Bibliography





Van Allen Probes Bibliography is from August 2012 through September 2021

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Found 134 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 51 through 100


2016

Control of the innermost electron radiation belt by large-scale electric fields

Electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instruments on Van Allen Probes, for kinetic energies \~100 to 400 keV, show characteristic dynamical features of the innermost ( inline image) radiation belt: rapid injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra. There are also periods of steady or slowly increasing intensity and of fast decay following injections. Local time asymmetry, with higher intensity near dawn, is interpreted as evidence for drift shell distortion by a convection electric field ...

Selesnick, R.; Su, Y.-J.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022973

electric field; electrons; Inner radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Energy limits of electron acceleration in the plasma sheet during substorms: A case study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

We present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASA\textquoterights Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at ~7\textendash9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially ...

Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Clemmons, J.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I.; Jaynes, A.; Craft, J.; Wilder, F.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Dorelli, J.; Giles, B.; Pollock, C.; Schmid, D.; Nakamura, R.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.; Artemyev, A.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Burch, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069691

energetic particle injections; magnetotail; Particle acceleration; plasma sheet; reconnection; substorm; Van Allen Probes

Formation of the inner electron radiation belt by enhanced large-scale electric fields

A two-dimensional bounce-averaged test particle code was developed to examine trapped electron trajectories during geomagnetic storms with the assumption of conservation of the first and second adiabatic invariants. The March 2013 storm was selected as an example because the geomagnetic activity Kp index sharply increased from 2 + to 7- at 6:00 UT on 17 March. Electron measurements with energies between 37 and 460 keV from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument onboard Van Allen Probes (VAP) are used as i ...

Su, Yi-Jiun; Selesnick, Richard; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022881

DC electric fields; electron injections; Inner radiation belt; test particle simulation; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes electron measurements

Prompt acceleration of magnetospheric electrons to ultrarelativistic energies by the 17 March 2015 interplanetary shock

Trapped electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impac ...

Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.; Li, X.; Turner, D.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S.; Wilson, L.; Jaynes, A.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022596

electron; energizaiton; IP shock; ultrarelativsti; Van Allen Probes

The relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons

We quantify the spatial relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons for a 5 day period, 15\textendash20 January 2013, by comparing locations of relativistic electron flux peaks to the plasmapause. A peak-finding algorithm is applied to 1.8\textendash7.7 MeV relativistic electron flux data. A plasmapause gradient finder is applied to wave-derived electron number densities >10 cm-3. We identify two outer belts. Outer belt 1 is a stable zone of >3 MeV electrons located 1\textendash2 RE inside the plasmapause. ...

Goldstein, J.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; De Pascuale, S.; Funsten, H.; Jaynes, A.; Jahn, J.-M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Li, W.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023046

Plasmapause; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; simulation; storm-time dropouts; Van Allen Probes

Direct evidence for EMIC wave scattering of relativistic electrons in space

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause efficient losses of highly relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons via gyroresonant interactions. Simultaneous observations of EMIC waves and equatorial electron pitch angle distributions, which can be used to directly quantify the EMIC wave scattering effect, are still very limited, however. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of EMIC waves on pitch angle scattering of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, wh ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, L.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022521

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; equatorial pitch angle distribution; Fokker-Planck equation; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Inner zone and slot electron radial diffusion revisited

Using recent data from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, we estimate the quiet time radial diffusion coefficients for electrons in the inner radiation belt (L < 3) with energies from ~50 to 750 keV. The observations are consistent with dynamics dominated by pitch angle scattering and radial diffusion. We use a coordinate system in which these two modes of diffusion are separable. Then we integrate phase space density over pitch angle to obtain a \textquotedblleftbundle content\textquotedblright that is invariant to pitc ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Claudepierre, S.; Guild, T.; Fennell, J.; Turner, D.; Blake, J.; Clemmons, J.; Roeder, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069749

Inner zone; radial diffusion; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Nonstorm time dropout of radiation belt electron fluxes on 24 September 2013

Radiation belt electron flux dropouts during the main phase of geomagnetic storms have received increasing attention in recent years. Here we focus on a rarely reported nonstorm time dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes on 24 September 2013. Within several hours, the radiation belt electron fluxes exhibited a significant (up to 2 orders of magnitude) depletion over a wide range of radial distances (L > 4.5), energies (\~500 keV to several MeV) and equatorial pitch angles (0\textdegree<=αe<=180\textdegree). STEERB simu ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zhu, Hui; Li, Wen; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022546

