Bibliography



Found 259 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 101 through 150


2017

Conjugate Ground-Spacecraft Observations of VLF Chorus Elements

We present results of simultaneous observations of VLF chorus elements at the ground-based station Kannuslehto in Northern Finland and on board Van Allen Probe A. Visual inspection and correlation analysis of the data reveal one-to-one correspondence of several (at least 12) chorus elements following each other in a sequence. Poynting flux calculated from electromagnetic fields measured by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instrument on board Van Allen Probe A shows that the waves propag ...

Demekhov, A.; Manninen, J.; ik, O.; Titova, E.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL076139

ground-spacecraft observations; Magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes; VLF chorus

Lower-hybrid drift waves and electromagnetic electron space-phase holes associated with dipolarization fronts and field-aligned currents observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a substorm

We analyse two ion scale dipolarization fronts associated with field-aligned currents detected by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a large substorm on August 10, 2016. The first event corresponds to a fast dawnward flow with an anti-parallel current and could be generated by the wake of a previous fast earthward flow. It is associated with intense lower-hybrid drift waves detected at the front and propagating dawnward with a perpendicular phase speed close to the electric drift and the ion thermal velocity. The s ...

Contel, O.; Nakamura, R.; Breuillard, H.; Argall, M.; Graham, D.; Fischer, D.; o, A.; Berthomier, M.; Pottelette, R.; Mirioni, L.; Chust, T.; Wilder, F.; Gershman, D.; Varsani, A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Norgren, C.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Burch, J.; Torbert, R.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R.; Bromund, K.; . Y. Wei, H; Plaschke, F.; Anderson, B.; Le, G.; Moore, T.; Giles, B.; Paterson, W.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J.; Avanov, L.; Saito, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Fuselier, S.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I.; Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Leonard, T.; Jaynes, A.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024550

dipolarization front; electron hole; fast flow:Van allen Probes; Field-Aligned Current; lower-hybrid drift wave; substorm

Lower-hybrid drift waves and electromagnetic electron space-phase holes associated with dipolarization fronts and field-aligned currents observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a substorm

We analyse two ion scale dipolarization fronts associated with field-aligned currents detected by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission during a large substorm on August 10, 2016. The first event corresponds to a fast dawnward flow with an anti-parallel current and could be generated by the wake of a previous fast earthward flow. It is associated with intense lower-hybrid drift waves detected at the front and propagating dawnward with a perpendicular phase speed close to the electric drift and the ion thermal velocity. The s ...

Contel, O.; Nakamura, R.; Breuillard, H.; Argall, M.; Graham, D.; Fischer, D.; o, A.; Berthomier, M.; Pottelette, R.; Mirioni, L.; Chust, T.; Wilder, F.; Gershman, D.; Varsani, A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Norgren, C.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Burch, J.; Torbert, R.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R.; Bromund, K.; . Y. Wei, H; Plaschke, F.; Anderson, B.; Le, G.; Moore, T.; Giles, B.; Paterson, W.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J.; Avanov, L.; Saito, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Fuselier, S.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I.; Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Leonard, T.; Jaynes, A.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024550

dipolarization front; electron hole; fast flow:Van allen Probes; Field-Aligned Current; lower-hybrid drift wave; substorm

SC-associated electric field variations in the magnetosphere and ionospheric convective flows

We examine magnetic and electric field perturbations associated with a sudden commencement (SC), caused by an interplanetary (IP) shock passing over the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere on 16 February 2013. The SC was identified in the magnetic and electric field data measured at THEMIS-E (THE-E: MLT = 12.4, L = 6.3), Van Allen Probe-A (VAP-A: MLT = 3.2, L = 5.1), and Van Allen Probe-B (VAP-B: MLT = 0.2. L= 4.9) in the magnetosphere. During the SC interval, THE-E observed a dawnward-then-duskward electric (E) field pertur ...

