Resonance Between Energetic Electrons and Ultralow Frequency Waves: Multisatellite Coordinated Observation by Arase and Van Allen Probes

We report the electron flux modulations without corresponding magnetic fluctuations from unique multipoint satellite observations of the Arase (Exploration of Energization and Radiation in Geospace) and the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probe [RBSP])-B satellites. On 30 March 2017, both Arase and RBSP-B observed periodic fluctuations in the relativistic electron flux with energies ranging from 500 keV to 2 MeV when they were located near the magnetic equator in the morning and dusk local time sectors, respectively. A ...

Teramoto, M.; Hori, T.; Saito, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kurita, S.; Higashio, N.; Matsuoka, A.; Kasahara, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Takashima, T.; Nomura, R.; e, Nos\; Fujimoto, A.; Tanaka, Y.-M.; Shoji, M.; Tsugawa, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Shinohara, I.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.F.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Turner, D.; Kletzing, C.; Sormakov, D.; Troshichev, O.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 11/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084379

Van Allen Probes

Characteristics and Generation of Low-Frequency Magnetosonic Waves Below the Proton Gyrofrequency

We report a Van Allen Probes observation of large-amplitude magnetosonic waves with the peak intensity below the proton gyrofrequency (fcp), which may potentially be misinterpreted as electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The frequency spacing of the wave harmonic structure suggests that these magnetosonic waves are excited at a distant source region and propagate radially inward. We also conduct a statistical analysis of low-frequency magnetosonic waves below fcp based on the Van Allen Probes data from October 2012 to Decemb ...

Teng, Shangchun; Li, Wen; Tao, Xin; Ma, Qianli; Shen, Xiaochen;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 10/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL085372

Below the proton gyrofrequency; Low frequency magnetosonic wave; Van Allen Probes; wave generation; Wave propagation characteristics

The Storm-Time Ring Current Response to ICMEs and CIRs Using Van Allen Probe Observations

Using Van Allen Probe observations of the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs), we characterize the impact of these drivers on the storm-time ring current development. Using 25 ICME- and 35 CIR-driven storms, we have determined the ring current pressure development during the prestorm, main, early-recovery, and late-recovery storm phases, as a function of magnetic local time, L shell and ion species (H+, He+, and O+) ov ...

Mouikis, C.; Bingham, S.; Kistler, L.; Farrugia, C.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Mitchell, D.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026695

ICME vs CI; R Ion composition; Ring Current Pressure; Storm phases; Van Allen Probes

Modeling the Electron Flux Enhancement and Butterfly Pitch Angle Distributions on L Shells <2.5

We analyze an energetic electron flux enhancement event in the inner radiation belt observed by Van Allen Probes during an intense geomagnetic storm. The energetic electron flux at L~1.5 increased by a factor of 3 with pronounced butterfly pitch angle distributions (PADs). Using a three-dimensional radiation belt model, we simulate the electron evolution under the impact of radial diffusion, local wave-particle interactions including hiss, very low frequency transmitters, and magnetosonic waves, as well as Coulomb scattering ...

Hua, Man; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Ni, Binbin; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Shen, Xiao-Chen; Li, Haimeng;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084822

3-D radial belt modeling; Butterfly pitch angle distribution; Electron flux enhancement; inner belt and slot region; Inward radial diffusion; local wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

Analyzing EMIC Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere Using Long-Term Van Allen Probes Observations

With 64-month magnetic data from Van Allen Probes, we have studied not only the global distribution, wave normal angle (θ), and ellipticity (ε) of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, but also the dependence of their occurrence rates and magnetic amplitudes on the AE* index (the mean value of AE index over previous 1 hr). Our results show that H+ band waves are preferentially detected at 5 <= L <= 6.5, in the noon sector. They typically have small θ (<30\textdegree) and weakly left-hand polarization but become more ...

Chen, Huayue; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Shui;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026965

A long-term statistical work; EMIC wave; inner magnetosphere; spatial distribution; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation; Wave fundamental characters

Global Occurrences of Auroral Kilometric Radiation Related to Suprathermal Electrons in Radiation Belts

Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) can potentially produce serious damage to space-borne systems by accelerating trapped radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Here we examine the global occurrences of AKR emissions in radiation belts based on Van Allen Probes observations from 1 October 2012 to 31 December 2016. The statistical results (1,848 events in total) show that AKR covers a broad region of L= 3\textendash6.5 and 00\textendash24 magnetic local time (MLT), with a higher occurrence on the nightside (20\text ...

Zhao, Wanli; Liu, Si; Zhang, Sai; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; He, Yihua; Gao, Zhonglei; Xiao, Fuliang;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083944

Auroral kilometric radiation; global occurrence; Radiation belt; suprathermal electron flux enhancenments; Van Allen Probes

Temperature Dependence of Plasmaspheric Ion Composition

We analyze a database of Dynamics Explorer-1 (DE-1) Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer densities and temperatures to yield the first explicit measure of how cold ion concentration depends on temperature. We find that cold H+ and He+ concentrations have very weak dependence on temperature, but cold O+ ion concentration increases steeply as these ions become warmer. We demonstrate how this result can aid in analyzing composition data from other satellites without spacecraft potential mitigation, by applying the result to an examp ...

