Bibliography





Van Allen Probes Bibliography is from August 2012 through September 2021

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Found 506 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 351 through 400


2015

Nonlinear Bounce Resonances between Magnetosonic Waves and Equatorially Mirroring Electrons

Equatorially mirroring energetic electrons pose an interesting scientific problem, since they generally cannot resonate with any known plasma waves and hence cannot be scattered down to lower pitch angles. Observationally it is well known that the fluxof these equatorial particles does not simply continue to build up indefinitely, and so a mechanism must necessarily exist that transports these particles from a equatorial pitch angle of 90 degrees down to lower values. However this mechanism has not been uniquely identified y ...

Chen, Lunjin; Maldonado, Armando; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Li, Jinxing; Dai, Lei; Zhan, Xiaoya;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021174

bounce resonance; equatorioal noise; magnetosonic waves; nonlinear; Radiation belt; wave particle interaction

A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 1. Wave properties

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, as well as local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the MLT-L frame within a li ...

Allen, R.; Zhang, J.; Kistler, L.; Spence, H.; Lin, R.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M.; e, Andr\; Jordanova, V.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021333

Cluster; EMIC waves; Magnetosphere; Shabansky orbits

Van Allen probes, NOAA, GOES, and ground observations of an intense EMIC wave event extending over 12 hours in MLT

Although most studies of the effects of EMIC waves on Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt have focused on events in the afternoon sector in the outer plasmasphere or plume region, strong magnetospheric compressions provide an additional stimulus for EMIC wave generation across a large range of local times and L shells. We present here observations of the effects of a wave event on February 23, 2014 that extended over 8 hours in UT and over 12 hours in local time, stimulated by a gradual 4-hour rise and subsequent shar ...

Engebretson, M.; Posch, J.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.; Lessard, M.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H.; Smith, C.; Singer, H.; Omura, Y.; Horne, R.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Gkioulidou, M.; Oksavik, K.; Mann, I.; Raita, T; Shiokawa, K.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021227

EMIC waves; magnetospheric compressions; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

3D test-particle simulation of the 17-18 March, 2013 CME-shock driven storm

D test-particle simulation of energetic electrons (hundreds of keV to MeV), including both an initially trapped population and continuously injected population, driven by the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global MHD model coupled with Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupler/Solver (MIX) boundary conditions, is performed for the March 17, 2013 storm. The electron trajectories are calculated and weighted using the ESA model for electron flux vs. energy and L. The simulation captures the flux dropout at both GOES-13 and GOES-15 locations ...

Li, Zhao; Hudson, Mary; Kress, Brian; Paral, Jan;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064627

17 March; 2013; CME-shock driven storm; Radiation belt; test-particle simulation

A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagE ...

Claudepierre, S.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Roeder, J.; Clemmons, J.; Looper, M.; Mazur, J.; Mulligan, T.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Friedel, R.; Henderson, M.; Larsen, B.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021171

Background contamination; Inner radiation belt; outer radiation belt; Particle measurements; Radiation belt; Spacecraft engineering; Van Allen Probes

The enhancement of cosmic radio noise absorption due to hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation during substorms

The Van-Allen probes, low-altitude NOAA satellite, MetOp satellite and riometer are used to analyze variations of precipitating energetic electron fluxes and cosmic radio noise absorption (CNA) driven by plasmaspheric hiss with respect to geomagnetic activities. The hiss-driven energetic electron precipitations (at L~4.7-5.3, MLT~8-9) are observed during geomagnetic quiet condition and substorms, respectively. We find that the CNA detected by riometers increased very little in the hiss-driven event during quiet condition on ...

Li, Haimeng; Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Qiao, Zheng; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 06/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021113

cosmic radio noise absorption; energetic electron precipitation; hiss; substorm; Van Allen Probes

Statistical characteristic of EMIC waves: Van Allen Probe observations

Utilizing the data from the magnetometer instrument which is a part of the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument suite onboard the Van Allen Probe A from Sep. 2012 to Apr. 2014, when the apogee of the satellite has passed all the MLT sectors, we obtain the statistical distribution characteristic of EMIC waves in the inner magnetosphere over all local times from L=3 to L=6. Compared with the previous statistical results about EMIC waves, the occurrence rates of EMIC waves dis ...