Kim, S.-I.; Kim, K.-H.; Kwon, H.-J.; Jin, H.; Lee, E.; Jee, G.; Nishitani, N.; Hori, T.; Lester, M.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024611

electric field; Sudden commencement; Van Allen Probes

A neural network model of three-dimensional dynamic electron density in the inner magnetosphere

A plasma density model of the inner magnetosphere is important for a variety of applications including the study of wave-particle interactions, and wave excitation and propagation. Previous empirical models have been developed under many limiting assumptions and do not resolve short-term variations, which are especially important during storms. We present a three-dimensional dynamic electron density (DEN3D) model developed using a feedforward neural network with electron densities obtained from four satellite missions. The D ...

Chu, X.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Denton, R.; Yue, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R.; Darrouzet, F.; Ozhogin, P.; Kletzing, C.; Wang, Y.; Menietti, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024464

A neural network model of three-dimensional dynamic electron density in the inner magnetosphere

A plasma density model of the inner magnetosphere is important for a variety of applications including the study of wave-particle interactions, and wave excitation and propagation. Previous empirical models have been developed under many limiting assumptions and do not resolve short-term variations, which are especially important during storms. We present a three-dimensional dynamic electron density (DEN3D) model developed using a feedforward neural network with electron densities obtained from four satellite missions. The D ...

Chu, X.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Denton, R.; Yue, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R.; Darrouzet, F.; Ozhogin, P.; Kletzing, C.; Wang, Y.; Menietti, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024464

Bounce resonance scattering of radiation belt electrons by low-frequency hiss: Comparison with cyclotron and Landau resonances

Bounce-resonant interactions with magnetospheric waves have been proposed as important contributing mechanisms for scattering near-equatorially mirroring electrons by violating the second adiabatic invariant associated with the electron bounce motion along a geomagnetic field line. This study demonstrates that low-frequency plasmaspheric hiss with significant wave power below 100 Hz can bounce-resonate efficiently with radiation belt electrons. By performing quantitative calculations of pitch-angle scattering rates, we show ...

Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Summers, Danny; Zou, Zhengyang; Fu, Song; Zhang, Wenxun;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017GL075104

bounce resonance; Low-frequency hiss; Radiation Belt Dynamics; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

The characteristic response of whistler mode waves to interplanetary shocks

Magnetospheric whistler mode waves play a key role in regulating the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. Recent satellite observations indicate a significant influence of interplanetary (IP) shocks on whistler mode wave power in the inner magnetosphere. In this study, we statistically investigate the response of whistler mode chorus and plasmaspheric hiss to IP shocks based on Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellite observations. Immediately after the IP shock arrival, chorus wave power is usually intensified, often at p ...

Yue, Chao; Chen, Lunjin; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Thorne, Richard; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Li, Jinxing; An, Xin; Zhou, Chen; Kletzing, Craig; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024574

IP shocks; MLT dependent; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Ray Tracing; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus

Diffusive transport of several hundred keV electrons in the Earth\textquoterights slot region

We investigate the gradual diffusion of energetic electrons from the inner edge of the outer radiation belt into the slot region. The Van Allen Probes observed slow inward diffusion and decay of ~200-600 keV electrons following the intense geomagnetic storm that occurred on 17 March 2013. During the 10-day non-disturbed period following the storm, the peak of electron fluxes gradually moved from L~2.7 to L~2.4, and the flux levels decreased by a factor of ~2-4 depending on the electron energy. We simulated the radial intrusi ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Turner, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024452

Electron transport; Energetic electron diffusion; pitch angle scattering; Slot region dynamics; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation; Waves in plasmasphere

Understanding the Mechanisms of Radiation Belt Dropouts Observed by Van Allen Probes

To achieve a better understanding of the dominant loss mechanisms for the rapid dropouts of radiation belt electrons, three distinct radiation belt dropout events observed by Van Allen Probes are comprehensively investigated. For each event, observations of the pitch angle distribution of electron fluxes and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are analyzed to determine the effects of atmospheric precipitation loss due to pitch angle scattering induced by EMIC waves. Last closed drift shells (LCDS) and magnetopause sta ...