EMIC; numerical modeling; Plasmaspheric Hiss; precipitation loss; radiation belt dropout; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Statistical Properties of the Radiation Belt Seed Population

We present a statistical analysis of phase space density data from the first 26 months of the Van Allen Probes mission. In particular we investigate the relationship between the 10s-100s keV seed electrons and >1 MeV core radiation belt electron population. Using a cross correlation analysis, we find that the seed and core populations are well correlated with a coefficient of ≈ 0.73 with a time lag of 10-15 hours. We present evidence of a seed population threshold that is necessary for subsequent acceleration. The depth of ...

Boyd, A.J.; Spence, H.E.; Huang, C.-L.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Turner, D.L.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Shprits, Y.Y.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022652

Phase space density; Radiation belt; seed population; Van Allen Probes

Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical p ...

Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.; Li, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Kanekal, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Green, J.; Goldstein, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.610.1002/2016JA022400

chorus-driven local acceleration; Electron acceleration; radial diffusion; Van Allen Probes

A telescopic and microscopic examination of acceleration in the June 2015 geomagnetic storm: Magnetospheric Multiscale and Van Allen Probes study of substorm particle injection

An active storm period in June 2015 showed that particle injection events seen sequentially by the four (Magnetospheric Multiscale) MMS spacecraft subsequently fed the enhancement of the outer radiation belt observed by Van Allen Probes mission sensors. Several episodes of significant southward interplanetary magnetic field along with a period of high solar wind speed (Vsw ≳ 500 km/s) on 22 June occurred following strong interplanetary shock wave impacts on the magnetosphere. Key events on 22 June 2015 show that the magnet ...

Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Turner, D.; Nakamura, R.; Schmid, D.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.; Torbert, R.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D.; Giles, B.; Burch, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v43.1210.1002/2016GL069643

Magnetic reconnection; magnetospheres; Radiation belts; substorms; Van Allen Probes

Compressional ULF wave modulation of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere

We present Van Allen Probes observations of modulations in the flux of very energetic electrons up to a few MeV and protons between 1200 - 1400 UT on February 19th, 2014. During this event the spacecraft were in the dayside magnetosphere at L*≈5.5. The modulations extended across a wide range of particle energies, from 79.80 keV to 2.85 MeV for electrons and from 82.85 keV to 636.18 keV for protons. The fluxes of π/2 pitch angle particles were observed to attain maximum values simultaneously with the ULF compressional mag ...

Liu, H.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Fu, S; Rankin, R.; Wang, L.-H.; Yuan, C.; Wang, Y.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022706

Compressional ULF wave; energetic particles; Magnetosphere; Mirror effect; Modulation; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Electron dropout echoes induced by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations

On 23 November 2012, a sudden dropout of the relativistic electron flux was observed after an interplanetary shock arrival. The dropout peaks at \~1MeV and more than 80\% of the electrons disappeared from the drift shell. Van Allen twin Probes observed a sharp electron flux dropout with clear energy dispersion signals. The repeating flux dropout and recovery signatures, or \textquotedblleftdropout echoes\textquotedblright, constitute a new phenomenon referred to as a \textquotedblleftdrifting electron dropout\textquotedblrig ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Fu, S; Rankin, R.; Yuan, C.-J.; T. Y. Lui, A.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069140

Drift shell splitting; electron dropout echo; energetic particle; interplanetary shock; magnetopause shadowing; solar wind-magnetospheric coupling; Van Allen Probes

Simulation of energy-dependent electron diffusion processes in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt

The radial and local diffusion processes induced by various plasma waves govern the highly energetic electron dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts, causing distinct characteristics in electron distributions at various energies. In this study, we present our simulation results of the energetic electron evolution during a geomagnetic storm using the University of California, Los Angeles 3-D diffusion code. Following the plasma sheet electron injections, the electrons at different energy bands detected by the M ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Zhang, X.-J.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Henderson, M.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022507

electron acceleration and loss; energy-dependent diffusion; radial diffusion; radiation belt simulation; Van Allen Probes

Ring current electron dynamics during geomagnetic storms based on the Van Allen Probes measurements

Based on comprehensive measurements from Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron Mass Spectrometer Ion Spectrometer, Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope, and Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment instruments on the Van Allen Probes, comparative studies of ring current electrons and ions are performed and the role of energetic electrons in the ring current dynamics is investigated. The deep injections of tens to hundreds of keV electrons and tens of keV protons into the inner magnetosphere occur frequently; a ...

Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Baker, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022358

deep injections; Geomagnetic storms; ring current; ring current energy content; ring current electrons; Van Allen Probes

Ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions created by parallel acceleration due to magnetosonic waves

The Van Allen Probe observations during the recovery phase of a large storm that occurred on 17 March 2015 showed that the ultrarelativistic electrons at the inner boundary of the outer radiation belt (L* = 2.6\textendash3.7) exhibited butterfly pitch angle distributions, while the inner belt and the slot region also showed evidence of sub-MeV electron butterfly distributions. Strong magnetosonic waves were observed in the same regions and at the same time periods as these butterfly distributions. Moreover, when these magnet ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Baker, Daniel; Reeves, Geoffrey; Fennell, Joseph; Spence, Harlan; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Blake, Bernard.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022370

butterfly distributions; Landau resonance; magnetosonic waves; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Charged particle behavior in the growth and damping stages of ultralow frequency waves: theory and Van Allen Probes observations

Ultralow frequency (ULF) electromagnetic waves in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere can accelerate charged particles via a process called drift resonance. In the conventional drift-resonance theory, a default assumption is that the wave growth rate is time-independent, positive, and extremely small. However, this is not the case for ULF waves in the real magnetosphere. The ULF waves must have experienced an earlier growth stage when their energy was taken from external and/or internal sources, and as time proceeds the wave ...

Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Wang, Zi-Han; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Rankin, Robert; Kivelson, Margaret; Chen, Xing-Ran; Blake, Bernard; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022447

drift resonance; Radiation belt; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; wave growth and damping; Wave-particle interaction

The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor: Comparison of electron measurements with Van Allen Probes data

Energetic electron observations in Earth\textquoterights radiation belts are typically sparse and multi-point studies often rely on serendipitous conjunctions. This paper establishes the scientific utility of the Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), currently flown on 19 satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation, by cross-calibrating energetic electron measurements against data from the Van Allen Probes. By breaking our cross-calibration into two parts \textendash one that removes any spectral assumptions fr ...

Morley, Steven; Sullivan, John; Henderson, Michael; Blake, Bernard; Baker, Daniel;

Published by: Space Weather      Published on: 02/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001339

Global Positioning System; Van Allen Probes

Relativistic electron microbursts and variations in trapped MeV electron fluxes during the 8-9 October 2012 storm: SAMPEX and Van Allen Probes observations

It has been suggested that whistler mode chorus is responsible for both acceleration of MeV electrons and relativistic electron microbursts through resonant wave-particle interactions. Relativistic electron microbursts have been considered as an important loss mechanism of radiation belt electrons. Here we report on the observations of relativistic electron microbursts and flux variations of trapped MeV electrons during the 8\textendash9 October 2012 storm, using the SAMPEX and Van Allen Probes satellites. Observations by th ...

Kurita, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Blake, Bernard; Reeves, Geoffery; Kletzing, Craig;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068260

Radiation belts; relativistic electron microbursts; relativistic electrons; SAMPEX; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus

Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster Observations of EMIC waves, ULF pulsations, and an electron flux dropout

We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12\textendash14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, THEMIS-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 hours from 12\textendash14 November. For energies of 0.8 ...

Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, Robert; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoff; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Green, J.; Singer, H.; Carr, C.; ik, O.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2016

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020877

Dst Effect; Electron Flux Dropouts; EMIC waves; magnetopause shadowing; ULF Pulsations; Van Allen Probes

2015

Survey of radiation belt energetic electron pitch angle distributions based on the Van Allen Probes MagEIS measurements

A statistical survey of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) is performed based on the pitch angle resolved flux observations from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument on board the Van Allen Probes during the period from 1 October 2012 to 1 May 2015. By fitting the measured PADs to a sinnα form, where α is the local pitch angle and n is the power law index, we investigate the dependence of PADs on electron kinetic energy, magnetic local time (MLT), the geomagnetic Kp index and L-shell. The differ ...

Shi, Run; Summers, Danny; Ni, Binbin; Fennell, Joseph; Blake, Bernard; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoffrey;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021724

pitch angle distributions; Van Allen Probes

Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons

Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definit ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y.-X.; Gao, Zhonglei; He, Zhaoguo; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Nature Communications      Published on: 12/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10096

Van Allen Probes

Energy dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions.