Wang, Dedong; Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Deng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Meng; Huang, Shiyong; Li, Haimeng; Wang, Zhenzhen; Qiao, Zheng; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021089

distribution; EMIC waves; plasmasphere; Van Allen Probes

Statistical properties of plasmaspheric hiss derived from Van Allen Probes data and their Effects on radiation belt electron dynamics

Plasmaspheric hiss is known to play an important role in controlling the overall structure and dynamics of radiation belt electrons inside the plasmasphere. Using newly available Van Allen Probes wave data, which provide excellent coverage in the entire inner magnetosphere, we evaluate the global distribution of the hiss wave frequency spectrum and wave intensity for different levels of substorm activity. Our statistical results show that observed hiss peak frequencies are generally lower than the commonly adopted value (~55 ...

Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Nishimura, Y.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021048

hiss diffusion coefficient; hiss frequency spectrum; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Van Allen Probes

A Summary of the BARREL Campaigns: Technique for studying electron precipitation

The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) studies the loss of energetic electrons from Earth\textquoterights radiation belts. BARREL\textquoterights array of slowly drifting balloon payloads was designed to capitalize on magnetic conjunctions with NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes. Two campaigns were conducted from Antarctica in 2013 and 2014. During the first campaign in January and February of 2013, there were three moderate geomagnetic storms with Sym-Hmin < -40 nT. Similarly, two mino ...

Woodger, L.; Halford, A.; Millan, R.; McCarthy, M.; Smith, D.; Bowers, G.; Sample, J.; Anderson, B.; Liang, X.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020874

electron precipitation; event timing; gamma ray burst; multi-point observation; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes; x-ray spectroscopy

Van Allen Probes investigation of the large scale duskward electric field and its role in ring current formation and plasmasphere erosion in the June 1, 2013 storm

Using the Van Allen Probes we investigate the enhancement in the large scale duskward convection electric field during the geomagnetic storm (Dst ~ -120 nT) on June 1, 2013 and its role in ring current ion transport and energization, and plasmasphere erosion. During this storm, enhancements of ~1-2 mV/m in the duskward electric field in the co-rotating frame are observed down to L shells as low as ~2.3. A simple model consisting of a dipole magnetic field and constant, azimuthally westward, electric field is used to calculat ...

Thaller, S.; Wygant, J.; Dai, L.; Breneman, A.W.; Kersten, K.; Cattell, C.A.; Bonnell, J.W.; Fennell, J.F.; Gkioulidou, Matina; Kletzing, C.A.; De Pascuale, S.; Hospodarsky, G.B.; Bounds, S.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020875

electric field; inner magnetosphere; plasma convection; plasmasphere; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Variability of the pitch angle distribution of radiation belt ultra-relativistic electrons during and following intense geomagnetic storms: Van Allen Probes observations

Fifteen months of pitch angle resolved Van Allen Probes REPT measurements of differential electron flux are analyzed to investigate the characteristic variability of the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of radiation belt ultra-relativistic (>2 MeV) electrons during storm conditions and during the long-term post-storm decay. By modeling the ultra-relativistic electron pitch angle distribution as sinn α, where α is the equatorial pitch angle, we examine the spatio-temporal variations of the n-value. The results show that in ge ...

Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Gu, Xudong; Zhou, Chen; Thorne, Richard; Bortnik, Jacob; Shi, Run; Zhao, Zhengyu; Baker, Daniel; Kanekal, Shrikhanth; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoffrey; Li, Xinlin;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021065

adiation belt ultra-relativistic electrons; decay timescales; Geomagnetic storms; Pitch angle distribution; resonant wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

Acceleration of ions by electric field pulses in the inner magnetosphere

Intense (~5-15 mV/m), short-lived (<=1 min) electric field pulses have been observed to accompany earthward-propagating, dipolarizing flux bundles (DFB; flux tubes with a strong magnetic field) before they are stopped by the strong dipole field. Using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) observations and test particle modeling, we investigate particle acceleration around L-shell ~7-9 in the nightside magnetosphere and demonstrate that such pulses can effectively accelerate ions with te ...