Xiang, Zheng; Tu, Weichao; Li, Xinlin; Ni, Binbin; Morley, S.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024487

EMIC wave; last closed drift shell; magnetopause shadowing; Phase space density; radiation belt dropout; Van Allen Probes

The characteristic pitch angle distributions of 1 eV to 600 keV protons near the equator based on Van Allen Probes observations

Understanding the source and loss processes of various plasma populations is greatly aided by having accurate knowledge of their pitch angle distributions (PADs). Here, we statistically analyze ~1 eV to 600 keV hydrogen (H+) PADs near the geomagnetic equator in the inner magnetosphere based on Van Allen Probes measurements, to comprehensively investigate how the H+ PADs vary with different energies, magnetic local times (MLTs), L-shells, and geomagnetic conditions. Our survey clearly indicates four distinct populations with ...

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Ma, Qianli; An, Xin; Chappell, C.; Gerrard, Andrew; Lanzerotti, Louis; Shi, Quanqi; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Mitchell, Donald; Gkioulidou, Matina; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024421

bi-directional field-aligned; H+ Pitch angle distributions; plasmaspheric H+; radiation belt H+; ring current; Van Allen Probes; warm Plasma cloak

Dominance of high energy (>150 keV) heavy ion intensities in Earth\textquoterights middle to outer magnetosphere

Previous observations have driven the prevailing assumption in the field that energetic ions measured by an instrument using a bare solid state detector (SSD) are predominantly protons. However, new near-equatorial energetic particle observations obtained between 7 and 12 RE during Phase 1 of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission challenge the validity of this assumption. In particular, measurements by the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instruments have revealed that the intensities of heavy ion species (specifically ...

Cohen, Ian; Mitchell, Donald; Kistler, Lynn; Mauk, Barry; Anderson, Brian; Westlake, Joseph; Ohtani, Shinichi; Hamilton, Douglas; Turner, Drew; Blake, Bern; Fennell, Joseph; Jaynes, Allison; Leonard, Trevor; Gerrard, Andrew; Lanzerotti, Louis; Allen, Robert; Burch, James;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024351

energetic ion composition; magnetospheric ion composition; Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS); outer magnetosphere; ring current composition; suprathermal ions; Van Allen Probes

Statistical Properties of Low Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss

Plasmaspheric hiss is an important wave mode for the dynamics of inner terrestrial magnetosphere plasma populations. It acts to scatter high energy electrons out of trapped orbits about Earth and into the atmosphere, defining the inner edge of the radiation belts over a range of energies. A low-frequency component of hiss was recently identified and is important for its ability to interact with higher energy electrons compared to typically considered hiss frequencies. This study compares the statistical properties of low and ...

Malaspina, David; Jaynes, Allison; Hospodarsky, George; Bortnik, Jacob; Ergun, Robert; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024328

inner magnetosphere; plasma waves; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; Wave Statistics

Unusual refilling of the slot region between the Van Allen radiation belts from November 2004 to January 2005

Using multisatellite measurements, a uniquely strong and long-lived relativistic electron slot region refilling event from November 2004 to January 2005 is investigated. This event occurred under remarkable interplanetary and magnetospheric conditions. Both empirically modeled and observationally estimated plasmapause locations demonstrate that the plasmasphere eroded significantly prior to the enhancement phase of this event. The estimated diffusion coefficients indicate that the radial diffusion due to ULF waves is insuffi ...

Yang, Xiaochao; Ni, Binbin; Yu, Jiang; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Sun, Yueqiang;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023204

Radiation belt; Relativistic electron; Slot region; Van Allen Probes

Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study

Using the particle data measured by Van Allen Probe A from October 2012 to March 2016, we investigate in detail the radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storms. The period of the storm recovery phase was limited to 72 h. The statistical study shows that geomagnetic storms and substorms play important roles in the radiation belt seed population (336 keV electrons) dynamics. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, ...