We present observations of the radiation belts from the HOPE and MagEIS particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy-dependence and L-shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on March 1 in more detail. The observations show: (a) At all L-shells, lower-energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) Events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) Enhancements of electrons in the inner ...

Reeves, Geoffrey; Friedel, Reiner; Larsen, Brian; Skoug, Ruth; Funsten, Herbert; Claudepierre, Seth; Fennell, Joseph; Turner, Drew; Denton, Mick; Spence, H.; Blake, Bernard; Baker, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021569

Acceleration; energetic particles; Inner zone; Outer Zone; Radiation belts; Slot region; Van Allen Probes

Multiple loss processes of relativistic electrons outside the heart of outer radiation belt during a storm sudden commencement

By examining the compression-induced changes in the electron phase space density and pitch angle distribution observed by two satellites of Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A/B), we find that the relativistic electrons (>2MeV) outside the heart of outer radiation belt (L*>= 5) undergo multiple losses during a storm sudden commencement (SSC). The relativistic electron loss mainly occurs in the field-aligned direction (pitch angle α< 30\textdegree or >150\textdegree), and the flux decay of the field-aligned electrons is independent of ...

Yu, J.; Li, L.Y.; Cao, J.; Yuan, Z.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Spence, H.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021460

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves; outer radiation belt; Outward radial diffusion driven by ULF waves; Plasmaspheric Hiss; relativistic electron loss; Storm sudden commencement; Van Allen Probes

Internal Charging Hazards in Near-Earth Space during Solar Cycle 24 Maximum: Van Allen Probes Measurements

The Van Allen Probes mission provides an unprecedented opportunity to make detailed measurements of electrons and protons in the inner magnetosphere during the weak solar maximum period of cycle 24. Data from the MagEIS suite of sensors measures energy spectra, fluxes, and yields electron deposition rates that can cause internal charging. We use omni-directional fluxes of electrons and protons to calculate the dose under varying materials and thicknesses of shielding (similar to Fennell et al., 2010). We show examples of cha ...

Skov, Mulligan; Fennell, J.F.; Roeder, J.L.; Blake, J.B.; Claudepierre, S.G.;

Published by:       Published on: 09/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2015.2468214

Van Allen Probes

Internal Charging Hazards in Near-Earth Space During Solar Cycle 24 Maximum: Van Allen Probes Measurements

The Van Allen Probes mission provides an unprecedented opportunity to make detailed measurements of electrons and protons in the inner magnetosphere during the weak solar maximum period of cycle 24. The MagEIS suite of sensors measures energy spectra and fluxes of charged particles in the space environment. The calculations show that these fluxes result in electron deposition rates high enough to cause internal charging. We use omnidirectional fluxes of electrons and protons to calculate the dose under varying materials and ...

Skov, Tamitha; Fennell, Joseph; Roeder, James; Blake, Bernard; Claudepierre, Seth;

Published by: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science      Published on: 09/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2015.2468214

artificial satellites; dielectric materials; electrons; Energy measurement; MAGEis; Magnetosphere; particle detectors; protons; Van Allen Probes

Penetration of magnetosonic waves into the plasmasphere observed by the Van Allen Probes

During the small storm on 14\textendash15 April 2014, Van Allen Probe A measured a continuously distinct proton ring distribution and enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves along its orbit outside the plasmapause. Inside the plasmasphere, strong MS waves were still present but the distinct proton ring distribution was falling steeply with distance. We adopt a sum of subtracted bi-Maxwellian components to model the observed proton ring distribution and simulate the wave trajectory and growth. MS waves at first propagate toward lowe ...

Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Yihua; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 09/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065745

Geomagnetic storms; magnetosonic waves; proton ring distribution; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probe results; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Relativistic electron response to the combined magnetospheric impact of a coronal mass ejection overlapping with a high-speed stream: Van Allen Probes observations

During early November 2013, the magnetosphere experienced concurrent driving by a coronal mass ejection (CME) during an ongoing high-speed stream (HSS) event. The relativistic electron response to these two kinds of drivers, i.e., HSS and CME, is typically different, with the former often leading to a slower buildup of electrons at larger radial distances, while the latter energizing electrons rapidly with flux enhancements occurring closer to the Earth.We present a detailed analysis of the relativistic electron response inc ...

Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Henderson, M.; Li, W.; Fennell, J.; Zheng, Y.; Richardson, I.; Jones, A.; Ali, A.; Elkington, S.; Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 09/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021395

CME; HSS; Van Allen Probes; IP shock; relativistic electrons

The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements

Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the MagEIS, HOPE, and RBSPICE instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies < 50 keV contribute m ...

Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Rodriguez, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 08/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021533

Geomagnetic storms; Ring current energy content; Ring current ions; The DPS relation; The Dst index; Van Allen Probes

Near-Earth Injection of MeV Electrons associated with Intense Dipolarization Electric Fields: Van Allen Probes observations

Substorms generally inject 10s-100s keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the pre-midnight sector at L\~5.5, Van Allen Probes (RBSP)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50mV/m) over \~40s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to \~3 MeV. P ...

Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew; Reeves, Geoffrey; Funsten, Herbert; Spence, Harlan; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064955

electric fields; radiation belt electrons; substorm dipolarization; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observation and modeling of chorus excitation and propagation during weak geomagnetic activities

We report correlated data on nightside chorus waves and energetic electrons during two small storm periods: 1 November 2012 (Dst≈-45) and 14 January 2013 (Dst≈-18). The Van Allen Probes simultaneously observed strong chorus waves at locations L = 5.8 - 6.3, with a lower frequency band 0.1 - 0.5fce and a peak spectral density \~[10-4 nT2/Hz. In the same period, the fluxes and anisotropy of energetic (\~ 10-300 keV) electrons were greatly enhanced in the interval of large negative interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Using a ...

He, Yihua; Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Baker, D.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021376

chorus wave excitation; energetic electrons; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen probes results; Wave-particle interaction

Correlated Pc4-5 ULF waves, whistler-mode chorus and pulsating aurora observed by the Van Allen Probes and ground-based systems

Theory and observations have linked equatorial VLF waves with pulsating aurora for decades, invoking the process of pitch-angle scattering of 10\textquoterights keV electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere. Recently published satellite studies have strengthened this argument, by showing strong correlation between pulsating auroral patches and both lower-band chorus and 10\textquoterights keV electron modulation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Additionally, a previous link has been made between Pc4-5 compressional p ...

Jaynes, A.; Lessard, M.; Takahashi, K.; Ali, A.; Malaspina, D.; Michell, R.; Spanswick, E.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Cully, C.; Donovan, E.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Samara, M.; Spence, H.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021380

aurora; precipitation; pulsating aurora; substorms; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

The effects of geomagnetic storms on electrons in Earth\textquoterights radiation belts

We use Van Allen Probes data to investigate the responses of 10s of keV to 2 MeV electrons throughout a broad range of the radiation belts (2.5 <= L <= 6.0) during 52 geomagnetic storms from the most recent solar maximum. Electron storm-time responses are highly dependent on both electron energy and L-shell. 10s of keV electrons typically have peak fluxes in the inner belt or near-Earth plasma sheet and fill the inner magnetosphere during storm main phases. ~100 to ~600 keV electrons are enhanced in up to 87\% of cases aroun ...

Turner, D.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Kilpua, E.; Hietala, H.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 07/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064747

electrons; Van Allen Probes; Geomagnetic storms; Radiation belts

A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagE ...

Claudepierre, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Roeder, J.; Clemmons, J.; Looper, M.; Mazur, J.; Mulligan, T.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Larsen, B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021171

Background contamination; Inner radiation belt; outer radiation belt; Particle measurements; Radiation belt; Spacecraft engineering; Van Allen Probes

Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons

Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90\textdegree further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day\textendashnight asymmetry in Earth\textquoterights magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of th ...

Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Nature Communications      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9590

Van Allen Probes

Analysis of plasmaspheric hiss wave amplitudes inferred from low-altitude POES electron data: Technique sensitivity analysis

A novel technique capable of inferring wave amplitudes from low-altitude electron measurements from the POES spacecraft has been previously proposed to construct a global dynamic model of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. In this paper we focus on plasmaspheric hiss, which is an incoherent broadband emission that plays a dominant role in the loss of energetic electrons from the inner magnetosphere. We analyze the sensitivity of the POES technique to different inputs used to infer the hiss wave amplitudes during three conj ...

de Soria-Santacruz, M.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020941

Plasmaspheric Hiss; POES technique; Van Allen Probes; Waves global model

Disappearance of plasmaspheric hiss following interplanetary shock

Plasmaspheric hiss is one of the important plasma waves controlling radiation belt dynamics. Its spatiotemporal distribution and generation mechanism are presently the object of active research. We here give the first report on the shock-induced disappearance of plasmaspheric hiss observed by the Van Allen Probes on 8 October 2013. This special event exhibits the dramatic variability of plasmaspheric hiss and provides a good opportunity to test its generation mechanisms. The origination of plasmaspheric hiss from plasmatroug ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shui; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063906

Cyclotron instability; Cyclotron resonance; interplanetary shock; Landau damping; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Link between pre-midnight second harmonic poloidal waves and auroral undulations: Conjugate observations with a Van Allen Probes spacecraft and a THEMIS all-sky imager

We report, for the first time, an auroral undulation event on 1 May 2013 observed by an all-sky imager (ASI) at Athabasca (L = 4.6), Canada, for which in situ field and particle measurements in the conjugate magnetosphere were available from a Van Allen Probes spacecraft. The ASI observed a train of auroral undulation structures emerging spontaneously in the pre-midnight subauroral ionosphere, during the growth phase of a substorm. The undulations had an azimuthal wavelength of ~180 km and propagated westward at a speed of 3 ...

Motoba, T.; Takahashi, K.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Gkioulidou, M.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Korotova, G.; Donovan, E.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020863

Van Allen Probes

Modeling inward diffusion and slow decay of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt

A new 3D diffusion code is used to investigate the inward intrusion and slow decay of energetic radiation belt electrons (>0.5 MeV) observed by the Van Allen Probes during a 10-day quiet period in March 2013. During the inward transport the peak differential electron fluxes decreased by approximately an order of magnitude at various energies. Our 3D radiation belt simulation including radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by plasmaspheric hiss and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves reproduces the esse ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062977

pitch angle scattering; radiation belts modeling; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observations

Plasmatrough exohiss waves observed by Van Allen Probes: Evidence for leakage from plasmasphere and resonant scattering of radiation belt electrons

Exohiss waves are whistler mode hiss observed in the plasmatrough region. We present a case study of exohiss waves and the corresponding background plasma distributions observed by the Van Allen Probes in the dayside low-latitude region. The analysis of wave Poynting fluxes, suprathermal electron fluxes and cold electron densities supports the scenario that exohiss leaks from the plasmasphere into the plasmatrough. Quasilinear calculations further reveal that exohiss can potentially cause the resonant scattering loss of radi ...

Zhu, Hui; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chao; Xian, Tao; Wang, Shui; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062964

Cyclotron resonance; Exohiss; Landau damping; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belt electron loss; Van Allen Probes

On the use of drift echoes to characterize on-orbit sensor discrepancies

We describe a method for using drift echo signatures in on-orbit data to resolve discrepancies between different measurements of particle flux. The drift period has a well-defined energy dependence, which gives rise to time dispersion of the echoes. The dispersion can then be used to determine the effective energy for one or more channels given each channel\textquoterights drift period and the known energy for a reference channel. We demonstrate this technique on multiple instruments from the Van Allen probes mission. Drift ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.P.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Looper, M.D.; Blake, J.B.; Fennell, J.F.; Clemmons, J.H.; Roeder, J.L.; Kanekal, S.G.; Manweiler, J.W.; Mitchell, D.G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.; Baker, D.N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020859

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes show the inner radiation zone contains no MeV electrons: ECT/MagEIS data

We present Van Allen Probe observations of electrons in the inner radiation zone. The measurements were made by the ECT/MagEIS sensors that were designed to measure electrons with the ability to remove unwanted signals from penetrating protons, providing clean measurements. No electrons >900 keV were observed with equatorial fluxes above background (i.e. >0.1 electrons/(cm2 s sr keV)) in the inner zone. The observed fluxes are compared to the AE9 model and CRRES observations. Electron fluxes <200 keV exceeded the AE9 model 5 ...

Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Clemmons, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062874

inner magnetosphere; Inner radiation belt; Inner zone; trapped electrons; Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity

From a survey of the first nightside season of NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission (Dec/2012 \textendash Sep/2013), 47 energetic (10s to 100s of keV) electron injection events were found at L-shells <= 4, all of which are deeper than any previously reported substorm-related injections. Preliminary details from these events are presented, including how: all occurred shortly after dipolarization signatures and injections were observed at higher L-shells; the deepest observed injection was at L~2.5; and, surprisingly, ...