Artemyev, A.V.; Liu, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 05/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021160

injections; inner magnetosphere; ion acceleration

Equatorial noise emissions with quasiperiodic modulation of wave intensity

Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic wave events at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, and they exhibit a harmonic line structure characteristic of the proton cyclotron frequency in the source region. However, they were generally believed to be continuous in time. We investigate more than 2000 EN events observed by the Spatio-Temporal An ...

emec, F.; Santolik, O.; a, Hrb\; Pickett, J.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020816

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves; quasiperiodic modulation

Equatorial noise emissions with quasiperiodic modulation of wave intensity

Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic wave events at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, and they exhibit a harmonic line structure characteristic of the proton cyclotron frequency in the source region. However, they were generally believed to be continuous in time. We investigate more than 2000 EN events observed by the Spatio-Temporal An ...

emec, F.; Santolik, O.; a, Hrb\; Pickett, J.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020816

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves; quasiperiodic modulation

A prediction model for the global distribution of whistler chorus wave amplitude developed separately for two latitudinal zones

Whistler mode chorus waves are considered to play a central role in accelerating and scattering electrons in the outer radiation belt. While in situ measurements are usually limited to the trajectories of a small number of satellites, rigorous theoretical modeling requires a global distribution of chorus wave characteristics. In the present work, by using a large database of chorus wave observations made on the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites for about 5 years, we develop predic ...

Kim, Jin-Hee; Lee, Dae-Young; Cho, Jung-Hee; Shin, Dae-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Li, Wen; Kim, Thomas;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020900

Radiation belt; whistler chorus

Solar cycle dependence of ion cyclotron wave frequencies

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been studied for decades, though remain a fundamentally important topic in heliospheric physics. The connection of EMIC waves to the scattering of energetic particles from Earth\textquoterights radiation belts is one ofmany topics that motivate the need for a deeper understanding of characteristics and occurrence distributions of the waves. In this study, we show that EMIC wave frequencies, as observed at Halley Station in Antarctica from 2008 through 2012, increase by approxim ...

Lessard, Marc; Lindgren, Erik; Engebretson, Mark; Weaver, Carol;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020791

EMIC waves; Ion cyclotron; Magnetosphere; plasma waves; Radiation belts; solar cycles

Three-dimensional current systems and ionospheric effects associated with small dipolarisation fronts

We present a case study of eight successive plasma sheet (PS) activations (usually referred to as bursty bulk flows or dipolarization fronts ) associated with small individual inline image increases on 31 March 2009 (0200\textendash0900 UT), observed by the THEMIS mission. This series of events happens during very quiet solar wind conditions, over a period of 7 hours preceding a substorm onset at 1230 UT. The amplitude of the dipolarizations increases with time. The low-amplitude dipolarization fronts are associated with few ...

Palin, L.; Jacquey, C.; Opgenoorth, H.; Connors, M.; Sergeev, V.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Nakamura, R.; Reeves, G.D.; Singer, H.J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Turc, L.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021040

bursty bulk flow; dipolarization front; field-aligned currents; substorm; substorm current wedge; wedgelet

Analysis of plasmaspheric hiss wave amplitudes inferred from low-altitude POES electron data: Technique sensitivity analysis

A novel technique capable of inferring wave amplitudes from low-altitude electron measurements from the POES spacecraft has been previously proposed to construct a global dynamic model of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. In this paper we focus on plasmaspheric hiss, which is an incoherent broadband emission that plays a dominant role in the loss of energetic electrons from the inner magnetosphere. We analyze the sensitivity of the POES technique to different inputs used to infer the hiss wave amplitudes during three conj ...

de Soria-Santacruz, M.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ma, Q.; Bortnik, J.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020941

Plasmaspheric Hiss; POES technique; Van Allen Probes; Waves global model

Electron precipitation from EMIC waves: a case study from 31 May 2013

On 31 May 2013 several rising-tone electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves with intervals of pulsations of diminishing periods (IPDP) were observed in the magnetic local time afternoon and evening sectors during the onset of a moderate/large geomagnetic storm. The waves were sequentially observed in Finland, Antarctica, and western Canada. Co-incident electron precipitation by a network of ground-based Antarctic Arctic Radiation-belt Dynamic Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK) and riometer instrument ...

