Found 153 entries in the Bibliography.

Showing entries from 101 through 150


Broadband low frequency electromagnetic waves in the inner magnetosphere

A prominent yet largely unrecognized feature of the inner magnetosphere associated with particle injections, and more generally geomagnetic storms, is the occurrence of broadband electromagnetic field fluctuations over spacecraft frame frequencies (fsc) extending from effectively zero to fsc ≳ 100 Hz. Using observations from the Van Allen Probes we show that these waves most commonly occur pre-midnight but are observed over a range of local times extending into the dayside magnetosphere. We find that the variation of magne ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Smith, C.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021690

Alfven waves; Geomagnetic storms; ring current; turbulence; Van Allen Probes

Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of three Van Allen Probes storms in 2012 and 2013

Coronal mass ejection (CME)-shock compression of the dayside magnetopause has been observed to cause both prompt enhancement of radiation belt electron flux due to inward radial transport of electrons conserving their first adiabatic invariant and prompt losses which at times entirely eliminate the outer zone. Recent numerical studies suggest that enhanced ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave activity is necessary to explain electron losses deeper inside the magnetosphere than magnetopause incursion following CME-shock arrival. A ...

Paral, J.; Hudson, M.; Kress, B.; Wiltberger, M.; Wygant, J.; Singer, H.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-1037-2015

MHD; Van Allen Probes

Low-harmonic magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

Purely compressional electromagnetic waves (fast magnetosonic waves), generated at multiple harmonics of the local proton gyrofrequency, have been observed by various types of satellite instruments (fluxgate and search coil magnetometers and electric field sensors), but most recent studies have used data from search coil sensors, and many have been restricted to high harmonics. We report here on a survey of low-harmonic waves, based on electric and magnetic field data from the EFW double probe and EMFISIS fluxgate magnetomet ...

Posch, J.; Engebretson, M.; Olson, C.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Boardsen, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021179

equatorial noise; inner magnetosphere; magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; waves in plasmas

Near-Earth Injection of MeV Electrons associated with Intense Dipolarization Electric Fields: Van Allen Probes observations

Substorms generally inject 10s-100s keV electrons, but intense substorm electric fields have been shown to inject MeV electrons as well. An intriguing question is whether such MeV electron injections can populate the outer radiation belt. Here we present observations of a substorm injection of MeV electrons into the inner magnetosphere. In the pre-midnight sector at L\~5.5, Van Allen Probes (RBSP)-A observed a large dipolarization electric field (50mV/m) over \~40s and a dispersionless injection of electrons up to \~3 MeV. P ...

Dai, Lei; Wang, Chi; Duan, Suping; He, Zhaohai; Wygant, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Tao, Xin; Su, Zhenpeng; Kletzing, Craig; Baker, Daniel; Li, Xinlin; Malaspina, David; Blake, Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Turner, Drew; Reeves, Geoffrey; Funsten, Herbert; Spence, Harlan; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Fruehauff, Dennis; Chen, Lunjin; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064955

electric fields; radiation belt electrons; substorm dipolarization; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes

Correlated Pc4-5 ULF waves, whistler-mode chorus and pulsating aurora observed by the Van Allen Probes and ground-based systems

Theory and observations have linked equatorial VLF waves with pulsating aurora for decades, invoking the process of pitch-angle scattering of 10\textquoterights keV electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere. Recently published satellite studies have strengthened this argument, by showing strong correlation between pulsating auroral patches and both lower-band chorus and 10\textquoterights keV electron modulation in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Additionally, a previous link has been made between Pc4-5 compressional p ...

Jaynes, A.; Lessard, M.; Takahashi, K.; Ali, A.; Malaspina, D.; Michell, R.; Spanswick, E.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Cully, C.; Donovan, E.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Samara, M.; Spence, H.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021380

aurora; precipitation; pulsating aurora; substorms; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; VLF waves

Global-scale coherence modulation of radiation-belt electron loss from plasmaspheric hiss

Over 40 years ago it was suggested that electron loss in the region of the radiation belts that overlaps with the region of high plasma density called the plasmasphere, within four to five Earth radii1, 2, arises largely from interaction with an electromagnetic plasma wave called plasmaspheric hiss3, 4, 5. This interaction strongly influences the evolution of the radiation belts during a geomagnetic storm, and over the course of many hours to days helps to return the radiation-belt structure to its \textquoteleftquiet\textqu ...