Turner, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Blake, J.; Lemon, C.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Reeves, G.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Li, W.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225

energetic particle injections; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; substorms; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron Intensity

No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (10s of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable, thus for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there e ...

Li, X.; Selesnick, R.; Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020777

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations linking radiation belt electrons to chorus waves during 2014 multiple storms

During 18 February to 2 March 2014, the Van Allen Probes encountered multiple geomagnetic storms and simultaneously observed intensified chorus and hiss waves. During this period, there were substantial enhancements in fluxes of energetic (53.8 - 108.3 keV) and relativistic (2 - 3.6 MeV) electrons. Chorus waves were excited at locations L = 4 - 6.2 after the fluxes of energetic were greatly enhanced, with a lower frequency band and wave amplitudes \~ 20 - 100 pT. Strong hiss waves occurred primarily in the main phases or bel ...

Liu, Si; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; He, Yihua; Zhou, Qinghua; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020781

Van Allen Probes; magnetopause

2014

Evolution of relativistic outer belt electrons during an extended quiescent period

To effectively study steady loss due to hiss-driven precipitation of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt, it is useful to isolate this loss by studying a time of relatively quiet geomagnetic activity. We present a case of initial enhancement and slow, steady decay of 700 keV - 2 MeV electron populations in the outer radiation belt during an extended quiescent period from ~15 December 2012 - 13 January 2013. We incorporate particle measurements from a constellation of satellites, including the Colorado Student ...

Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Tu, W.; Turner, D.; Ni, B.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Blake, J.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020125

electron lifetime; hiss waves; pitch angle scattering; precipitation loss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Quantifying the relative contributions of substorm injections and chorus waves to the rapid outward extension of electron radiation belt

We study the rapid outward extension of the electron radiation belt on a timescale of several hours during three events observed by RBSP and THEMIS satellites, and particularly quantify the contributions of substorm injections and chorus waves to the electron flux enhancement near the outer boundary of radiation belt. A comprehensive analysis including both observations and simulations is performed for the first event on 26 May 2013. The outer boundary of electron radiation belt moved from L = 5.5 to L > 6.07 over about 6 ho ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Zong, Q.-G.; He, Zhaoguo; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shui; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020709

Chorus wave; Electron acceleration; Radiation belt; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Characteristics of pitch angle distributions of 100 s keV electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt

The pitch angle distribution (PAD) of energetic electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt received little attention in the past decades due to the lack of quality measurements. Using the state-of-art pitch-angle-resolved data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes, a detailed analysis of 100 s keV electron PADs below L = 4 is performed, in which the PADs is categorized into three types: normal (flux peaking at 90o), cap (exceedingly peaking narrowly around 90o ...

Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Malaspina, D.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020386

energetic electrons; Inner radiation belt; Pitch angle distribution; plasmasphere; Slot region; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Excitation of nightside magnetosonic waves observed by Van Allen Probes

During the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm on 30-31 March 2013, Van Allen Probe A detected enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves in a broad range of L =1.8-4.7 and MLT =17-22 h, with a frequency range ~10-100 Hz. In the meanwhile, distinct proton ring distributions with peaks at energies of ~10 keV, were also observed in L =3.2-4.6 and L =5.0-5.6. Using a subtracted bi-Maxwellian distribution to model the observed proton ring distribution, we perform three dimensional ray tracing to investigate the instability, propagatio ...

Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020481

magnetosonic wave; RBSP results; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Interactions of energetic electrons with ULF waves triggered by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations in the magnetotail

We present in situ observations of a shock-induced substorm-like event on 13 April 2013 observed by the newly launched Van Allen twin probes. Substorm-like electron injections with energy of 30\textendash500 keV were observed in the region from L\~5.2 to 5.5 immediately after the shock arrival (followed by energetic electron drift echoes). Meanwhile, the electron flux was clearly and strongly varying on the ULF wave time scale. It is found that both toroidal and poloidal mode ULF waves with a period of 150 s emerged followin ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zhang, Hui; Fu, S; Pu, Z; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 10/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020023

energetic particles; interplanetary shock; magnetotail ULF wave; poloidal and toroidal mode; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions



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