Clilverd, Mark; Duthie, Roger; Hardman, Rachael; Hendry, Aaron; Rodger, Craig; Raita, Tero; Engebretson, Mark; Lessard, Marc; Danskin, Donald; Milling, David;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021090

electromagnetic ion-cyclotron; electron precipitation; radio propagation; satellite

Electron precipitation from EMIC waves: a case study from 31 May 2013

On 31 May 2013 several rising-tone electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves with intervals of pulsations of diminishing periods (IPDP) were observed in the magnetic local time afternoon and evening sectors during the onset of a moderate/large geomagnetic storm. The waves were sequentially observed in Finland, Antarctica, and western Canada. Co-incident electron precipitation by a network of ground-based Antarctic Arctic Radiation-belt Dynamic Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK) and riometer instrument ...

Clilverd, Mark; Duthie, Roger; Hardman, Rachael; Hendry, Aaron; Rodger, Craig; Raita, Tero; Engebretson, Mark; Lessard, Marc; Danskin, Donald; Milling, David;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 04/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021090

electromagnetic ion-cyclotron; electron precipitation; radio propagation; satellite

Intensities and spatiotemporal variability of equatorial noise emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft

Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic waves observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. We present the analysis of 2229 EN events identified in the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment data of the Cluster spacecraft during the years 2001\textendash2010. EN emissions are distinguished using the polarization analysis, and their intensity is determined based on the evaluation of the P ...

emec, F.; Santolik, O.; a, Hrb\; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020814

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves

Intensities and spatiotemporal variability of equatorial noise emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft

Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic waves observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. We present the analysis of 2229 EN events identified in the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment data of the Cluster spacecraft during the years 2001\textendash2010. EN emissions are distinguished using the polarization analysis, and their intensity is determined based on the evaluation of the P ...

emec, F.; Santolik, O.; a, Hrb\; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020814

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves

Long-term determination of energetic electron precipitation into the atmosphere from AARDDVARK subionospheric VLF observations

We analyze observations of subionospherically propagating very low frequency (VLF) radio waves to determine outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation (EEP) flux magnitudes. The radio wave receiver in Sodankylä, Finland (Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory) observes signals from the transmitter with call sign NAA (Cutler, Maine). The receiver is part of the Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-belt Dynamic Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK). We use a near-continuous data set spanning November 2004 unt ...

Neal, Jason; Rodger, Craig; Clilverd, Mark; Thomson, Neil; Raita, Tero; Ulich, Thomas;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020689

AARDDVARK network; electron precipitation; Radiation belts; subionospheric VLF propagation

Long-term determination of energetic electron precipitation into the atmosphere from AARDDVARK subionospheric VLF observations

We analyze observations of subionospherically propagating very low frequency (VLF) radio waves to determine outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation (EEP) flux magnitudes. The radio wave receiver in Sodankylä, Finland (Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory) observes signals from the transmitter with call sign NAA (Cutler, Maine). The receiver is part of the Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-belt Dynamic Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK). We use a near-continuous data set spanning November 2004 unt ...

Neal, Jason; Rodger, Craig; Clilverd, Mark; Thomson, Neil; Raita, Tero; Ulich, Thomas;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020689

AARDDVARK network; electron precipitation; Radiation belts; subionospheric VLF propagation

One- and two-dimensional hybrid simulations of whistler mode waves in a dipole field

We simulate whistler mode waves using a hybrid code. There are four species in the simulations, hot electrons initialized with a bi-Maxwellian distribution with temperature in the direction perpendicular to background magnetic field greater than that in the parallel direction, warm isotropic electrons, cold inertialess fluid electrons, and protons as an immobile background. The density of the hot population is a small fraction of the total plasma density. Comparison between the dispersion relation of our model and other disp ...

