Bibliography



Found 210 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 151 through 200


2015

Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations

Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also sub-relativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler-mode wave\textendashparticle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Troms\o VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements w ...

Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S.; Saito, S.; Kurita, S.; Fujiwara, H.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Santolik, O.; Clilverd, M.; Rodger, C.; Turunen, E.; Tsuchiya, F.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020690

EISCAT; pitch angle scattering; pulsating aurora; Van Allen Probes

Formation of the oxygen torus in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations

We study the formation process of an oxygen torus during the 12\textendash15 November 2012 magnetic storm, using the magnetic field and plasma wave data obtained by Van Allen Probes. We estimate the local plasma mass density (ρL) and the local electron number density (neL) from the resonant frequencies of standing Alfv\ en waves and the upper hybrid resonance band. The average ion mass (M) can be calculated by M \~ ρL/neL under the assumption of quasi-neutrality of plasma. During the storm recovery phase, both Probe A and ...

e, Nos\; Oimatsu, S.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; De Pascuale, S.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Nakano, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Larsen, B.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020593

inner magnetosphere; magnetic storm; oxygen torus; plasmasphere; ring current; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

The global context of the 14 November, 2012 storm event

From 2 to 5 UT on 14 November, 2012, the Van Allen Probes observed repeated particle flux dropouts during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm as the satellites traversed the post-midnight to dawnside inner magnetosphere. Each flux dropout corresponded to an abrupt change in the magnetic topology, i.e., from a more dipolar configuration to a configuration with magnetic field lines stretched in the dawn-dusk direction. Geosynchronous GOES spacecraft located in the dusk and near-midnight sectors and the LANL constellation wit ...

Hwang, K.-J.; Sibeck, D.; Fok, M.-C.; Zheng, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Lee, J.-J.; Glocer, A.; Partamies, N.; Singer, H.; Reeves, G.; Mitchell, D.; Kletzing, C.; Onsager, T.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020826

Van Allen Probes

Modeling inward diffusion and slow decay of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt

A new 3D diffusion code is used to investigate the inward intrusion and slow decay of energetic radiation belt electrons (>0.5 MeV) observed by the Van Allen Probes during a 10-day quiet period in March 2013. During the inward transport the peak differential electron fluxes decreased by approximately an order of magnitude at various energies. Our 3D radiation belt simulation including radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by plasmaspheric hiss and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves reproduces the esse ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062977

pitch angle scattering; radiation belts modeling; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observations

Plasmatrough exohiss waves observed by Van Allen Probes: Evidence for leakage from plasmasphere and resonant scattering of radiation belt electrons

Exohiss waves are whistler mode hiss observed in the plasmatrough region. We present a case study of exohiss waves and the corresponding background plasma distributions observed by the Van Allen Probes in the dayside low-latitude region. The analysis of wave Poynting fluxes, suprathermal electron fluxes and cold electron densities supports the scenario that exohiss leaks from the plasmasphere into the plasmatrough. Quasilinear calculations further reveal that exohiss can potentially cause the resonant scattering loss of radi ...

Zhu, Hui; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chao; Xian, Tao; Wang, Shui; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062964

Cyclotron resonance; Exohiss; Landau damping; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belt electron loss; Van Allen Probes

Spatial structure and temporal evolution of energetic particle injections in the inner magnetosphere during the 14 July 2013 substorm event.

Recent results by the Van Allen Probes mission showed that the occurrence of energetic ion injections inside geosynchronous orbit could be very frequent throughout the main phase of a geomagnetic storm. Understanding, therefore, the formation and evolution of energetic particle injections is critical in order to quantify their effect in the inner magnetosphere. We present a case study of a substorm event that occurred during a weak storm (Dst ~ - 40 nT) on 14 July 2013. Van Allen Probe B, inside geosynchronous orbit, observe ...