Tang, C.; Wang, Y.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.; Reeves, G.; Su, Z.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2017JA023905

relativistic electrons; Substorm Injections; the outer radiation belt; the seed population; Van Allen Probes

Inferring electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensity from low altitude POES proton flux measurements: A detailed case study with conjugate Van Allen Probes observations

Zhang, Yang; Shi, Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu, Xudong; Zhang, Xianguo; Zuo, Pingbing; Fu, Song; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Cao, Xing; Zou, Zhengyang;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2016.12.035

Van Allen Probes

Amplitude\textendashfrequency characteristics of ion\textendashcyclotron and whistler-mode waves from Van Allen Probes data

Using two-hour (from 2300 UT January 25, 2013 to 0100 UT January 26, 2013) measurement data from Van Allen Probes on fluxes of energetic particles, cold plasma density, and magnetic field magnitude, we have calculated the local growth rate of electromagnetic ion\textendashcyclotron and whistler-mode waves for field-aligned propagation. The results of these calculations have been compared with wave spectra observed by the same Van Allen Probe spacecraft. The time intervals when the calculated wave increments are sufficiently ...

Lyubchich, A.; Demekhov, A.; Titova, E.; Yahnin, A.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1134/S001679321701008X

Van Allen Probes

Coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously observed over unexpectedly large spatial scales

Utilizing simultaneous twin Van Allen Probes observations of whistler mode waves at variable separations, we are able to distinguish the temporal variations from spatial variations, determine the coherence spatial scale, and suggest the possible mechanism of wave modulation. The two probes observed coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously at an unexpectedly large distance up to ~4.3 RE over 3 h during a relatively quiet period. The modulation of 150\textendash500 Hz plasmaspheric hiss was correlated with whist ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Ma, Qianli; Chu, Xiangning; Chen, Lunjin; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Wygant, John; Breneman, Aaron; Thaller, Scott;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023706

coherent waves; multisatellite; periodic rising tone; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode

Coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously observed over unexpectedly large spatial scales

Utilizing simultaneous twin Van Allen Probes observations of whistler mode waves at variable separations, we are able to distinguish the temporal variations from spatial variations, determine the coherence spatial scale, and suggest the possible mechanism of wave modulation. The two probes observed coherently modulated whistler mode waves simultaneously at an unexpectedly large distance up to ~4.3 RE over 3 h during a relatively quiet period. The modulation of 150\textendash500 Hz plasmaspheric hiss was correlated with whist ...

Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Ma, Qianli; Chu, Xiangning; Chen, Lunjin; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Wygant, John; Breneman, Aaron; Thaller, Scott;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023706

coherent waves; multisatellite; periodic rising tone; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode

Spectra of keV protons related to ion-cyclotron wave packets

We use the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation to study the statistical aspects of stochastic dynamics of the radiation belt (RB) protons driven by nonlinear electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) wave packets. We obtain the spectra of keV protons scattered by these waves that show steeping near the gyroresonance, the signature of resonant wave-particle interaction that cannot be described by a simple power law. The most likely mechanism for proton precipitation events in RBs is shown to be nonlinear wave-particle interaction, n ...

Khazanov, K.; Sibeck, D.; Tel\textquoterightnikhin, A.; Kronberg, T.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4973323

Diffusion; Particle precipitation; protons; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions; Wave power

Transitional behavior of different energy protons based on Van Allen Probes observations

Understanding the dynamical behavior of ~1 eV to 50 keV ions and identifying the energies at which the morphologies transit are important in that they involve the relative intensities and distributions of the large-scale electric and magnetic fields, the outflow, and recombination rates. However, there have been only few direct observational investigations of the transition in drift behaviors of different energy ions before the Van Allen Probes era. Here we statistically analyze ~1 eV to 50 keV hydrogen (H+) differential flu ...

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Chen, Lunjin; Ma, Qianli; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071324

Transition in drift behavior; UBK method; Van Allen Probes

\textquotedblleftZipper-like\textquotedblright periodic magnetosonic waves: Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and magnetospheric multiscale observations

An interesting form of \textquotedblleftzipper-like\textquotedblright magnetosonic waves consisting of two bands of interleaved periodic rising-tone spectra was newly observed by the Van Allen Probes, the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), and the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) missions. The two discrete bands are distinct in frequency and intensity; however, they maintain the same periodicity which varies in space and time, suggesting that they possibly originate from one single s ...

Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Breneman, A.; Thaller, S.; Funsten, H.; Mitchell, D.; Manweiler, J.; Torbert, R.; Le Contel, O.; Ergun, R.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Russell, C.;

YEAR: 2017     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023536

magnetosonic wave; Radiation belt; rising-tone; Van Allen Probes; zipper-like

2016

Statistical distribution of EMIC wave spectra: Observations from Van Allen Probes

It has been known that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can precipitate ultrarelativistic electrons through cyclotron resonant scattering. However, the overall effectiveness of this mechanism has yet to be quantified, because it is difficult to obtain the global distribution of EMIC waves that usually exhibit limited spatial presence. We construct a statistical distribution of EMIC wave frequency spectra and their intensities based on Van Allen Probes measurements from September 2012 to December 2015. Our results s ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071158

EMIC waves; magnetic storm; outer radiation belt; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Transitional behavior of different energy protons based on Van Allen Probes observations

Understanding the dynamical behavior of ~1 eV to 50 keV ions and identifying the energies at which the morphologies transit are important in that they involve the relative intensities and distributions of the large-scale electric and magnetic fields, the outflow and recombination rates. However, there have been only few direct observational investigations of the transition in drift behaviors of different energy ions before the Van Allen Probes era. Here, we statistically analyze ~1 eV to 50 keV Hydrogen (H+) differential flu ...

Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Chen, Lunjin; Ma, Qianli; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071324

Transition in drift behavior; UBK method; Van Allen Probes

Characteristic energy range of electron scattering due to plasmaspheric hiss

We investigate the characteristic energy range of electron flux decay due to the interaction with plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere. The Van Allen Probes have measured the energetic electron flux decay profiles in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during a quiet period following the geomagnetic storm that occurred on 7 November 2015. The observed energy of significant electron decay increases with decreasing L shell and is well correlated with the energy band corresponding to th ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023311

electron flux decay; pitch angle scattering; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observation

Comparison of Van Allen Probes radiation belt proton data with test particle simulation for the 17 March 2015 storm

The loss of protons in the outer part of the inner radiation belt (L = 2 to 3) during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm was investigated using test particle simulations that follow full Lorentz trajectories with both magnetic and electric fields calculated from an empirical model. The simulation results presented here are compared with proton pitch angle measurements from the Van Allen Probe satellites Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument before and after the coronal mass ejection-shock-driven storm of ...

Engel, M.; Kress, B.; Hudson, M.; Selesnick, R.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023333

field line curvature scattering; inductive electric field; proton loss; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Void structure of O + ions in the inner magnetosphere observed by the Van Allen Probes

The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument observed a new type of enhancement of O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere during substorms. As the satellite moved outward in the premidnight sector, the flux of the O+ ions with energy ~10 keV appeared first in the energy-time spectrograms. Then, the enhancement of the flux spread toward high and low energies. The enhanced flux of the O+ ions with the highest energy remained, whereas the flux of the ions with lower energy vanished near apogee, forming what we call ...

Nakayama, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Kistler, L.; Tanaka, T.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023013

injections; nonadiabatic acceleration; substorms; Van Allen Probes

Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the presen ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022517

Drift shell splitting; dropouts; magnetic storm; magnetopause shadowing; outer radiation belt; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes

Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the presen ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022517

Drift shell splitting; dropouts; magnetic storm; magnetopause shadowing; outer radiation belt; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes

RBSPICE measurement of ion loss during the 2015 March storm: Adiabatic response to the geomagnetic field change

A strongly energy-dependent ring current ion loss was measured by the RBSPICE instrument on the Van Allen Probes A spacecraft in the local evening sector during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm. The ion loss is found to be energy dependent where only ions with energies measured above \~ 150 keV have a significant drop in intensity. At these energies the ion dynamics are principally controlled by variations of the geomagnetic field which, during magnetic storms, exhibits large scale variations on timescales from minutes ...

Soto-Chavez, A.; Lanzerotti, L.; Gerrard, A.; Kim, H.; Bortnik, J.; Manweiler, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022512

inner magnetosphere; Magnetic Storms; Ring current ion.; Van Allen Probes

Unraveling the excitation mechanisms of highly oblique lower band chorus waves

Excitation mechanisms of highly oblique, quasi-electrostatic lower band chorus waves are investigated using Van Allen Probes observations near the equator of the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Linear growth rates are evaluated based on in situ, measured electron velocity distributions and plasma conditions and compared with simultaneously observed wave frequency spectra and wave normal angles. Accordingly, two distinct excitation mechanisms of highly oblique lower band chorus have been clearly identified for the first ...