Breneman, A.; Halford, A.; Millan, R.; McCarthy, M.; Fennell, J.; Sample, J.; Woodger, L.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Cattell, C.; Goldstein, J.; Malaspina, D.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1038/nature14515

Magnetospheric physics; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen probes, NOAA, GOES, and ground observations of an intense EMIC wave event extending over 12 hours in MLT

Although most studies of the effects of EMIC waves on Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt have focused on events in the afternoon sector in the outer plasmasphere or plume region, strong magnetospheric compressions provide an additional stimulus for EMIC wave generation across a large range of local times and L shells. We present here observations of the effects of a wave event on February 23, 2014 that extended over 8 hours in UT and over 12 hours in local time, stimulated by a gradual 4-hour rise and subsequent shar ...

Engebretson, M.; Posch, J.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.; Lessard, M.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H.; Smith, C.; Singer, H.; Omura, Y.; Horne, R.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Gkioulidou, M.; Oksavik, K.; Mann, I.; Raita, T; Shiokawa, K.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021227

EMIC waves; magnetospheric compressions; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Weak Kinetic Alfv\ en Waves Turbulence during the November 14th 2012 geomagnetic storm: Van Allen Probes observations

n the dawn sector, L~ 5.5 and MLT~4-7, from 01:30 to 06:00 UT during the November 14th 2012 geomagnetic storm, both Van Allen Probes observed an alternating sequence of locally quiet and disturbed intervals with two strikingly different power fluctuation levels and magnetic field orientations: either small (~10-2 nT2) total power with strong GSM Bx and weak By, or large (~10 nT2) total power with weak Bx, and strong By and Bz components. During both kinds of intervals the fluctuations occur in the vicinity of the local ion g ...

Moya, Pablo.; Pinto, V\; Vi\~nas, Adolfo; Sibeck, David; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020281

Kinetic Alfven Waves; Magnetic Storms; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

The enhancement of cosmic radio noise absorption due to hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation during substorms

The Van-Allen probes, low-altitude NOAA satellite, MetOp satellite and riometer are used to analyze variations of precipitating energetic electron fluxes and cosmic radio noise absorption (CNA) driven by plasmaspheric hiss with respect to geomagnetic activities. The hiss-driven energetic electron precipitations (at L~4.7-5.3, MLT~8-9) are observed during geomagnetic quiet condition and substorms, respectively. We find that the CNA detected by riometers increased very little in the hiss-driven event during quiet condition on ...

Li, Haimeng; Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Qiao, Zheng; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021113

cosmic radio noise absorption; energetic electron precipitation; hiss; substorm; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous Pi2 observations by the Van Allen Probes inside and outside the plasmasphere

Plasmaspheric virtual resonance (PVR) model has been proposed as one of source mechanisms for low-latitude Pi2 pulsations. Since PVR-associated Pi2 pulsations are not localized inside the plasmasphere, simultaneous multipoint observations inside and outside the plasmasphere require to test the PVR model. Until now, however, there are few studies using simultaneous multisatellite observations inside and outside the plasmasphere for understanding the radial structure of Pi2 pulsation. In this study, we focus on the Pi2 event o ...

Ghamry, E.; Kim, K.-H.; Kwon, H.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Park, J.-S.; Choi, J.; Hyun, K.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021095

Pi2; plasmasphere; Plasmaspheric virtual resonance; Van Allen Probes

Statistical characteristic of EMIC waves: Van Allen Probe observations

Utilizing the data from the magnetometer instrument which is a part of the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument suite onboard the Van Allen Probe A from Sep. 2012 to Apr. 2014, when the apogee of the satellite has passed all the MLT sectors, we obtain the statistical distribution characteristic of EMIC waves in the inner magnetosphere over all local times from L=3 to L=6. Compared with the previous statistical results about EMIC waves, the occurrence rates of EMIC waves dis ...

Wang, Dedong; Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Deng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Meng; Huang, Shiyong; Li, Haimeng; Wang, Zhenzhen; Qiao, Zheng; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021089

distribution; EMIC waves; plasmasphere; Van Allen Probes

Storm-time occurrence and Spatial distribution of Pc4 poloidal ULF waves in the inner magnetosphere: A Van Allen Probes Statistical study

Poloidal ULF waves are capable of efficiently interacting with energetic particles in the ring current and the radiation belt. Using Van Allen Probes (RBSP) data from October 2012 to July 2014, we investigate the spatial distribution and storm-time occurrence of Pc4 (7-25 mHz) poloidal waves in the inner magnetosphere. Pc4 poloidal waves are sorted into two categories: waves with and without significant magnetic compressional components. Two types of poloidal waves have comparable occurrence rates, both of which are much hig ...