Gkioulidou, Matina; Ohtani, S.; Mitchell, D.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Reeves, G.; Turner, D.; Gjerloev, J.; e, Nos\; Koga, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Lanzerotti, L.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020872

inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

On the use of drift echoes to characterize on-orbit sensor discrepancies

We describe a method for using drift echo signatures in on-orbit data to resolve discrepancies between different measurements of particle flux. The drift period has a well-defined energy dependence, which gives rise to time dispersion of the echoes. The dispersion can then be used to determine the effective energy for one or more channels given each channel\textquoterights drift period and the known energy for a reference channel. We demonstrate this technique on multiple instruments from the Van Allen probes mission. Drift ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.P.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Looper, M.D.; Blake, J.B.; Fennell, J.F.; Clemmons, J.H.; Roeder, J.L.; Kanekal, S.G.; Manweiler, J.W.; Mitchell, D.G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.; Baker, D.N.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020859

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes show the inner radiation zone contains no MeV electrons: ECT/MagEIS data

We present Van Allen Probe observations of electrons in the inner radiation zone. The measurements were made by the ECT/MagEIS sensors that were designed to measure electrons with the ability to remove unwanted signals from penetrating protons, providing clean measurements. No electrons >900 keV were observed with equatorial fluxes above background (i.e. >0.1 electrons/(cm2 s sr keV)) in the inner zone. The observed fluxes are compared to the AE9 model and CRRES observations. Electron fluxes <200 keV exceeded the AE9 model 5 ...

Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Clemmons, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062874

inner magnetosphere; Inner radiation belt; Inner zone; trapped electrons; Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity

From a survey of the first nightside season of NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission (Dec/2012 \textendash Sep/2013), 47 energetic (10s to 100s of keV) electron injection events were found at L-shells <= 4, all of which are deeper than any previously reported substorm-related injections. Preliminary details from these events are presented, including how: all occurred shortly after dipolarization signatures and injections were observed at higher L-shells; the deepest observed injection was at L~2.5; and, surprisingly, ...

Turner, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Blake, J.; Lemon, C.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Reeves, G.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Li, W.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225

energetic particle injections; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; substorms; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations linking radiation belt electrons to chorus waves during 2014 multiple storms

During 18 February to 2 March 2014, the Van Allen Probes encountered multiple geomagnetic storms and simultaneously observed intensified chorus and hiss waves. During this period, there were substantial enhancements in fluxes of energetic (53.8 - 108.3 keV) and relativistic (2 - 3.6 MeV) electrons. Chorus waves were excited at locations L = 4 - 6.2 after the fluxes of energetic were greatly enhanced, with a lower frequency band and wave amplitudes \~ 20 - 100 pT. Strong hiss waves occurred primarily in the main phases or bel ...

Liu, Si; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; He, Yihua; Zhou, Qinghua; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020781

Van Allen Probes; magnetopause

2014

Quantifying the relative contributions of substorm injections and chorus waves to the rapid outward extension of electron radiation belt

We study the rapid outward extension of the electron radiation belt on a timescale of several hours during three events observed by RBSP and THEMIS satellites, and particularly quantify the contributions of substorm injections and chorus waves to the electron flux enhancement near the outer boundary of radiation belt. A comprehensive analysis including both observations and simulations is performed for the first event on 26 May 2013. The outer boundary of electron radiation belt moved from L = 5.5 to L > 6.07 over about 6 ho ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Zong, Q.-G.; He, Zhaoguo; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shui; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020709

Chorus wave; Electron acceleration; Radiation belt; substorm injection; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Characterization of the energy-dependent response of riometer absorption

Ground based riometers provide an inexpensive means to continuously remote sense the precipitation of electrons in the dynamic auroral region of Earth\textquoterights ionosphere. The energy-dependent relationship between riometer absorption and precipitating electrons is thus of great importance for understanding the loss of electrons from the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. In this study, statistical and event-based analyses are applied to determine the energy of electrons to which riometers chiefly respond. Time-lagge ...

Kellerman, A.; . Y. Shprits, Y; Makarevich, R.; Spanswick, E.; Donovan, E.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020027

cosmic noise absorption; electron energy; particle modeling; Radiation belts; riometer; electron precipitation

Excitation of nightside magnetosonic waves observed by Van Allen Probes

During the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm on 30-31 March 2013, Van Allen Probe A detected enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves in a broad range of L =1.8-4.7 and MLT =17-22 h, with a frequency range ~10-100 Hz. In the meanwhile, distinct proton ring distributions with peaks at energies of ~10 keV, were also observed in L =3.2-4.6 and L =5.0-5.6. Using a subtracted bi-Maxwellian distribution to model the observed proton ring distribution, we perform three dimensional ray tracing to investigate the instability, propagatio ...

Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020481

magnetosonic wave; RBSP results; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Whistler Anisotropy Instabilities as the Source of Banded Chorus: Van Allen Probes Observations and Particle-in-Cell Simulations

Magnetospheric banded chorus is enhanced whistler waves with frequencies ωr < Ωe, where Ωe is the electron cyclotron frequency, and a characteristic spectral gap at ωr ≃ Ωe/2. This paper uses spacecraft observations and two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma to test the hypothesis that banded chorus is due to local linear growth of two branches of the whistler anisotropy instability excited by two distinct, anisotropic electron components of significantly ...

Fu, Xiangrong; Cowee, Misa; Friedel, Reinhard; Funsten, Herbert; Gary, Peter; Hospodarsky, George; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Larsen, Brian; Liu, Kaijun; MacDonald, Elizabeth; Min, Kyungguk; Reeves, Geoffrey; Skoug, Ruth; Winske, Dan;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020364

Chorus; HOPE; particle-in-cell simulation; Van Allen Probes

Prediction of relativistic electron flux at geostationary orbit following storms: Multiple regression analysis

Many solar wind and magnetosphere parameters correlate with relativistic electron flux following storms. These include relativistic electron flux before the storm; seed electron flux; solar wind velocity and number density (and their variation); interplanetary magnetic field Bz, AE and Kp indices; and ultra low frequency (ULF) and very low frequency (VLF) wave power. However, as all these variables are intercorrelated, we use multiple regression analyses to determine which are the most predictive of flux when other variables ...

Simms, Laura; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Engebretson, Mark; Reeves, Geoffrey; Smith, A.; Clilverd, Mark;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.910.1002/2014JA019955

empirical modeling; multiple regression; multivariable analysis

The trapping of equatorial magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights outer plasmasphere

We investigate the excitation and propagation of equatorial magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and describe evidence for a trapping mechanism for magnetosonic waves in the Earth\textquoterights plasmasphere. Intense equatorial magnetosonic waves were observed inside the plasmasphere in association with a pronounced proton ring distribution, which provides free energy for wave excitation. Instability analysis along the inbound orbit demonstrates that broadband magnetosonic waves can be excited over a localize ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, L.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061414

magnetosonic waves; Van Allen Probes; wave excitation; wave propagation

Acceleration and loss driven by VLF chorus: Van Allen Probes observations and DREAM model results

For over a decade now we have understood the response of the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts to solar wind driving are a delicate balance of acceleration and loss processes. Theory has shown that the interaction of relativistic electrons with VLF whistler mode chorus can produce both energization through momentum diffusion and loss through pitch angle diffusion. Recent results from the Van Allen Probes mission has confirmed observationally that chorus can produce both acceleration and loss. The Van Allen Probes satelli ...

Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Henderson, M.; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Chen, Y.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929879

Van Allen Probes

Generation of Unusually Low Frequency Plasmaspheric Hiss

It has been reported from Van Allen Probe observations that plasmaspheric hiss intensification in the outer plasmasphere, associated with a substorm injection on Sept 30 2012, occurred with a peak frequency near 100 Hz, well below the typical plasmaspheric hiss frequency range, extending down to ~20 Hz. We examine this event of unusually low frequency plasmaspheric hiss to understand its generation mechanism. Quantitative analysis is performed by simulating wave ray paths via the HOTRAY ray tracing code with measured plasma ...

Chen, Lunjin; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Li, Wen; Horne, Richard; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060628

Chorus; Generation; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Ray Tracing; Van Allen Probes

Nonlinear Electric Field Structures in the Inner Magnetosphere

Van Allen Probes observations are presented which demonstrate the presence of nonlinear electric field structures in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere (< 6 RE). A range of structures are observed, including phase space holes and double layers.These structures are observed over several Earth radii in radial distance and over a wide range of magnetic local times. They are observed in the dusk, midnight, and dawn sectors, with the highest concentration pre-midnight. Some nonlinear electric field structures are observed to coi ...