Wu, S.; Denton, R.; Liu, K.; Hudson, M.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020736

hybrid simulation; particle-in-cell simulation; plasma waves; Whistler waves

Postmidnight depletion of the high-energy tail of the quiet plasmasphere

The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument measures the high-energy tail of the thermal plasmasphere allowing study of topside ionosphere and inner magnetosphere coupling. We statistically analyze a 22 month period of HOPE data, looking at quiet times with a Kp index of less than 3. We investigate the high-energy range of the plasmasphere, which consists of ions at energies between 1 and 10 eV and contains approximately 5\% of total plasmaspheric density. Both the fluxes and partial plasma densities ...

Sarno-Smith, Lois; Liemohn, Michael; Katus, Roxanne; Skoug, Ruth; Larsen, Brian; Thomsen, Michelle; Wygant, John; Moldwin, Mark;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020682

ion composition; Ionosphere; plasmasphere; postmidnight; quiet time magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Study of EMIC wave excitation using direct ion measurements

With data from Van Allen Probes, we investigate EMIC wave excitation using simultaneously observed ion distributions. Strong He-band waves occurred while the spacecraft was moving through an enhanced density region. We extract from Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) Mass Spectrometer measurement the velocity distributions of warm heavy ions as well as anisotropic energetic protons that drive wave growth through the ion cyclotron instability. Fitting the measured ion fluxes to multiple sinm-type distribution function ...

Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Bonnell, John; Breneman, Aaron; Denton, Richard; Funsten, Herbert; Jahn, öerg-Micha; Kletzing, Craig; Kurth, William; Larsen, Brian; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020717

EMIC wave excitation; observation; linear theory and hybrid simulation; Van Allen Probes

Analysis of the effectiveness of ground-based VLF wave observations for predicting or nowcasting relativistic electron flux at geostationary orbit

Poststorm relativistic electron flux enhancement at geosynchronous orbit has shown correlation with very low frequency (VLF) waves measured by satellite in situ. However, our previous study found little correlation between electron flux and VLF measured by a ground-based instrument at Halley, Antarctica. Here we explore several possible explanations for this low correlation. Using 220 storms (1992\textendash2002), our previous work developed a predictive model of the poststorm flux at geosynchronous orbit based on explanator ...

Simms, Laura; Engebretson, Mark; Smith, A.; Clilverd, Mark; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Reeves, Geoffrey;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020337

relativistic electron flux; VLF waves

Analysis of the effectiveness of ground-based VLF wave observations for predicting or nowcasting relativistic electron flux at geostationary orbit

Poststorm relativistic electron flux enhancement at geosynchronous orbit has shown correlation with very low frequency (VLF) waves measured by satellite in situ. However, our previous study found little correlation between electron flux and VLF measured by a ground-based instrument at Halley, Antarctica. Here we explore several possible explanations for this low correlation. Using 220 storms (1992\textendash2002), our previous work developed a predictive model of the poststorm flux at geosynchronous orbit based on explanator ...

Simms, Laura; Engebretson, Mark; Smith, A.; Clilverd, Mark; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Reeves, Geoffrey;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020337

relativistic electron flux; VLF waves

BARREL observations of an ICME-Shock impact with the magnetosphere and the resultant radiation belt electron loss.

The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) mission of opportunity working in tandem with the Van Allen Probes was designed to study the loss of radiation belt electrons to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. BARREL is also sensitive to X-rays from other sources. During the second BARREL campaign the Sun produced an X-class flare followed by a solar energetic particle event (SEP) associated with the same active region. Two days later on 9 January 2014 the shock generated by the coronal mass ej ...

Halford, A.; McGregor, S.; Murphy, K.; Millan, R.; Hudson, M.; Woodger, L.; Cattel, C.; Breneman, A.; Mann, I.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Fennell, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020873

BARREL; Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations

Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also sub-relativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler-mode wave\textendashparticle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Troms\o VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements w ...

Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S.; Saito, S.; Kurita, S.; Fujiwara, H.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Santolik, O.; Clilverd, M.; Rodger, C.; Turunen, E.; Tsuchiya, F.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020690

EISCAT; pitch angle scattering; pulsating aurora; Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations

Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also sub-relativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler-mode wave\textendashparticle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Troms\o VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements w ...

Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S.; Saito, S.; Kurita, S.; Fujiwara, H.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G.; Santolik, O.; Clilverd, M.; Rodger, C.; Turunen, E.; Tsuchiya, F.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 03/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020690

EISCAT; pitch angle scattering; pulsating aurora; Van Allen Probes

In situ observations of EMIC waves in O + band by the Van Allen Probe A

Through polarization and spectra analysis of the magnetic field observed by the Van Allen Probe A, we present two typical cases of O+ band EMIC waves in the outer plasmasphere or plasma trough. Although such O+ band EMIC waves are rarely observed, 18 different events of O+ band EMIC waves (16 events in the outer plasmasphere and 2 events in the plasma trough) are found from September 2012 to August 2014 with observations of the Van Allen Probe A. We find that the preferred region for the occurrence of O+ band EMIC waves is i ...

Yu, Xiongdong; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Dedong; Li, Haimeng; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zheng, Qiao; Zhou, Mingxia; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063250

EMIC waves; O+ ion torus; oxygen band; Van Allen Probes

Link between pre-midnight second harmonic poloidal waves and auroral undulations: Conjugate observations with a Van Allen Probes spacecraft and a THEMIS all-sky imager

We report, for the first time, an auroral undulation event on 1 May 2013 observed by an all-sky imager (ASI) at Athabasca (L = 4.6), Canada, for which in situ field and particle measurements in the conjugate magnetosphere were available from a Van Allen Probes spacecraft. The ASI observed a train of auroral undulation structures emerging spontaneously in the pre-midnight subauroral ionosphere, during the growth phase of a substorm. The undulations had an azimuthal wavelength of ~180 km and propagated westward at a speed of 3 ...

Motoba, T.; Takahashi, K.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Gkioulidou, M.; Mitchell, D.; Lanzerotti, L.; Korotova, G.; Donovan, E.; Wygant, J.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020863

Van Allen Probes

Magnetic field power spectra and magnetic radial diffusion coefficients using CRRES magnetometer data

We used the fluxgate magnetometer data from Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of the compressional component of the geomagnetic field in the \~1 mHz to \~8 mHz range. We conclude that magnetic wave power is generally higher in the noon sector for quiet times with no significant difference between the dawn, dusk, and the midnight sectors. However, during high Kp activity, the noon sector is not necessarily dominant anymore. The magnetic PSDs have a very disti ...

Ali, Ashar; Elkington, Scot; Tu, Weichao; Ozeke, Louis; Chan, Anthony; Friedel, Reiner;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020419

CRRES; diffusion coefficients; radial diffusion; ULF waves

Modeling inward diffusion and slow decay of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt

A new 3D diffusion code is used to investigate the inward intrusion and slow decay of energetic radiation belt electrons (>0.5 MeV) observed by the Van Allen Probes during a 10-day quiet period in March 2013. During the inward transport the peak differential electron fluxes decreased by approximately an order of magnitude at various energies. Our 3D radiation belt simulation including radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by plasmaspheric hiss and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves reproduces the esse ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R.; Ni, B.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Henderson, M.; Spence, H.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062977

pitch angle scattering; radiation belts modeling; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes observations

Modeling sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) during the March 17, 2013 storm

The sub-auroral polarization streams (SAPS) are one of the most important features in representing magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art modeling framework that couples an inner magnetospheric ring current model RAM-SCB with a global MHD model BATS-R-US and an ionospheric potential solver to study the SAPS that occurred during the March 17, 2013 storm event as well as to assess the modeling capability. Both ionospheric and magnetospheric signatures associated with SAPS are anal ...

Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Zou, Shasha; Heelis, Roderick; Ruohoniemi, Mike; Wygant, John;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020371

sub-auroral polarization streams; Van Allen Probes

Spatial structure and temporal evolution of energetic particle injections in the inner magnetosphere during the 14 July 2013 substorm event.

Recent results by the Van Allen Probes mission showed that the occurrence of energetic ion injections inside geosynchronous orbit could be very frequent throughout the main phase of a geomagnetic storm. Understanding, therefore, the formation and evolution of energetic particle injections is critical in order to quantify their effect in the inner magnetosphere. We present a case study of a substorm event that occurred during a weak storm (Dst ~ - 40 nT) on 14 July 2013. Van Allen Probe B, inside geosynchronous orbit, observe ...

