Bibliography



Found 938 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 401 through 450


2016

RAM-SCB simulations of electron transport and plasma wave scattering during the October 2012 \textquotedblleftdouble-dip\textquotedblright storm

Mechanisms for electron injection, trapping, and loss in the near-Earth space environment are investigated during the October 2012 \textquotedblleftdouble-dip\textquotedblright storm using our ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB). Pitch angle and energy scattering are included for the first time in RAM-SCB using L and magnetic local time (MLT)-dependent event-specific chorus wave models inferred from NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and Van Al ...

Jordanova, V.; Tu, W.; Chen, Y.; Morley, S.; Panaitescu, A.-D.; Reeves, G.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022470

Geomagnetic storms; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

RBSPICE measurement of ion loss during the 2015 March storm: Adiabatic response to the geomagnetic field change

A strongly energy-dependent ring current ion loss was measured by the RBSPICE instrument on the Van Allen Probes A spacecraft in the local evening sector during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm. The ion loss is found to be energy dependent where only ions with energies measured above \~ 150 keV have a significant drop in intensity. At these energies the ion dynamics are principally controlled by variations of the geomagnetic field which, during magnetic storms, exhibits large scale variations on timescales from minutes ...

Soto-Chavez, A.; Lanzerotti, L.; Gerrard, A.; Kim, H.; Bortnik, J.; Manweiler, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022512

inner magnetosphere; Magnetic Storms; Ring current ion.; Van Allen Probes

Unraveling the excitation mechanisms of highly oblique lower band chorus waves

Excitation mechanisms of highly oblique, quasi-electrostatic lower band chorus waves are investigated using Van Allen Probes observations near the equator of the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere. Linear growth rates are evaluated based on in situ, measured electron velocity distributions and plasma conditions and compared with simultaneously observed wave frequency spectra and wave normal angles. Accordingly, two distinct excitation mechanisms of highly oblique lower band chorus have been clearly identified for the first ...

Li, W.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v43.1710.1002/2016GL070386

beam instability; lower band chorus; oblique chorus excitation; temperature anisotropy; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes Observations of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Triggered by Enhanced Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure

Magnetospheric compression due to impact of enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure Pdyn has long been considered as one of the generation mechanisms of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. With the Van Allen Probe-A observations, we identify three EMIC wave events that are triggered by Pdyn enhancements under prolonged northward IMF quiet time preconditions. They are in contrast to one another in a few aspects. Event 1 occurs in the middle of continuously increasing Pdyn while Van Allen Probe-A is located outside the pl ...

Cho, J.-H.; Lee, D.-Y.; Noh, S.-J.; Shin, D.-K.; Hwang, J.; Kim, K.-C.; Lee, J.; Choi, C.; Thaller, S.; Skoug, R.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022841

Dynamic pressure; EMIC waves; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations of oxygen cyclotron harmonic waves in the inner magnetosphere

Waves with frequencies in the vicinity of the oxygen cyclotron frequency and its harmonics have been regularly observed on the Van Allen Probes satellites during geomagnetic storms. We focus on properties of these waves and present events from the main phase of two storms on 1 November 2012 and 17 March 2013 and associated dropouts of a few MeV electron fluxes. They are electromagnetic, in the frequency range ~0.5 to several Hz, and amplitude ~0.1 to a few nT in magnetic and ~0.1 to a few mV/m in electric field, with both th ...

Usanova, M.; Malaspina, D.; Jaynes, A.; Bruder, R.; Mann, I.; Wygant, J.; Ergun, R.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v43.1710.1002/2016GL070233

cyclotron harmonic waves; energetic particle loss; Geomagnetic storms; inner magnetosphere; oxygen; Van Allen Probes

Wave-driven gradual loss of energetic electrons in the slot region

Resonant pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss has long been considered to be responsible for the energetic electron loss in the slot region, but the detailed quantitative comparison between theory and observations is still lacking. Here we focus on the loss of 100\textendash600 keV electrons at L = 3 during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm on 28 June 2013. Van Allen Probes data showed the concurrence of intense (with power up to 10-4 nT2/Hz) plasmaspheric hiss waves and significant (up to 1 order) loss of en ...