Malaspina, D.; Andersson, L.; Ergun, R.; Wygant, J.; Bonnell, J; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Larsen, B.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061109

Van Allen Probes

Direct Observation of Radiation-Belt Electron Acceleration from Electron-Volt Energies to Megavolts by Nonlinear Whistlers

The mechanisms for accelerating electrons from thermal to relativistic energies in the terrestrial magnetosphere, on the sun, and in many astrophysical environments have never been verified. We present the first direct observation of two processes that, in a chain, cause this acceleration in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt. The two processes are parallel acceleration from electron-volt to kilovolt energies by parallel electric fields in time-domain structures (TDS), after which the parallel electron velocity becom ...

Mozer, S.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.; Reeves, D.; Roth, I.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.035001

Van Allen Probes

Direct Observation of Radiation-Belt Electron Acceleration from Electron-Volt Energies to Megavolts by Nonlinear Whistlers

The mechanisms for accelerating electrons from thermal to relativistic energies in the terrestrial magnetosphere, on the sun, and in many astrophysical environments have never been verified. We present the first direct observation of two processes that, in a chain, cause this acceleration in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt. The two processes are parallel acceleration from electron-volt to kilovolt energies by parallel electric fields in time-domain structures (TDS), after which the parallel electron velocity becom ...

Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.; Reeves, G.; Roth, I.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.035001

The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation and the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of 5 fields-and-particles investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. MMS comprises 4 spacecraft flying in close formation in highly elliptical, near-Earth-equatorial orbits targeting understanding of the fundamental physics of the important physical process called magnetic reconnection using Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory. EPD comprises two sensor types, the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) with one instrument on each o ...

Mauk, B.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Clemmons, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Jaskulek, S.; Schlemm, C.; Brown, L.; Cooper, S.; Craft, J.; Fennell, J.; Gurnee, R.; Hammock, C.; Hayes, J.; Hill, P.; Ho, G.; Hutcheson, J.; Jacques, A.; Kerem, S.; Mitchell, D.; Nelson, K.; Paschalidis, N.; Rossano, E.; Stokes, M.; Westlake, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-014-0055-5

Magnetic reconnection; Magnetosphere; Magnetospheric multiscale; NASA mission; Particle acceleration; Space plasma

Excitation of EMIC waves detected by the Van Allen Probes on 28 April 2013

We report the wave observations, associated plasma measurements, and linear theory testing of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave events observed by the Van Allen Probes on 28 April 2013. The wave events are detected in their generation regions as three individual events in two consecutive orbits of Van Allen Probe-A, while the other spacecraft, B, does not detect any significant EMIC wave activity during this period. Three overlapping H+ populations are observed around the plasmapause when the waves are excited. The d ...

Zhang, J.-C.; Saikin, A.; Kistler, L.; Smith, C.; Spence, H.; Mouikis, C.; Torbert, R.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Allen, R.; Jordanova, V.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060621

Van Allen Probes

Intense duskside lower band chorus waves observed by Van Allen Probes: Generation and potential acceleration effect on radiation belt electrons

Local acceleration driven by whistler mode chorus waves largely accounts for the enhancement of radiation belt relativistic electron fluxes, whose favored region is usually considered to be the plasmatrough with magnetic local time approximately from midnight through dawn to noon. On 2 October 2013, the Van Allen Probes recorded a rarely reported event of intense duskside lower band chorus waves (with power spectral density up to 10-3nT2/Hz) in the low-latitude region outside of L=5. Such chorus waves are found to be generat ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; He, Zhaoguo; Shen, Chao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, C.; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shui; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.610.1002/2014JA019919

Van Allen Probes

Radiation belt electron acceleration by chorus waves during the 17 March 2013 storm

Local acceleration driven by whistler-mode chorus waves is fundamentally important for accelerating seed electron populations to highly relativistic energies in the outer radiation belt. In this study, we quantitatively evaluate chorus-driven electron acceleration during the 17 March 2013 storm, when the Van Allen Probes observed very rapid electron acceleration up to several MeV within ~12 hours. A clear radial peak in electron phase space density (PSD) observed near L* ~4 indicates that an internal local acceleration proce ...

Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ma, Q.; Ni, B.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Kanekal, S.; Green, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.610.1002/2014JA019945

Van Allen Probes

Chorus acceleration of radiation belt relativistic electrons during March 2013 geomagnetic storm

The recent launching of Van Allen probes provides an unprecedent opportunity to investigate variations of the radiation belt relativistic electrons. During the 17\textendash19 March 2013 storm, the Van Allen probes simultaneously detected strong chorus waves and substantial increases in fluxes of relativistic (2 - 4.5 MeV) electrons around L = 4.5. Chorus waves occurred within the lower band 0.1\textendash0.5fce (the electron equatorial gyrofrequency), with a peak spectral density \~10-4 nT2/Hz. Correspondingly, relativistic ...

Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Yihua; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019822

Van Allen Probes

Quantifying the radiation belt seed population in the 17 March 2013 electron acceleration event

We present phase space density (PSD) observations using data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instrument on the Van Allen Probes for the 17 March 2013 electron acceleration event. We confirm previous results and quantify how PSD gradients depend on the first adiabatic invariant. We find a systematic difference between the lower-energy electrons (1 MeV with a source region within the radiation belts. Our observations show that the source p ...

Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Turner, D.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059626

Van Allen Probes

Simulations of inner magnetosphere dynamics with an expanded RAM-SCB model and comparisons with Van Allen Probes observations

Simulations from our newly expanded ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB), now valid out to 9 RE, are compared for the first time with Van Allen Probes observations. The expanded model reproduces the storm time ring current buildup due to the increased convection and inflow of plasma from the magnetotail. It matches Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) observations of the trapped high-energy (>50 keV) ion flux; however, it underestimates the low-energy (<10 keV) Heliu ...

Jordanova, V.; Yu, Y.; Niehof, J.; Skoug, R.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.; Fennell, J.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059533

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations of direct wave-particle interactions

Quasiperiodic increases, or \textquotedblleftbursts,\textquotedblright of 17\textendash26 keV electron fluxes in conjunction with chorus wave bursts were observed following a plasma injection on 13 January 2013. The pitch angle distributions changed during the burst events, evolving from sinN(α) to distributions that formed maxima at α = 75\textendash80\textdegree, while fluxes at 90\textdegree and <60\textdegree remained nearly unchanged. The observations occurred outside of the plasmasphere in the postmidnight region and ...

Fennell, J.; Roeder, J.; Kurth, W.; Henderson, M.; Larsen, B.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.; Claudepierre, J.; Blake, J.; Spence, H.; Clemmons, J.; Funsten, H.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059165

Van Allen Probes

Application and testing of the L * neural network with the self-consistent magnetic field model of RAM-SCB

We expanded our previous work on L* neural networks that used empirical magnetic field models as the underlying models by applying and extending our technique to drift shells calculated from a physics-based magnetic field model. While empirical magnetic field models represent an average, statistical magnetospheric state, the RAM-SCB model, a first-principles magnetically self-consistent code, computes magnetic fields based on fundamental equations of plasma physics. Unlike the previous L* neural networks that include McIlwai ...

Yu, Yiqun; Koller, Josef; Jordanova, Vania; Zaharia, Sorin; Friedel, Reinhard; Morley, Steven; Chen, Yue; Baker, Daniel; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.310.1002/2013JA019350

Van Allen Probes

On the cause and extent of outer radiation belt losses during the 30 September 2012 dropout event

On 30 September 2012, a flux \textquotedblleftdropout\textquotedblright occurred throughout Earth\textquoterights outer electron radiation belt during the main phase of a strong geomagnetic storm. Using eight spacecraft from NASA\textquoterights Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) and Van Allen Probes missions and NOAA\textquoterights Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites constellation, we examined the full extent and timescales of the dropout based on particle energy, eq ...