Dai, Lei; Takahashi, Kazue; Lysak, Robert; Wang, Chi; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig; Bonnell, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Smith, Charles; MacDowall, Robert; Thaller, Scott; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei; Tao, Xin; Chen, Lunjin;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021134

Geomagnetic storm; Pc4 ULF waves; poloidal waves; ring current; solar wind dynamic pressure; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes investigation of the large scale duskward electric field and its role in ring current formation and plasmasphere erosion in the June 1, 2013 storm

Using the Van Allen Probes we investigate the enhancement in the large scale duskward convection electric field during the geomagnetic storm (Dst ~ -120 nT) on June 1, 2013 and its role in ring current ion transport and energization, and plasmasphere erosion. During this storm, enhancements of ~1-2 mV/m in the duskward electric field in the co-rotating frame are observed down to L shells as low as ~2.3. A simple model consisting of a dipole magnetic field and constant, azimuthally westward, electric field is used to calculat ...

Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.; Dai, L.; Breneman, A.W.; Kersten, K.; Cattell, C.A.; Bonnell, J.W.; Fennell, J.F.; Gkioulidou, Matina; Kletzing, C.A.; De Pascuale, S.; Hospodarsky, G.B.; Bounds, S.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020875

electric field; inner magnetosphere; plasma convection; plasmasphere; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Electric field structures and waves at plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere

Recent observations by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft have demonstrated that a variety of electric field structures and nonlinear waves frequently occur in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere, including phase space holes, kinetic field line resonances, nonlinear whistler mode waves, and several types of double layer. However, it is unclear whether such structures and waves have a significant impact on the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere, including the radiation belts and ring current. To make progress toward quantifying ...

Malaspina, David; Wygant, John; Ergun, Robert; Reeves, Geoff; Skoug, Ruth; Larsen, Brian;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021137

injection; inner magnetosphere; nonlinear electric field structures; plasma boundary; plasma sheet; Van Allen Probes

Postmidnight depletion of the high-energy tail of the quiet plasmasphere

The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument measures the high-energy tail of the thermal plasmasphere allowing study of topside ionosphere and inner magnetosphere coupling. We statistically analyze a 22 month period of HOPE data, looking at quiet times with a Kp index of less than 3. We investigate the high-energy range of the plasmasphere, which consists of ions at energies between 1 and 10 eV and contains approximately 5\% of total plasmaspheric density. Both the fluxes and partial plasma densities ...

Sarno-Smith, Lois; Liemohn, Michael; Katus, Roxanne; Skoug, Ruth; Larsen, Brian; Thomsen, Michelle; Wygant, John; Moldwin, Mark;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020682

ion composition; Ionosphere; plasmasphere; postmidnight; quiet time magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Study of EMIC wave excitation using direct ion measurements

With data from Van Allen Probes, we investigate EMIC wave excitation using simultaneously observed ion distributions. Strong He-band waves occurred while the spacecraft was moving through an enhanced density region. We extract from Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) Mass Spectrometer measurement the velocity distributions of warm heavy ions as well as anisotropic energetic protons that drive wave growth through the ion cyclotron instability. Fitting the measured ion fluxes to multiple sinm-type distribution function ...

Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Bonnell, John; Breneman, Aaron; Denton, Richard; Funsten, Herbert; Jahn, öerg-Micha; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Larsen, Brian; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020717

EMIC wave excitation; observation; linear theory and hybrid simulation; Van Allen Probes

Disappearance of plasmaspheric hiss following interplanetary shock

Plasmaspheric hiss is one of the important plasma waves controlling radiation belt dynamics. Its spatiotemporal distribution and generation mechanism are presently the object of active research. We here give the first report on the shock-induced disappearance of plasmaspheric hiss observed by the Van Allen Probes on 8 October 2013. This special event exhibits the dramatic variability of plasmaspheric hiss and provides a good opportunity to test its generation mechanisms. The origination of plasmaspheric hiss from plasmatroug ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shui; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063906

Cyclotron instability; Cyclotron resonance; interplanetary shock; Landau damping; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

In situ observations of EMIC waves in O + band by the Van Allen Probe A

Through polarization and spectra analysis of the magnetic field observed by the Van Allen Probe A, we present two typical cases of O+ band EMIC waves in the outer plasmasphere or plasma trough. Although such O+ band EMIC waves are rarely observed, 18 different events of O+ band EMIC waves (16 events in the outer plasmasphere and 2 events in the plasma trough) are found from September 2012 to August 2014 with observations of the Van Allen Probe A. We find that the preferred region for the occurrence of O+ band EMIC waves is i ...