He, Zhaoguo; Yan, Qi; Chu, Yuchuan; Cao, Yong;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023087

electron loss; energetic electron; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Slot region; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Conjugate observations of quasiperiodic emissions by the Cluster, Van Allen Probes, and THEMIS spacecraft

We present results of a detailed analysis of two electromagnetic wave events observed in the inner magnetosphere at frequencies of a few kilohertz, which exhibit a quasiperiodic (QP) time modulation of the wave intensity. The events were observed by the Cluster and Van Allen Probes spacecraft and in one event also by the THEMIS E spacecraft. The spacecraft were significantly separated in magnetic local time, demonstrating a huge azimuthal extent of the events. Geomagnetic conditions at the times of the observations were very ...

emec, F.; Hospodarsky, G.; Pickett, J.; ik, O.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022774

QP emissions; quasiperiodic emissions; Van Allen Probes

Control of the innermost electron radiation belt by large-scale electric fields

Electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instruments on Van Allen Probes, for kinetic energies \~100 to 400 keV, show characteristic dynamical features of the innermost ( inline image) radiation belt: rapid injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra. There are also periods of steady or slowly increasing intensity and of fast decay following injections. Local time asymmetry, with higher intensity near dawn, is interpreted as evidence for drift shell distortion by a convection electric field ...

Selesnick, R.; Su, Y.-J.; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022973

electric field; electrons; Inner radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

The distribution of plasmaspheric hiss wave power with respect to plasmapause location

In this work, Van Allen Probes data are used to derive terrestrial plasmaspheric hiss wave power distributions organized by (1) distance away from the plasmapause and (2) plasmapause distance from Earth. This approach is in contrast to the traditional organization of hiss wave power by L parameter and geomagnetic activity. Plasmapause-sorting reveals previously unreported and highly repeatable features of the hiss wave power distribution, including a regular spatial distribution of hiss power with respect to the plasmapause, ...

Malaspina, David; Jaynes, Allison; e, Cory; Bortnik, Jacob; Thaller, Scott; Ergun, Robert; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069982

hiss; plasma waves; plasmasphere; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Electric and Magnetic Radial Diffusion Coefficients Using the Van Allen Probes Data

ULF waves are a common occurrence in the inner magnetosphere and they contribute to particle motion, significantly, at times. We used the magnetic and the electric field data from the EMFISIS and the EFW instruments on board the Van Allen Probes to estimate the ULF wave power in the compressional component of the magnetic field and the azimuthal component of the electric field, respectively. Using L*, Kp, and MLT as parameters, we conclude that the noon sector contains higher ULF Pc-5 wave power compared with the other MLT s ...

Ali, Ashar; Malaspina, David; Elkington, Scot; Jaynes, Allison; Chan, Anthony; Wygant, John; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023002

Electric and Magnetic Components; radial diffusion; RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Energy limits of electron acceleration in the plasma sheet during substorms: A case study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

We present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASA\textquoterights Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at ~7\textendash9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially ...

Turner, D.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Clemmons, J.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I.; Jaynes, A.; Craft, J.; Wilder, F.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Dorelli, J.; Giles, B.; Pollock, C.; Schmid, D.; Nakamura, R.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.; Artemyev, A.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Burch, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069691

energetic particle injections; magnetotail; Particle acceleration; plasma sheet; reconnection; substorm; Van Allen Probes

Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, w ...

Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yagitani, S.; Inoue, T.; Ebihara, Y.; Jun, C.-W; Nomura, R.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Shoji, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Jordanova, V.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070008

fast modulation; Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations; pulsating proton aurora; subpacket structure; Van Allen Probes; wave-particle interactions

Formation of the inner electron radiation belt by enhanced large-scale electric fields

A two-dimensional bounce-averaged test particle code was developed to examine trapped electron trajectories during geomagnetic storms with the assumption of conservation of the first and second adiabatic invariants. The March 2013 storm was selected as an example because the geomagnetic activity Kp index sharply increased from 2 + to 7- at 6:00 UT on 17 March. Electron measurements with energies between 37 and 460 keV from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument onboard Van Allen Probes (VAP) are used as i ...

Su, Yi-Jiun; Selesnick, Richard; Blake, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022881

DC electric fields; electron injections; Inner radiation belt; test particle simulation; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes electron measurements

Observation of chorus waves by the Van Allen Probes: Dependence on solar wind parameters and scale size

Highly energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts can cause serious damage to spacecraft electronic systems and affect the atmospheric composition if they precipitate into the upper atmosphere. Whistler mode chorus waves have attracted significant attention in recent decades for their crucial role in the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons that ultimately change the dynamics of the radiation belts. The distribution of these waves in the inner magnetosphere is commonly presented as a f ...

Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David; Balikhin, Michael; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.810.1002/2016JA022775

distribution of chorus wave intensities in the inner magnetosphere; inner magnetosphere; Radiation belts; scale size of chorus wave packets; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Prompt acceleration of magnetospheric electrons to ultrarelativistic energies by the 17 March 2015 interplanetary shock

Trapped electrons in Earth\textquoterights outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impac ...

Kanekal, S.; Baker, D.; Fennell, J.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.; Li, X.; Turner, D.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S.; Wilson, L.; Jaynes, A.; Blake, J.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022596

electron; energizaiton; IP shock; ultrarelativsti; Van Allen Probes

Propagation of ULF waves from the upstream region to the midnight sector of the inner magnetosphere

Ultralow frequency (ULF) waves generated in the ion foreshock are a well-known source of Pc3-Pc4 waves (7\textendash100 mHz) observed in the dayside magnetosphere. We use data acquired on 10 April 2013 by multiple spacecraft to demonstrate that ULF waves of upstream origin can propagate to the midnight sector of the inner magnetosphere. At 1130\textendash1730 UT on the selected day, the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft and the geostationary ETS-VIII satellite detected compressional 20 to 40 mHz magnetic field oscillations bet ...

Takahashi, Kazue; Hartinger, Michael; Malaspina, David; Smith, Charles; Koga, Kiyokazu; Singer, Howard; ühauff, Dennis; Baishev, Dmitry; Moiseev, Alexey; Yoshikawa, Akimasa;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022958

midnight sector; Pc3 waves; plasmasphere; upstream waves; Van Allen Probes

The relationship between the macroscopic state of electrons and the properties of chorus waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

Plasma kinetic theory predicts that a sufficiently anisotropic electron distribution will excite whistler mode waves, which in turn relax the electron distribution in such a way as to create an upper bound on the relaxed electron anisotropy. Here using whistler mode chorus wave and plasma measurements by Van Allen Probes, we confirm that the electron distributions are well constrained by this instability to a marginally stable state in the whistler mode chorus waves generation region. Lower band chorus waves are organized by ...

Yue, Chao; An, Xin; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Gkioulidou, Matina; Mitchell, Donald; Kletzing, Craig;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070084

beta parallel; electron temperature anisotropy; marginally stable state; oblique waves; quasi-parallel waves; Van Allen Probes; whistler mode chorus waves

The relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons

We quantify the spatial relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons for a 5 day period, 15\textendash20 January 2013, by comparing locations of relativistic electron flux peaks to the plasmapause. A peak-finding algorithm is applied to 1.8\textendash7.7 MeV relativistic electron flux data. A plasmapause gradient finder is applied to wave-derived electron number densities >10 cm-3. We identify two outer belts. Outer belt 1 is a stable zone of >3 MeV electrons located 1\textendash2 RE inside the plasmapause. ...