Turner, D.; Angelopoulos, V.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M.; Reeves, G.; Li, W.; Baker, D.; Huang, C.-L.; Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Rodriguez, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019446

dropouts; inner magnetosphere; loss; Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

Competing source and loss mechanisms due to wave-particle interactions in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt during the 30 September to 3 October 2012 geomagnetic storm

Drastic variations of Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt electrons ultimately result from various competing source, loss, and transport processes, to which wave-particle interactions are critically important. Using 15 spacecraft including NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and SAMPEX missions and NOAA\textquoterights GOES and POES constellations, we investigated the evolution of the outer belt during the strong geomagnetic storm of 30 September to 3 October 2012. This storm\textquoterights main phase drop ...

Turner, D.; Angelopoulos, V.; Li, W.; Bortnik, J.; Ni, B.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M.; Reeves, G.; Usanova, M.; Mann, I.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.; Rodriguez, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v119.310.1002/2014JA019770

Van Allen Probes

Effect of EMIC waves on relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron populations: Ground-based and Van Allen Probes observations

We study the effect of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on the loss and pitch angle scattering of relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons during the recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm on 11 October 2012. The EMIC wave activity was observed in situ on the Van Allen Probes and conjugately on the ground across the Canadian Array for Real-time Investigations of Magnetic Activity throughout an extended 18 h interval. However, neither enhanced precipitation of >0.7 MeV electrons nor reductions in Van All ...

Usanova, M.; Drozdov, A.; Orlova, K.; Mann, I.; Shprits, Y.; Robertson, M.; Turner, D.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Baker, D.; Thaller, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059024

Van Allen Probes

Event-specific chorus wave and electron seed population models in DREAM3D using the Van Allen Probes

The DREAM3D diffusion model is applied to Van Allen Probes observations of the fast dropout and strong enhancement of MeV electrons during the October 2012 \textquotedblleftdouble-dip\textquotedblright storm. We show that in order to explain the very different behavior in the two \textquotedblleftdips,\textquotedblright diffusion in all three dimensions (energy, pitch angle, and L*) coupled with data-driven, event-specific inputs, and boundary conditions is required. Specifically, we find that outward radial diffusion to the ...

Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, G.; Chen, Y.; Morley, S.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058819

Van Allen Probes

Gradual diffusion and punctuated phase space density enhancements of highly relativistic electrons: Van Allen Probes observations

The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. Observations (up to E ~10 MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) ch ...

Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Henderson, M.; Kanekal, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Thorne, R.; Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Malaspina, D.; Wygant, J.; Boyd, A.; Kletzing, C.; Drozdov, A.; . Y. Shprits, Y;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058942

Van Allen Probes

Resonant scattering of energetic electrons by unusual low-frequency hiss

We quantify the resonant scattering effects of the unusual low-frequency dawnside plasmaspheric hiss observed on 30 September 2012 by the Van Allen Probes. In contrast to normal (~100\textendash2000 Hz) hiss emissions, this unusual hiss event contained most of its wave power at ~20\textendash200 Hz. Compared to the scattering by normal hiss, the unusual hiss scattering speeds up the loss of ~50\textendash200 keV electrons and produces more pronounced pancake distributions of ~50\textendash100 keV electrons. It is demonstrate ...

Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Chen, Lunjin; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Blake, Bernard; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059389

Van Allen Probes

Global time-dependent chorus maps from low-Earth-orbit electron precipitation and Van Allen Probes data

Substorm injected electrons (several\textendash100 s keV) produce whistler-mode chorus waves that are thought to have a major impact on the radiation belts by causing both energization and loss of relativistic electrons in the outer belt. High-altitude measurements, such as those from the Van Allen Probes, provide detailed wave measurements at a few points in the magnetosphere. But physics-based models of radiation-belt dynamics require knowledge of the global distribution of chorus waves. We demonstrate that time-dependent, ...

Chen, Yue; Reeves, Geoffrey; Friedel, Reiner; Cunningham, Gregory;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059181

Van Allen Probes

Quantifying hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation: A detailed conjunction event analysis

We analyze a conjunction event between the Van Allen Probes and the low-altitude Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) to quantify hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation. A physics-based technique based on quasi-linear diffusion theory is used to estimate the ratio of precipitated and trapped electron fluxes (R), which could be measured by the two-directional POES particle detectors, using wave and plasma parameters observed by the Van Allen Probes. The remarkable agreement between modeling and observations sug ...