Li, W.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v43.1710.1002/2016GL070386

beam instability; lower band chorus; oblique chorus excitation; temperature anisotropy; Van Allen Probes

Control of the innermost electron radiation belt by large-scale electric fields

Electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instruments on Van Allen Probes, for kinetic energies \~100 to 400 keV, show characteristic dynamical features of the innermost ( inline image) radiation belt: rapid injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra. There are also periods of steady or slowly increasing intensity and of fast decay following injections. Local time asymmetry, with higher intensity near dawn, is interpreted as evidence for drift shell distortion by a convection electric field ...

Selesnick, R.; Su, Y.-J.; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022973

electric field; electrons; Inner radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

The distribution of plasmaspheric hiss wave power with respect to plasmapause location

In this work, Van Allen Probes data are used to derive terrestrial plasmaspheric hiss wave power distributions organized by (1) distance away from the plasmapause and (2) plasmapause distance from Earth. This approach is in contrast to the traditional organization of hiss wave power by L parameter and geomagnetic activity. Plasmapause-sorting reveals previously unreported and highly repeatable features of the hiss wave power distribution, including a regular spatial distribution of hiss power with respect to the plasmapause, ...

Malaspina, David; Jaynes, Allison; e, Cory; Bortnik, Jacob; Thaller, Scott; Ergun, Robert; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069982

hiss; plasma waves; plasmasphere; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, w ...

Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yagitani, S.; Inoue, T.; Ebihara, Y.; Jun, C.-W; Nomura, R.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Shoji, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Jordanova, V.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070008

fast modulation; Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations; pulsating proton aurora; subpacket structure; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Formation of the inner electron radiation belt by enhanced large-scale electric fields

A two-dimensional bounce-averaged test particle code was developed to examine trapped electron trajectories during geomagnetic storms with the assumption of conservation of the first and second adiabatic invariants. The March 2013 storm was selected as an example because the geomagnetic activity Kp index sharply increased from 2 + to 7- at 6:00 UT on 17 March. Electron measurements with energies between 37 and 460 keV from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument onboard Van Allen Probes (VAP) are used as i ...

Su, Yi-Jiun; Selesnick, Richard; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022881

DC electric fields; electron injections; Inner radiation belt; test particle simulation; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes electron measurements

The relationship between the macroscopic state of electrons and the properties of chorus waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

Plasma kinetic theory predicts that a sufficiently anisotropic electron distribution will excite whistler mode waves, which in turn relax the electron distribution in such a way as to create an upper bound on the relaxed electron anisotropy. Here using whistler mode chorus wave and plasma measurements by Van Allen Probes, we confirm that the electron distributions are well constrained by this instability to a marginally stable state in the whistler mode chorus waves generation region. Lower band chorus waves are organized by ...

Yue, Chao; An, Xin; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Gkioulidou, Matina; Mitchell, Donald; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070084

beta parallel; electron temperature anisotropy; marginally stable state; oblique waves; quasi-parallel waves; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus waves

Direct evidence for EMIC wave scattering of relativistic electrons in space

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause efficient losses of highly relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons via gyroresonant interactions. Simultaneous observations of EMIC waves and equatorial electron pitch angle distributions, which can be used to directly quantify the EMIC wave scattering effect, are still very limited, however. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of EMIC waves on pitch angle scattering of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, wh ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, L.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022521

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; equatorial pitch angle distribution; Fokker-Planck equation; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical p ...

Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.; Li, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Kanekal, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Green, J.; Goldstein, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.610.1002/2016JA022400

chorus-driven local acceleration; Electron acceleration; radial diffusion; Van Allen Probes

Rapid enhancement of low-energy (<100 eV) ion flux in response to interplanetary shocks based on two Van Allen Probes case studies: Implications for source regions and heating mechanisms

Interactions between interplanetary (IP) shocks and the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere manifest many important space physics phenomena including low-energy ion flux enhancements and particle acceleration. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving shock-induced enhancement of low-energy ion flux, we have examined two IP shock events that occurred when the Van Allen Probes were located near the equator while ionospheric and ground observations were available around the spacecraft footprints. We have found that, assoc ...