Yu, Xiongdong; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Dedong; Li, Haimeng; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Qiao; Zhou, Mingxia; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063250

EMIC waves; O+ ion torus; oxygen band; Van Allen Probes

Link between pre-midnight second harmonic poloidal waves and auroral undulations: Conjugate observations with a Van Allen Probes spacecraft and a THEMIS all-sky imager

We report, for the first time, an auroral undulation event on 1 May 2013 observed by an all-sky imager (ASI) at Athabasca (L = 4.6), Canada, for which in situ field and particle measurements in the conjugate magnetosphere were available from a Van Allen Probes spacecraft. The ASI observed a train of auroral undulation structures emerging spontaneously in the pre-midnight subauroral ionosphere, during the growth phase of a substorm. The undulations had an azimuthal wavelength of ~180 km and propagated westward at a speed of 3 ...

Motoba, T.; Takahashi, K.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Gkioulidou, M.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Korotova, G.; Donovan, E.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020863

Van Allen Probes

Modeling sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) during the March 17, 2013 storm

The sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) are one of the most important features in representing magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art modeling framework that couples an inner magnetospheric ring current model RAM-SCB with a global MHD model BATS-R-US and an ionospheric potential solver to study the SAPS that occurred during the March 17, 2013 storm event as well as to assess the modeling capability. Both ionospheric and magnetospheric signatures associated with SAPS are anal ...

Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Zou, Shasha; Heelis, Roderick; Ruohoniemi, Mike; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020371

sub-auroral polarization streams; Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity

From a survey of the first nightside season of NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission (Dec/2012 \textendash Sep/2013), 47 energetic (10s to 100s of keV) electron injection events were found at L-shells <= 4, all of which are deeper than any previously reported substorm-related injections. Preliminary details from these events are presented, including how: all occurred shortly after dipolarization signatures and injections were observed at higher L-shells; the deepest observed injection was at L~2.5; and, surprisingly, ...

Turner, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Blake, J.; Lemon, C.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Reeves, G.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Li, W.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225

energetic particle injections; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; substorms; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

Modeling CME-shock driven storms in 2012 - 2013: MHD-test particle simulations

The Van Allen Probes spacecraft have provided detailed observations of the energetic particles and fields environment for CME-shock driven storms in 2012 to 2013 which have now been modeled with MHD-test particle simulations. The Van Allen Probes orbital plane longitude moved from the dawn sector in 2012 to near midnight and pre-noon for equinoctial storms of 2013, providing particularly good measurements of the inductive electric field response to magnetopause compression for the 8 October 2013 CME-shock driven storm. An ab ...

Hudson, M.; Paral, J.; Kress, B.; Wiltberger, M.; Baker, D.; Foster, J.; Turner, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020833

Van Allen Probes; CME-shock

Shock-Induced Prompt Relativistic Electron Acceleration In the Inner Magnetosphere

We present twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft observations of the effects of a solar wind shock impacting the magnetosphere on 8 October 2013. The event provides details both of the accelerating electric fields associated with the shock and the response of inner magnetosphere electron populations across a broad range of energies. During this period the two Van Allen Probes observed shock effects from the vantage point of the dayside magnetosphere at radial positions of L=3 and L=5, at the location where shock-induced accelerat ...

Foster, J.; Wygant, J.; Hudson, M.; Boyd, A.; Baker, D.; Erickson, P.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020642

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probe observations of drift-bounce resonances with Pc 4 pulsations and wave\textendashparticle interactions in the pre-midnight inner magnetosphere

We present Van Allen Probe B observations of azimuthally limited, antisymmetric, poloidal Pc 4 electric and magnetic field pulsations in the pre-midnight sector of the magnetosphere from 05:40 to 06:00 UT on 1 May 2013. Oscillation periods were similar for the magnetic and electric fields and proton fluxes. The flux of energetic protons exhibited an energy-dependent response to the pulsations. Energetic proton variations were anticorrelated at medium and low energies. Although we attribute the pulsations to a drift-bounce re ...