Li, W.; Ni, B.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Green, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Gu, X.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059132

Van Allen Probes

An empirically observed pitch-angle diffusion eigenmode in the Earth\textquoterights electron belt near L * = 5.0

Using data from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, we have identified a synchronized exponential decay of electron flux in the outer zone, near L* = 5.0. Exponential decays strongly indicate the presence of a pure eigenmode of a diffusion operator acting in the synchronized dimension(s). The decay has a time scale of about 4 days with no dependence on pitch angle. While flux at nearby energies and L* is also decaying exponentially, the decay time varies in those dimensions. This suggests the primary decay mechanism is el ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Claudepierre, S.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Clemmons, J.; Roeder, J.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058713

Van Allen Probes

Nonstorm time dynamics of electron radiation belts observed by the Van Allen Probes

Storm time electron radiation belt dynamics have been widely investigated for many years. Here we present a rarely reported nonstorm time event of electron radiation belt evolution observed by the Van Allen Probes during 21\textendash24 February 2013. Within 2 days, a new belt centering around L=5.8 formed and gradually merged with the original outer belt, with the enhancement of relativistic electron fluxes by a factor of up to 50. Strong chorus waves (with power spectral density up to 10-4nT2/Hz) occurred in the region L>5 ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; He, Zhaoguo; Zhu, Hui; Zhang, Min; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058912

Van Allen Probes

Prompt energization of relativistic and highly relativistic electrons during a substorm interval: Van Allen Probes observations

On 17 March 2013, a large magnetic storm significantly depleted the multi-MeV radiation belt. We present multi-instrument observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft Radiation Belt Storm Probe A and Radiation Belt Storm Probe B at ~6 Re in the midnight sector magnetosphere and from ground-based ionospheric sensors during a substorm dipolarization followed by rapid reenergization of multi-MeV electrons. A 50\% increase in magnetic field magnitude occurred simultaneously with dramatic increases in 100 keV electron fluxes ...

Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Baker, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Reeves, G.; Thaller, S.; Spence, H.; . Y. Shprits, Y; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058438

Van Allen Probes

2013

James Van Allen and His Namesake NASA Mission

In many ways, James A. Van Allen defined and \textquotedblleftinvented\textquotedblright modern space research. His example showed the way for government-university partners to pursue basic research that also served important national and international goals. He was a tireless advocate for space exploration and for the role of space science in the spectrum of national priorities.

Baker, D.; Hoxie, V.; Jaynes, A.; Kale, A.; Kanekal, S.; Li, X.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/eost.v94.4910.1002/2013EO490001

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Rapid local acceleration of relativistic radiation-belt electrons by magnetospheric chorus

Recent analysis of satellite data obtained during the 9 October 2012 geomagnetic storm identified the development of peaks in electron phase space density1, which are compelling evidence for local electron acceleration in the heart of the outer radiation belt2, 3, but are inconsistent with acceleration by inward radial diffusive transport4, 5. However, the precise physical mechanism responsible for the acceleration on 9 October was not identified. Previous modelling has indicated that a magnetospheric electromagnetic emissio ...

Thorne, R.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, L.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Kanekal, S.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1038/nature12889

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Discovery of the action of a geophysical synchrotron in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts

Although the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts were discovered over 50 years ago, the dominant processes responsible for relativistic electron acceleration, transport and loss remain poorly understood. Here we show evidence for the action of coherent acceleration due to resonance with ultra-low frequency waves on a planetary scale. Data from the CRRES probe, and from the recently launched multi-satellite NASA Van Allen Probes mission, with supporting modeling, collectively show coherent ultra-low frequency inte ...

Mann, Ian; Lee, E.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Degeling, A.; Rae, I.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Ozeke, L.; Rankin, R.; Milling, D.; Kale, A.; Friedel, R.; Honary, F.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3795

Van Allen Probes

Science Goals and Overview of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite on NASA\textquoterights Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Mission

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)-Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite contains an innovative complement of particle instruments to ensure the highest quality measurements ever made in the inner magnetosphere and radiation belts. The coordinated RBSP-ECT particle measurements, analyzed in combination with fields and waves observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling, are necessary for understanding the acceleration, global distribution, and variability of radiation belt electrons and ...

Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Bolton, M.; Bourdarie, S.; Chan, A.; Claudpierre, S.; Clemmons, J.; Cravens, J.; Elkington, S.; Fennell, J.; Friedel, R.; Funsten, H.; Goldstein, J.; Green, J.; Guthrie, A.; Henderson, M.; Horne, R.; Hudson, M.; Jahn, J.-M.; Jordanova, V.; Kanekal, S.; Klatt, B.; Larsen, B.; Li, X.; MacDonald, E.; Mann, I.R.; Niehof, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Onsager, T.; Salvaggio, D.; Skoug, R.; Smith, S.; Suther, L.; Thomsen, M.; Thorne, R.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-0007-5

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

First Results from CSSWE CubeSat: Characteristics of Relativistic Electrons in the Near-Earth Environment During the October 2012 Magnetic Storms

Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) on board the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat mission, which was launched into a highly inclined (65\textdegree) low Earth orbit, are analyzed along with measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes, which are in a low inclination (10\textdegree) geo-transfer-like orbit. Both REPT ...

Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Califf, S.; Zhao, H.; Tu, W.; Turner, D.; Gerhardt, D.; Palo, S.; Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Looper, M.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019342

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Phase Space Density matching of relativistic electrons using the Van Allen Probes: REPT results

1] Phase Space Density (PSD) matching can be used to identify the presence of nonadiabatic processes, evaluate accuracy of magnetic field models, or to cross-calibrate instruments. Calculating PSD in adiabatic invariant coordinates requires a global specification of the magnetic field. For a well specified global magnetic field, nonadiabatic processes or inadequate cross calibration will give a poor PSD match. We have calculated PSD(μ, K) for both Van Allen Probes using a range of models and compare these PSDs at conjunctio ...

Morley, S.; Henderson, M.; Reeves, G.; Friedel, R.; Baker, D.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50909

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observation of localized drift-resonance between poloidal mode ultra-low frequency waves and 60 keV electrons

[1] We present NASA Van Allen Probes observations of wave-particle interactions between magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves and energetic electrons (20\textendash500 keV) on 31 October 2012. The ULF waves are identified as the fundamental poloidal mode oscillation and are excited following an interplanetary shock impact on the magnetosphere. Large amplitude modulations in energetic electron flux are observed at the same period (≈ 3 min) as the ULF waves and are consistent with a drift-resonant interaction. The a ...

Claudepierre, S.; Mann, I.R.; Takahashi, K; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M.; Blake, J.; Roeder, J.; Clemmons, J.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Funsten, H.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50901

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Excitation of Poloidal standing Alfven waves through the drift resonance wave-particle interaction

Drift-resonance wave-particle interaction is a fundamental collisionless plasma process studied extensively in theory. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (Eφ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed, associated w ...

Dai, L.; Takahashi, K; Wygant, J.; Chen, L.; Bonnell, J; Cattell, C.; Thaller, S.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Funsten, H.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1002/grl.50800

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) Mass Spectrometer for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

The HOPE mass spectrometer of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission (renamed the Van Allen Probes) is designed to measure the in situ plasma ion and electron fluxes over 4π sr at each RBSP spacecraft within the terrestrial radiation belts. The scientific goal is to understand the underlying physical processes that govern the radiation belt structure and dynamics. Spectral measurements for both ions and electrons are acquired over 1 eV to 50 keV in 36 log-spaced steps at an energy resolution ΔE FWHM/E≈15 \%. The ...

Funsten, H.; Skoug, R.; Guthrie, A.; MacDonald, E.; Baldonado, J.; Harper, R.; Henderson, K.; Kihara, K.; Lake, J.; Larsen, B.; Puckett, A.; Vigil, V.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Niehof, J.; Reeves, G.; Thomsen, M.; Hanley, J.; George, D.; Jahn, J.-M.; Cortinas, S.; Santos, Los; Dunn, G.; Edlund, E.; Ferris, M.; Freeman, M.; Maple, M.; Nunez, C.; Taylor, T.; Toczynski, W.; Urdiales, C.; Spence, H.; Cravens, J.; Suther, L.; Chen, J.;

YEAR: 2013     DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9968-7

RBSP; Van Allen Probes



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