Yue, Chao; Li, Wen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Zong, Qiugang; Ma, Qianli; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John; Nicolls, Michael;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022808

adiabatic accelerations; enhancement of low-energy ion flux; ionospheric ion outflows; response to IP shocks; Van Allen Probes

Rapid enhancement of low-energy (<100 eV) ion flux in response to interplanetary shocks based on two Van Allen Probes case studies: Implications for source regions and heating mechanisms

Interactions between interplanetary (IP) shocks and the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere manifest many important space physics phenomena including low-energy ion flux enhancements and particle acceleration. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving shock-induced enhancement of low-energy ion flux, we have examined two IP shock events that occurred when the Van Allen Probes were located near the equator while ionospheric and ground observations were available around the spacecraft footprints. We have found that, assoc ...

Yue, Chao; Li, Wen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Zong, Qiugang; Ma, Qianli; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John; Nicolls, Michael;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022808

adiabatic accelerations; enhancement of low-energy ion flux; ionospheric ion outflows; response to IP shocks; Van Allen Probes

Rapid enhancement of low-energy (<100 eV) ion flux in response to interplanetary shocks based on two Van Allen Probes case studies: Implications for source regions and heating mechanisms

Interactions between interplanetary (IP) shocks and the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere manifest many important space physics phenomena including low-energy ion flux enhancements and particle acceleration. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving shock-induced enhancement of low-energy ion flux, we have examined two IP shock events that occurred when the Van Allen Probes were located near the equator while ionospheric and ground observations were available around the spacecraft footprints. We have found that, assoc ...

Yue, Chao; Li, Wen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Zong, Qiugang; Ma, Qianli; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John; Nicolls, Michael;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022808

adiabatic accelerations; enhancement of low-energy ion flux; ionospheric ion outflows; response to IP shocks; Van Allen Probes

On the Time Needed to Reach an Equilibrium Structure of the Radiation Belts

In this study, we complement the notion of equilibrium states of the radiation belts with a discussion on the dynamics and time needed to reach equilibrium. We solve for the equilibrium states obtained using 1D radial diffusion with recently developed hiss and chorus lifetimes at constant values of Kp = 1, 3 and 6. We find that the equilibrium states at moderately low Kp, when plotted vs L-shell (L) and energy (E), display the same interesting S-shape for the inner edge of the outer belt as recently observed by the Van Allen ...

Ripoll, J.; Loridan, V.; Cunningham, G.; Reeves, G.; . Y. Shprits, Y;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022207

Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

What effect do substorms have on the content of the radiation belts?

Substorms are fundamental and dynamic processes in the magnetosphere, converting captured solar wind magnetic energy into plasma energy. These substorms have been suggested to be a key driver of energetic electron enhancements in the outer radiation belts. Substorms inject a keV \textquotedblleftseed\textquotedblright population into the inner magnetosphere which is subsequently energized through wave-particle interactions up to relativistic energies; however, the extent to which substorms enhance the radiation belts, either ...

Forsyth, C.; Rae, I.; Murphy, K.; Freeman, M.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H.; Boyd, A.; Coxon, J.; Jackman, C.; Kalmoni, N.; Watt, C.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022620

enhancements; losses; Radiation belts; substorm

Combined Scattering Loss of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons by Simultaneous Three-band EMIC Waves: A Case Study

Multiband electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can drive efficient scattering loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. However, it is statistically uncommon to capture the three bands of EMIC waves concurrently. Utilizing data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science magnetometer onboard Van Allen Probe A, we report the simultaneous presence of three (H+, He+, and O+) emission bands in an EMIC wave event, which provides an opportunity to look into the combined scattering effect ...