Korotova, G.; Sibeck, D.; Tahakashi, K.; Dai, L.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Manweiler, J.; Moya, P.; Hwang, K.-J.; Redmon, R.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-955-2015

inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations linking radiation belt electrons to chorus waves during 2014 multiple storms

During 18 February to 2 March 2014, the Van Allen Probes encountered multiple geomagnetic storms and simultaneously observed intensified chorus and hiss waves. During this period, there were substantial enhancements in fluxes of energetic (53.8 - 108.3 keV) and relativistic (2 - 3.6 MeV) electrons. Chorus waves were excited at locations L = 4 - 6.2 after the fluxes of energetic were greatly enhanced, with a lower frequency band and wave amplitudes \~ 20 - 100 pT. Strong hiss waves occurred primarily in the main phases or bel ...

Liu, Si; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; He, Yihua; Zhou, Qinghua; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020781

Van Allen Probes; magnetopause

Electron Densities Inferred from Plasma Wave Spectra Obtained by the Waves Instrument on Van Allen Probes

The twin Van Allen Probe spacecraft, launched in August 2012, carry identical scientific payloads. The Electric and Magnetic Fields Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) suite includes a plasma wave instrument (Waves) that measures three magnetic and three electric components of plasma waves in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 12 kHz using triaxial search coils and the Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) triaxial electric field sensors. The Waves instrument also measures a single electric field component of waves in t ...

Kurth, W.; De Pascuale, S.; Faden, J.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G.; Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020857

Electron density; Upper hybrid resonance; Van Allen Probes


Van Allen Probe Observations of Periodic Rising Frequencies of the Fast Magnetosonic Mode

Near simultaneous periodic dispersive features of fast magnetosonic mode emissions are observed by both Van Allen Probes spacecraft while separated in magnetic local time by ~5 hours: Probe A at 15 and Probe B at 9\textendash11 hours. Both spacecraft see similar frequency features, characterized by a periodic repetition at ~180 s. Each repetition is characterized by a rising frequency. Since no modulation is observed in the proton shell distribution, the plasma density, or in the background magnetic field at either spacecraf ...

Boardsen, S.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kletzing, C.; Pfaff, R.; Kurth, W.; Wygant, J.; MacDonald, E.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062020

Fast Magnetosonic Waves; Inner Dayside Magnetosphere; Periodic-Dispersive Features; Van Allen Probes

Evolution of relativistic outer belt electrons during an extended quiescent period

To effectively study steady loss due to hiss-driven precipitation of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt, it is useful to isolate this loss by studying a time of relatively quiet geomagnetic activity. We present a case of initial enhancement and slow, steady decay of 700 keV - 2 MeV electron populations in the outer radiation belt during an extended quiescent period from ~15 December 2012 - 13 January 2013. We incorporate particle measurements from a constellation of satellites, including the Colorado Student ...

Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Tu, W.; Turner, D.; Ni, B.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Blake, J.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020125

electron lifetime; hiss waves; pitch angle scattering; precipitation loss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Externally driven plasmaspheric ULF waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

We analyze data acquired by the Van Allen Probes on 8 November 2012, during a period of extended low geomagnetic activity, to gain new insight into plasmaspheric ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves. The waves exhibited strong spectral power in the 5\textendash40 mHzband and included multiharmonic toroidal waves visible up to the 11th harmonic, unprecedented in the plasmasphere. During this wave activity, the interplanetary magnetic field cone angle was small, suggesting that the waves were driven by broadband compressional ULF w ...

Takahashi, Kazue; Denton, Richard; Kurth, William; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John; Bonnell, John; Dai, Lei; Min, Kyungguk; Smith, Charles; MacDowall, Robert;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020373

multispacecraft observation; Van Allen Probes; plasmasphere; ULF waves

Excitation of nightside magnetosonic waves observed by Van Allen Probes

During the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm on 30-31 March 2013, Van Allen Probe A detected enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves in a broad range of L =1.8-4.7 and MLT =17-22 h, with a frequency range ~10-100 Hz. In the meanwhile, distinct proton ring distributions with peaks at energies of ~10 keV, were also observed in L =3.2-4.6 and L =5.0-5.6. Using a subtracted bi-Maxwellian distribution to model the observed proton ring distribution, we perform three dimensional ray tracing to investigate the instability, propagatio ...

Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020481

magnetosonic wave; RBSP results; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

Early observations1, 2 indicated that the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts could be separated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. Subsequent studies3, 4 showed that electrons of moderate energy (less than about one megaelectronvolt) often populate both zones, with a deep \textquoteleftslot\textquoteright region largely devoid of particles between them. There is a region of dense cold plasma around the Earth known as the plasmasphere, the out ...

Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Hoxie, V.; Thorne, R.; Foster, J.; Li, X.; Fennell, J.; Wygant, J.; Kanekal, S.; Erickson, P.; Kurth, W.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Malaspina, D.; Gerrard, A.; Lanzerotti, L.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1038/nature13956

Magnetospheric physics; ultrarelativistic electrons; Van Allen Belts; Van Allen Probes

Interactions of energetic electrons with ULF waves triggered by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations in the magnetotail

We present in situ observations of a shock-induced substorm-like event on 13 April 2013 observed by the newly launched Van Allen twin probes. Substorm-like electron injections with energy of 30\textendash500 keV were observed in the region from L\~5.2 to 5.5 immediately after the shock arrival (followed by energetic electron drift echoes). Meanwhile, the electron flux was clearly and strongly varying on the ULF wave time scale. It is found that both toroidal and poloidal mode ULF waves with a period of 150 s emerged followin ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zhang, Hui; . Y. Fu, S; . Y. Pu, Z; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020023

energetic particles; interplanetary shock; magnetotail ULF wave; poloidal and toroidal mode; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Modeling Gradual Diffusion Changes in Radiation Belt Electron Phase Space Density for the March 2013 Van Allen Probes Case Study

March 2013 provided the first equinoctial period when all of the instruments on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft were fully operational. This interval was characterized by disturbances of outer zone electrons with two timescales of variation, diffusive and rapid dropout and restoration [Baker et al., 2014]. A radial diffusion model was applied to the month-long interval to confirm that electron phase space density is well described by radial diffusion for the whole month at low first invariant <=400 MeV/G, but peaks in phase ...

Li, Zhao; Hudson, Mary; Jaynes, Allison; Boyd, Alexander; Malaspina, David; Thaller, Scott; Wygant, John; Henderson, Michael;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020359

March 2013; radial diffusion; Van Allen Probes

THEMIS measurements of quasi-static electric fields in the inner magnetosphere

We use four years of THEMIS double-probe measurements to offer, for the first time, a complete picture of the dawn-dusk electric field covering all local times and radial distances in the inner magnetosphere based on in situ equatorial observations. This study is motivated by the results from the CRRES mission, which revealed a local maximum in the electric field developing near Earth during storm times, rather than the expected enhancement at higher L shells that is shielded near Earth as suggested by the Volland-Stern mode ...

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Blum, L.; Jaynes, A.; Schiller, Q.; Zhao, H.; Malaspina, D.; Hartinger, M.; Wolf, R.; Rowland, D.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020360

convection; double probe; electric field; inner magnetosphere

Nonlinear Electric Field Structures in the Inner Magnetosphere

Van Allen Probes observations are presented which demonstrate the presence of nonlinear electric field structures in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere (< 6 RE). A range of structures are observed, including phase space holes and double layers.These structures are observed over several Earth radii in radial distance and over a wide range of magnetic local times. They are observed in the dusk, midnight, and dawn sectors, with the highest concentration pre-midnight. Some nonlinear electric field structures are observed to coi ...

Malaspina, D.; Andersson, L.; Ergun, R.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Larsen, B.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061109

Van Allen Probes

Intense duskside lower band chorus waves observed by Van Allen Probes: Generation and potential acceleration effect on radiation belt electrons

Local acceleration driven by whistler mode chorus waves largely accounts for the enhancement of radiation belt relativistic electron fluxes, whose favored region is usually considered to be the plasmatrough with magnetic local time approximately from midnight through dawn to noon. On 2 October 2013, the Van Allen Probes recorded a rarely reported event of intense duskside lower band chorus waves (with power spectral density up to 10-3nT2/Hz) in the low-latitude region outside of L=5. Such chorus waves are found to be generat ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; He, Zhaoguo; Shen, Chao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, C.; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shui; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.610.1002/2014JA019919

Van Allen Probes

Chorus acceleration of radiation belt relativistic electrons during March 2013 geomagnetic storm

The recent launching of Van Allen probes provides an unprecedent opportunity to investigate variations of the radiation belt relativistic electrons. During the 17\textendash19 March 2013 storm, the Van Allen probes simultaneously detected strong chorus waves and substantial increases in fluxes of relativistic (2 - 4.5 MeV) electrons around L = 4.5. Chorus waves occurred within the lower band 0.1\textendash0.5fce (the electron equatorial gyrofrequency), with a peak spectral density \~10-4 nT2/Hz. Correspondingly, relativistic ...

Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Yihua; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019822

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations of direct wave-particle interactions

Quasiperiodic increases, or \textquotedblleftbursts,\textquotedblright of 17\textendash26 keV electron fluxes in conjunction with chorus wave bursts were observed following a plasma injection on 13 January 2013. The pitch angle distributions changed during the burst events, evolving from sinN(α) to distributions that formed maxima at α = 75\textendash80\textdegree, while fluxes at 90\textdegree and <60\textdegree remained nearly unchanged. The observations occurred outside of the plasmasphere in the postmidnight region and ...

Fennell, J.; Roeder, J.; Kurth, W.; Henderson, M.; Larsen, B.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Claudepierre, J.; Blake, J.; Spence, H.; Clemmons, J.; Funsten, H.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059165

Van Allen Probes

Effect of EMIC waves on relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron populations: Ground-based and Van Allen Probes observations

We study the effect of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on the loss and pitch angle scattering of relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons during the recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm on 11 October 2012. The EMIC wave activity was observed in situ on the Van Allen Probes and conjugately on the ground across the Canadian Array for Real-time Investigations of Magnetic Activity throughout an extended 18 h interval. However, neither enhanced precipitation of >0.7 MeV electrons nor reductions in Van All ...

Usanova, M.; Drozdov, A.; Orlova, K.; Mann, I.; Shprits, Y.; Robertson, M.; Turner, D.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Baker, D.; Thaller, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059024

Van Allen Probes

Gradual diffusion and punctuated phase space density enhancements of highly relativistic electrons: Van Allen Probes observations

The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. Observations (up to E ~10 MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) ch ...

Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Henderson, M.; Kanekal, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Thorne, R.; Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Malaspina, D.; Wygant, J.; Boyd, A.; Kletzing, C.; Drozdov, A.; . Y. Shprits, Y;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058942

Van Allen Probes

Evidence for injection of relativistic electrons into the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt via intense substorm electric fields

Observation and model results accumulated in the last decade indicate that substorms can promptly inject relativistic \textquoteleftkiller\textquoteright electrons (>=MeV) in addition to 10\textendash100 keV subrelativistic populations. Using measurements from Cluster, Polar, LANL, and GOES satellites near the midnight sector, we show in two events that intense electric fields, as large as 20 mV/m, associated with substorm dipolarization are associated with injections of relativistic electrons into the outer radiation belt. ...

Dai, Lei; Wygant, John; Cattell, Cynthia; Thaller, Scott; Kersten, Kris; Breneman, Aaron; Tang, Xiangwei; Friedel, Reiner; Claudepierre, Seth; Tao, Xin;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059228

radiation belt relativistic electrons; substorm dipolarization; substorm electric fields; substorm injection

Spatial localization and ducting of EMIC waves: Van Allen Probes and ground-based observations

On 11 October 2012, during the recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm, an extended interval (> 18 h) of continuous electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves was observed by Canadian Array for Real-time Investigations of Magnetic Activity and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Program induction coil magnetometers in North America. At around 14:15 UT, both Van Allen Probes B and A (65\textdegree magnetic longitude apart) in conjunction with the ground array observed very narrow (ΔL ~ 0.1\textendash0.4) left-hand polarized ...

Mann, I.; Usanova, M.; Murphy, K.; Robertson, M.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.; Thaller, S.; Raita, T.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058581

Van Allen Probes

Storm time observations of plasmasphere erosion flux in the magnetosphere and ionosphere

Plasmasphere erosion carries cold dense plasma of ionospheric origin in a storm-enhanced density plume extending from dusk toward and through the noontime cusp and dayside magnetopause and back across polar latitudes in a polar tongue of ionization. We examine dusk sector (20 MLT) plasmasphere erosion during the 17 March 2013 storm (Dst ~ -130 nT) using simultaneous, magnetically aligned direct sunward ion flux observations at high altitude by Van Allen Probes RBSP-A (at ~3.0 Re) and at ionospheric heights (~840 km) by DMSP ...

Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Coster, A.; Thaller, S.; Tao, J.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059124

Van Allen Probes

Chorus waves and spacecraft potential fluctuations: Evidence for wave-enhanced photoelectron escape

Chorus waves are important for electron energization and loss in Earth\textquoterights radiation belts and inner magnetosphere. Because the amplitude and spatial distribution of chorus waves can be strongly influenced by plasma density fluctuations and spacecraft floating potential can be a diagnostic of plasma density, the relationship between measured potential and chorus waves is examined using Van Allen Probes data. While measured potential and chorus wave electric fields correlate strongly, potential fluctuation propert ...