Goldstein, J.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; De Pascuale, S.; Funsten, H.; Jaynes, A.; Jahn, J.-M.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Li, W.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023046

Plasmapause; Plasmaspheric Hiss; Radiation belts; simulation; storm-time dropouts; Van Allen Probes

Storm time impulsive enhancements of energetic oxygen due to adiabatic acceleration of preexisting warm oxygen in the inner magnetosphere

We examine enhancements of energetic (>50 keV) oxygen ions observed by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on board the Van Allen Probes spacecraft in the inner magnetosphere (L ~ 6) at 22\textendash23 h magnetic local time (MLT) during an injection event of the 6 June 2013 storm. Simultaneous observations by two Van Allen Probes spacecraft located close together (~0.5 RE) indicate that particle injections occurred in the premidnight sector (< ~24 h MLT). We also examine the evolut ...

Keika, Kunihiro; Seki, Kanako; e, Masahito; Machida, Shinobu; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Lanzerotti, Louis; Mitchell, Donald; Gkioulidou, Matina; Turner, Drew; Spence, Harlan; Larsen, Brian;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022384

adiabatic transport from the plasma sheet; oxygen ions of ionospheric origin; preconditions of magnetic storms; preexisting oxygen ions trapped in the inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes; Van Allen Probes RBSPICE observations

Direct evidence for EMIC wave scattering of relativistic electrons in space

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves have been proposed to cause efficient losses of highly relativistic (>1 MeV) electrons via gyroresonant interactions. Simultaneous observations of EMIC waves and equatorial electron pitch angle distributions, which can be used to directly quantify the EMIC wave scattering effect, are still very limited, however. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of EMIC waves on pitch angle scattering of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, wh ...

Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.; Chen, L.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022521

electron precipitation; EMIC waves; equatorial pitch angle distribution; Fokker-Planck equation; relativistic electron loss; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Global ULF wave analysis of radial diffusion coefficients using a global MHD model for the 17 March 2015 storm

The 17\textendash18 March 2015 storm is the largest geomagnetic storm in the Van Allen Probes era to date. The Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model has been run for this event using ARTEMIS data as solar wind input. The ULF wave power spectral density of the azimuthal electric field and compressional magnetic field is analyzed in the 0.5\textendash8.3 mHz range. The lowest three azimuthal modes account for 70\% of the total power during quiet times. However, during high activity, they are not exclusively dominant. The calcul ...

Li, Zhao; Hudson, Mary; Paral, Jan; Wiltberger, Michael; Turner, Drew;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022508

March 2015; radial diffusion; radial diffusion coefficient; Radiation belt; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes

In situ evidence of the modification of the parallel propagation of EMIC waves by heated He + ions

With observations of the Van Allen Probe B, we report in situ evidence of the modification of the parallel propagating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves by heated He+ ions. In the outer boundary of the plasmasphere, accompanied with the He+ ion heating, the frequency bands of H+ and He+ for EMIC waves merged into each other, leading to the disappearance of a usual stop band between the gyrofrequency of He+ ions (ΩHe+) and the H+ cutoff frequency (ωH+co) in the cold plasma. Moreover, the dispersion relation for EMI ...

Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Wang, Dedong; Huang, Shiyong; Li, Haimeng; Yu, Tao; Qiao, Zheng; Wygant, John; Funsten, Herbert;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022573

EMIC waves; He+ ion heating; Ring current ions; stop band; Van Allen Probes

Inner zone and slot electron radial diffusion revisited

Using recent data from NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes, we estimate the quiet time radial diffusion coefficients for electrons in the inner radiation belt (L < 3) with energies from ~50 to 750 keV. The observations are consistent with dynamics dominated by pitch angle scattering and radial diffusion. We use a coordinate system in which these two modes of diffusion are separable. Then we integrate phase space density over pitch angle to obtain a \textquotedblleftbundle content\textquotedblright that is invariant to pitc ...