Gkioulidou, Matina; Ohtani, S.; Mitchell, D.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Reeves, G.; Turner, D.; Gjerloev, J.; e, Nos\; Koga, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Lanzerotti, L.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020872

inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Systematic analysis of occurrence of equatorial noise emissions using 10 years of data from the Cluster mission

We report results of a systematic analysis of equatorial noise (EN) emissions which are also known as fast magnetosonic waves. EN occurs in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator at frequencies between the local proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. Our analysis is based on the data collected by the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations\textendashSpectrum Analyzer instruments on board the four Cluster spacecraft. The data set covers the period from January 2001 to December 2010. We have develop ...

a, Hrb\; Santolik, O.; emec, F.; a, Mac\; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020268

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves; plasmasphere; Radiation belts

Systematic analysis of occurrence of equatorial noise emissions using 10 years of data from the Cluster mission

We report results of a systematic analysis of equatorial noise (EN) emissions which are also known as fast magnetosonic waves. EN occurs in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator at frequencies between the local proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. Our analysis is based on the data collected by the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations\textendashSpectrum Analyzer instruments on board the four Cluster spacecraft. The data set covers the period from January 2001 to December 2010. We have develop ...

a, Hrb\; Santolik, O.; emec, F.; a, Mac\; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020268

equatorial noise; magnetosonic waves; plasmasphere; Radiation belts

On the use of drift echoes to characterize on-orbit sensor discrepancies

We describe a method for using drift echo signatures in on-orbit data to resolve discrepancies between different measurements of particle flux. The drift period has a well-defined energy dependence, which gives rise to time dispersion of the echoes. The dispersion can then be used to determine the effective energy for one or more channels given each channel\textquoterights drift period and the known energy for a reference channel. We demonstrate this technique on multiple instruments from the Van Allen probes mission. Drift ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.P.; Claudepierre, S.G.; Looper, M.D.; Blake, J.B.; Fennell, J.F.; Clemmons, J.H.; Roeder, J.L.; Kanekal, S.G.; Manweiler, J.W.; Mitchell, D.G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Spence, H.E.; Reeves, G.D.; Baker, D.N.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020859

Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity

From a survey of the first nightside season of NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission (Dec/2012 \textendash Sep/2013), 47 energetic (10s to 100s of keV) electron injection events were found at L-shells <= 4, all of which are deeper than any previously reported substorm-related injections. Preliminary details from these events are presented, including how: all occurred shortly after dipolarization signatures and injections were observed at higher L-shells; the deepest observed injection was at L~2.5; and, surprisingly, ...

Turner, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Blake, J.; Lemon, C.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Reeves, G.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Li, W.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225

energetic particle injections; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; substorms; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity

From a survey of the first nightside season of NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission (Dec/2012 \textendash Sep/2013), 47 energetic (10s to 100s of keV) electron injection events were found at L-shells <= 4, all of which are deeper than any previously reported substorm-related injections. Preliminary details from these events are presented, including how: all occurred shortly after dipolarization signatures and injections were observed at higher L-shells; the deepest observed injection was at L~2.5; and, surprisingly, ...

Turner, D.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Blake, J.; Lemon, C.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Reeves, G.; Thaller, S.; Breneman, A.; Wygant, J.; Li, W.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 02/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225

energetic particle injections; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; substorms; THEMIS; Van Allen Probes

Field-aligned chorus wave spectral power in Earth\textquoterights outer radiation belt

Chorus-type whistler waves are one of the most intense electromagnetic waves generated naturally in the magnetosphere. These waves have a substantial impact on the radiation belt dynamics as they are thought to contribute to electron acceleration and losses into the ionosphere through resonant wave\textendashparticle interaction. Our study is devoted to the determination of chorus wave power distribution on frequency in a wide range of magnetic latitudes, from 0 to 40\textdegree. We use 10 years of magnetic and electric fiel ...