Malaspina, D.; Ergun, R.; Sturner, A.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Breneman, A.; Kersten, K.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058769

Van Allen Probes

Observations of kinetic scale field line resonances

We identify electromagnetic field variations from the Van Allen Probes which have the properties of Doppler shifted kinetic scale Alfv\ enic field line resonances. These variations are observed during injections of energetic plasmas into the inner magnetosphere. These waves have scale sizes perpendicular to the magnetic field which are determined to be of the order of an ion gyro-radius (ρi) and less. Cross-spectral analysis of the electric and magnetic fields reveals phase transitions at frequencies correlated with enhance ...

Chaston, Christopher; Bonnell, J; Wygant, John; Mozer, Forrest; Bale, Stuart; Kersten, Kris; Breneman, Aaron; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Smith, Charles; MacDonald, Elizabeth;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058507

Van Allen Probes

Prompt energization of relativistic and highly relativistic electrons during a substorm interval: Van Allen Probes observations

On 17 March 2013, a large magnetic storm significantly depleted the multi-MeV radiation belt. We present multi-instrument observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft Radiation Belt Storm Probe A and Radiation Belt Storm Probe B at ~6 Re in the midnight sector magnetosphere and from ground-based ionospheric sensors during a substorm dipolarization followed by rapid reenergization of multi-MeV electrons. A 50\% increase in magnetic field magnitude occurred simultaneously with dramatic increases in 100 keV electron fluxes ...

Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Baker, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Reeves, G.; Thaller, S.; Spence, H.; . Y. Shprits, Y; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058438

Van Allen Probes


Megavolt Parallel Potentials Arising from Double-Layer Streams in the Earth\textquoterights Outer Radiation Belt

Huge numbers of double layers carrying electric fields parallel to the local magnetic field line have been observed on the Van Allen probes in connection with in situ relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt. For one case with adequate high time resolution data, 7000 double layers were observed in an interval of 1 min to produce a 230 000 V net parallel potential drop crossing the spacecraft. Lower resolution data show that this event lasted for 6 min and that more than 1 000 000 v ...

Mozer, F.; Bale, S.; Bonnell, J; Chaston, C.; Roth, I.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.235002

Van Allen Probes

The Electric Field and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasi-static and low frequency electric fields and waves associated with the major mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. For this measurement, the instrument uses two pairs of spherical double probe sensors at the ends of orthogonal centripetally deployed booms in t ...

Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Goetz, K.; Ergun, R.E.; Mozer, F.; Bale, S.D.; Ludlam, M.; Turin, P.; Harvey, P.R.; Hochmann, R.; Harps, K.; Dalton, G.; McCauley, J.; Rachelson, W.; Gordon, D.; Donakowski, B.; Shultz, C.; Smith, C.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Fischer, J.; Heavner, S.; Berg, P.; Malaspina, D.; Bolton, M.; Hudson, M.; Strangeway, R.; Baker, D.; Li, X.; Albert, J.; Foster, J.C.; Chaston, C.C.; Mann, I.; Donovan, E.; Cully, C.M.; Cattell, C.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Kersten, K.; Brenneman, A; Tao, J.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0013-7

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observation of localized drift-resonance between poloidal mode ultra-low frequency waves and 60 keV electrons

[1] We present NASA Van Allen Probes observations of wave-particle interactions between magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves and energetic electrons (20\textendash500 keV) on 31 October 2012. The ULF waves are identified as the fundamental poloidal mode oscillation and are excited following an interplanetary shock impact on the magnetosphere. Large amplitude modulations in energetic electron flux are observed at the same period (≈ 3 min) as the ULF waves and are consistent with a drift-resonant interaction. The a ...

Claudepierre, S.; Mann, I.R.; Takahashi, K; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Blake, J.; Roeder, J.; Clemmons, J.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50901

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Excitation of Poloidal standing Alfven waves through the drift resonance wave-particle interaction

Drift-resonance wave-particle interaction is a fundamental collisionless plasma process studied extensively in theory. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (Eφ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed, associated w ...

Dai, L.; Takahashi, K; Wygant, J.; Chen, L.; Bonnell, J; Cattell, C.; Thaller, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50800

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

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