Goldstein, J.; Gallagher, D.; Craven, P.; Comfort, R.; Genestreti, K.; Mouikis, C.; Spence, H.; Kurth, W.; Wygant, J.; Skoug, R.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; De Pascuale, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026822

composition; plasmasphere: ion; temperature; Van Allen Probes

The Magnetospheric Driving Source of Double-Peak Subauroral Ion Drifts: Double Ring Current Pressure Peaks

Double-peak subauroral ion drifts (DSAIDs), characterized by two high-speed flow channels, is a newly identified flow structure in the subauroral ionosphere. He et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL069133) proposed that two region 2 field-aligned currents (R2 FACs) might cause the DSAIDs. However, the underlying physical process that drives the double R2 FACs is unknown. This study reports a DSAIDs event and reveals its magnetospheric drivers. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F18 satellite observed DSAIDs in t ...

Wei, Dong; Yu, Yiqun; He, Fei;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083186

Van Allen Probes

Statistical analysis on plasmatrough exohiss waves from the Van Allen Probes

In this study using Van Allen Probe wave observations we investigate the statistical properties of exohiss waves, which are structureless whistler mode waves observed outside the plasmapause. The exohiss waves are identified based on the cold electron number density, frequency distribution, ellipticity, and wave normal angle. The statistical analysis on exohiss wave properties shows that exohiss waves prefer to occur over 3

Zhu, Hui; Gu, Wenyao; Chen, Lunjin;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026359

Exohiss; leaking process; Van Allen Probes

Characteristics of high energy proton responses to geomagnetic activities in the inner radiation belt observed by the RBSP satellite

High energy trapped particles in the radiation belts constitute potential threats to the functionality of satellites as they enter into those regions. In the inner radiation belt, the characteristics of high-energy (>20MeV) protons variations during geomagnetic activity times have been studied by implementing four-year (2013-2016) observations of the Van Allen probes. An empirical formula has been used to remove the satellite orbit effect, by which proton fluxes have been normalized to the geomagnetic equator. Case studies s ...

Xu, Jiyao; He, Zhaohai; Baker, D.N.; Roth, Ilan; Wang, C.; Kanekal, S.G.; Jaynes, A.N.; Liu, Xiao;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026205

geomagnetic activities; high energy proton; Inner radiation belt; one-to-one correspondence; prompt responses; RBSP satellite; Van Allen Probes

Conjugate Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Observations of a Sub-Alfv\ enic Compressional Intermediate- m Wave: A Case Study Using EKB Radar and Van Allen Probes

A Pc5 wave was simultaneously observed in the ionosphere by EKB radar and in the magnetosphere by both Van Allen Probe spacecraft within a substorm activity. The wave was located in the nightside, in 1.5- to 3-hr magnetic local time sector, and in the region corresponding to the magnetic shells with maximal distances 4.6\textendash7.8 Earth\textquoterights radii. As it was found using both the radar and spacecraft data, the wave had frequency of about 1.8 mHz and azimuthal wave number m≈-10; that is, the wave was westward ...

Mager, Olga; Chelpanov, Maksim; Mager, Pavel; Klimushkin, Dmitri; Berngardt, Oleg;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026541

compressional waves; Pc5; poloidal waves; SUPERDARN; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

Diffuse Auroral Electron and Ion Precipitation Effects on RCM-E Comparisons with Satellite Data During the March 17, 2013 Storm

Effects of scattering of electrons from whistler chorus waves and of ions due to field line curvature on diffuse precipitating particle fluxes and ionospheric conductance during the large 17 March 2013 storm are examined using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model Equilibrium (RCM-E) model. Electrons are found to dominate the diffuse precipitating particle integrated energy flux, with large fluxes from ~21:00 magnetic local time (MLT) eastward to ~11:00 MLT during the storm main phase. Simulated proton and oxygen ion pre ...

Chen, Margaret; Lemon, Colby; Hecht, James; Sazykin, Stanislav; Wolf, Richard; Boyd, Alexander; Valek, Philip;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026545

diffuse aurora; electron and ion precipitation; field-line curvature scattering; inner magnetospheric electric field; ionospheric conductance; simulations and data comparisons; Van Allen Probes

Diffuse Auroral Electron and Ion Precipitation Effects on RCM-E Comparisons with Satellite Data During the March 17, 2013 Storm

Effects of scattering of electrons from whistler chorus waves and of ions due to field line curvature on diffuse precipitating particle fluxes and ionospheric conductance during the large 17 March 2013 storm are examined using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model Equilibrium (RCM-E) model. Electrons are found to dominate the diffuse precipitating particle integrated energy flux, with large fluxes from ~21:00 magnetic local time (MLT) eastward to ~11:00 MLT during the storm main phase. Simulated proton and oxygen ion pre ...

Chen, Margaret; Lemon, Colby; Hecht, James; Sazykin, Stanislav; Wolf, Richard; Boyd, Alexander; Valek, Philip;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026545

diffuse aurora; electron and ion precipitation; field-line curvature scattering; inner magnetospheric electric field; ionospheric conductance; simulations and data comparisons; Van Allen Probes

Generation of EMIC Waves and Effects on Particle Precipitation During a Solar Wind Pressure Intensification with B z >

During geomagnetic storms, some fraction of the solar wind energy is coupled via reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, a process that requires a southward interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Through a complex sequence of events, some of this energy ultimately drives the generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, which can then scatter energetic electrons and ions from the radiation belts. In the event described in this paper, the interplanetary magnetic field remained northward throughout the event, a condit ...

Lessard, Marc; Paulson, Kristoff; Spence, Harlan; Weaver, Carol; Engebretson, Mark; Millan, Robyn; Woodger, Leslie; Halford, Alexa; Horne, Richard; Rodger, Craig; Hendry, Aaron;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2019

YEAR: 2019     DOI: 10.1029/2019JA026477

Van Allen Probes



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