He, Fengming; Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Xiang, Zheng; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong; Zhao, Zhengyu; Shi, Run; Wang, Qi;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022483

combined scattering rates; electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves; loss timescales; radiation belt relativistic electrons; resonant wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

New Chorus Wave Properties Near the Equator from Van Allen Probes Wave Observations

The chorus wave properties are evaluated using Van Allen Probes data in the Earth\textquoterights equatorial magnetosphere. Two distinct modes of lower band chorus are identified: a quasi-parallel mode and a quasi-electrostatic mode, whose wave normal direction is close to the resonance cone. Statistical results indicate that the quasi-electrostatic (quasi-parallel) mode preferentially occurs during relatively quiet (disturbed) geomagnetic activity at lower (higher) L shells. Although the magnetic intensity of the quasi-elec ...

Li, W.; Santolik, O.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068780

Chorus wave; oblique; quasi-electrostatic; quasi-parallel; Van Allen Probes; wave normal angles

Occurrence Characteristics of Outer Zone Relativistic Electron Butterfly Distribution: A Survey of Van Allen Probes REPT Measurements

Using Van Allen Probes REPT pitch angle resolved electron flux data from September 2012 to March 2015, we investigate in detail the global occurrence pattern of equatorial (|λ| <= 3\textdegree) butterfly distribution of outer zone relativistic electrons and its potential correlation with the solar wind dynamic pressure. The statistical results demonstrate that these butterfly distributions occur with the highest occurrence rate ~ 80\% at ~ 20 \textendash 04 MLT and L > ~ 5.5 and with the second peak (> ~ 50 \%) at ~ 11 \tex ...

Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Li, Xinlin; Bortnik, Jacob; Xie, Lun; Gu, Xudong;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069350

butterfly pitch angle distributions; global occurrence pattern; outer radiation belt; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Occurrence Characteristics of Outer Zone Relativistic Electron Butterfly Distribution: A Survey of Van Allen Probes REPT Measurements

Using Van Allen Probes REPT pitch angle resolved electron flux data from September 2012 to March 2015, we investigate in detail the global occurrence pattern of equatorial (|λ| <= 3\textdegree) butterfly distribution of outer zone relativistic electrons and its potential correlation with the solar wind dynamic pressure. The statistical results demonstrate that these butterfly distributions occur with the highest occurrence rate ~ 80\% at ~ 20 \textendash 04 MLT and L > ~ 5.5 and with the second peak (> ~ 50 \%) at ~ 11 \tex ...

Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Li, Xinlin; Bortnik, Jacob; Xie, Lun; Gu, Xudong;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069350

butterfly pitch angle distributions; global occurrence pattern; outer radiation belt; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model

We present dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt " slot region" and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the March 1st storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally-resolved whistler mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L-shells (2 to 6) including (a) the strong energy-dependence to t ...

Ripoll, J.; Reeves, G.; Cunningham, G.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; ik, O.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Turner, D.; Henderson, M.; . Y. Ukhorskiy, A;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068869

electron lifetimes; electron losses; hiss waves; Radiation belts; Slot region; Van Allen Probes; wave particle interactions

Simulation of energy-dependent electron diffusion processes in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt

The radial and local diffusion processes induced by various plasma waves govern the highly energetic electron dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts, causing distinct characteristics in electron distributions at various energies. In this study, we present our simulation results of the energetic electron evolution during a geomagnetic storm using the University of California, Los Angeles 3-D diffusion code. Following the plasma sheet electron injections, the electrons at different energy bands detected by the M ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Zhang, X.-J.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Henderson, M.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022507

electron acceleration and loss; energy-dependent diffusion; radial diffusion; radiation belt simulation; Van Allen Probes

A statistical study of proton pitch angle distributions measured by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE)

A statistical study of ring current-energy proton pitch angle distributions (PADs) in Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere is reported here. The data are from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on board the Van Allen Probe B spacecraft from January 1, 2013 to April 15, 2015. By fitting the data to the functional form sinnα, where α is the proton pitch angle, we examine proton PADs at the energies 50, 100, 180, 328 and 488 keV in the L-shell range from L = 2.5 to L = 6. Three PAD types ...

Shi, Run; Summers, Danny; Ni, Binbin; Manweiler, Jerry; Mitchell, Donald; Lanzerotti, Louis;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022140

proton pitch angle distributions; Van Allen Probes



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