Breuillard, H.; Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Kronberg, E.; Haaland, S.; Daly, P.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Boscher, D.; Bourdarie, S.; Zaliznyak, Y.; Rolland, G.;

Published by: Annales Geophysicae      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-33-583-2015

Chorus-type whistler waves

First Evidence for Chorus at a Large Geocentric Distance as a Source of Plasmaspheric Hiss: Coordinated THEMIS and Van Allen Probes Observation

Recent ray tracing suggests that plasmaspheric hiss can originate from chorus observed outside of the plasmapause. Although a few individual events have been reported to support this mechanism, the number of reported conjugate events is still very limited. Using coordinated observations between THEMIS and Van Allen Probes, we report on an interesting event, where chorus was observed at a large L-shell (~9.8), different from previously reported events at L < 6, but still exhibited a remarkable correlation with hiss observed i ...

Li, W.; Chen, L.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062832

Chorus; hiss; wave propagation; Van Allen Probes

Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron Intensity

No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (10s of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable, thus for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there e ...

Li, X.; Selesnick, R.; Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Kanekal, S.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020777

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations linking radiation belt electrons to chorus waves during 2014 multiple storms

During 18 February to 2 March 2014, the Van Allen Probes encountered multiple geomagnetic storms and simultaneously observed intensified chorus and hiss waves. During this period, there were substantial enhancements in fluxes of energetic (53.8 - 108.3 keV) and relativistic (2 - 3.6 MeV) electrons. Chorus waves were excited at locations L = 4 - 6.2 after the fluxes of energetic were greatly enhanced, with a lower frequency band and wave amplitudes \~ 20 - 100 pT. Strong hiss waves occurred primarily in the main phases or bel ...

Liu, Si; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; He, Yihua; Zhou, Qinghua; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 01/2015

YEAR: 2015     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020781

Van Allen Probes; magnetopause

2014

Evolution of relativistic outer belt electrons during an extended quiescent period

To effectively study steady loss due to hiss-driven precipitation of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt, it is useful to isolate this loss by studying a time of relatively quiet geomagnetic activity. We present a case of initial enhancement and slow, steady decay of 700 keV - 2 MeV electron populations in the outer radiation belt during an extended quiescent period from ~15 December 2012 - 13 January 2013. We incorporate particle measurements from a constellation of satellites, including the Colorado Student ...

Jaynes, A.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Blum, L.; Tu, W.; Turner, D.; Ni, B.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D.; Kanekal, S.; Blake, J.; Wygant, J.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 12/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020125

electron lifetime; hiss waves; pitch angle scattering; precipitation loss; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL January 17, 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: a quantitative comparison of simulation with observations

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were observed at multiple observatory locations for several hours on 17 January 2013. During the wave activity period, a duskside relativistic electron precipitation (REP) event was observed by one of the BARREL balloons, and was magnetically mapped close to GOES-13. We simulate the relativistic electron pitch-angle diffusion caused by gyroresonant interactions with EMIC waves using wave and particle data measured by multiple instruments on board GOES-13 and the Van Allen Probes. We ...

Li, Zan; Millan, Robyn; Hudson, Mary; Woodger, Leslie; Smith, David; Chen, Yue; Friedel, Reiner; Rodriguez, Juan; Engebretson, Mark; Goldstein, Jerry; Fennell, Joseph; Spence, Harlan;

Published by: Geophysical Research Letters      Published on: 12/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062273

BARREL; EMIC waves; GOES; pitch angle diffusion; RBSP; relativistic electron precipitation; Van Allen Probes

Approximate analytical solutions for the trapped electron distribution due to quasi-linear diffusion by whistler-mode waves

The distribution of trapped energetic electrons inside the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts is the focus of intense studies aiming at better describing the evolution of the space environment in the presence of various disturbances induced by the solar wind or by an enhanced lightning activity. Such studies are usually performed by means of comparisons with full numerical simulations solving the Fokker-Planck quasi-linear diffusion equation for the particle distribution function. Here, we present for the first time appro ...

Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O.V.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Li, W.;

Published by: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics      Published on: 11/2014

YEAR: 2014     DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020443

electron distribution; pitch-angle distribution; Radiation belt



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