O\textquoterightBrien, T.; Claudepierre, S.; Guild, T.; Fennell, J.; Turner, D.; Blake, J.; Clemmons, J.; Roeder, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069749

Inner zone; radial diffusion; Radiation belt; Van Allen Probes

Local time variations of high-energy plasmaspheric ion pitch angle distributions

Recent observations from the Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument revealed a persistent depletion in the 1\textendash10 eV ion population in the postmidnight sector during quiet times in the 2 < L < 3 region. This study explores the source of this ion depletion by developing an algorithm to classify 26 months of pitch angle distributions measured by the HOPE instrument. We correct the HOPE low energy fluxes for spacecraft potential using measurements from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrum ...

Sarno-Smith, Lois; Liemohn, Michael; Skoug, Ruth; Larsen, Brian; Moldwin, Mark; Katus, Roxanne; Wygant, John;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022301

algorithm; Magnetosphere; pitch angles; plasmasphere; spacecraft potential corrections; Van Allen Probes

Nonstorm time dropout of radiation belt electron fluxes on 24 September 2013

Radiation belt electron flux dropouts during the main phase of geomagnetic storms have received increasing attention in recent years. Here we focus on a rarely reported nonstorm time dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes on 24 September 2013. Within several hours, the radiation belt electron fluxes exhibited a significant (up to 2 orders of magnitude) depletion over a wide range of radial distances (L > 4.5), energies (\~500 keV to several MeV) and equatorial pitch angles (0\textdegree<=αe<=180\textdegree). STEERB simu ...

Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zhu, Hui; Li, Wen; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Funsten, H.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022546

EMIC; numerical modeling; Plasmaspheric Hiss; precipitation loss; radiation belt dropout; Van Allen Probes; Wave-particle interaction

Statistical Properties of the Radiation Belt Seed Population

We present a statistical analysis of phase space density data from the first 26 months of the Van Allen Probes mission. In particular we investigate the relationship between the 10s-100s keV seed electrons and >1 MeV core radiation belt electron population. Using a cross correlation analysis, we find that the seed and core populations are well correlated with a coefficient of ≈ 0.73 with a time lag of 10-15 hours. We present evidence of a seed population threshold that is necessary for subsequent acceleration. The depth of ...

Boyd, A.J.; Spence, H.E.; Huang, C.-L.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Turner, D.L.; Claudepierre, S.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Shprits, Y.Y.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022652

Phase space density; Radiation belt; seed population; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probe measurements of the electric drift E \texttimes B/B2 at Arecibo\textquoterights L = 1.4 field line coordinate

We have used electric and magnetic measurements by Van Allen Probe B from 2013 to 2014 to examine the equatorial electric drift E \texttimes B/B2 at one field line coordinate set to Arecibo\textquoterights incoherent scatter radar location (L = 1.43). We report on departures from the traditional picture of corotational motion with the Earth in two ways: (1) the rotational angular speed is found to be 10\% smaller than the rotational angular speed of the Earth, in agreement with previous works on plasmaspheric notches, and (2 ...

Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069875

corotation; electric field; Inner radiation belt; Ionosphere; plasmasphere; Van Allen Probes

The Van Allen Probes Engineering Radiation Monitor: Mission Radiation Environment and Effects

The engineering radiation monitor (ERM) measures dose, dose rate, and charging currents on the Van Allen Probes mission to study the dynamics of Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts. Measurements from this monitor show a variation in dose rates with time, a correlation between the dosimeter and charging current data, a map of charging current versus orbit altitude, and a comparison of measured cumulative dose to prelaunch and postlaunch modeling. The measurement results and surveys of t ...

Maurer, R.; Goldsten, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI:

RBSP; Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes observations of magnetic field dipolarization and its associated O + flux variations in the inner magnetosphere at L < 6.6

We investigate magnetic field dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere and its associated ion flux variations, using the magnetic field and energetic ion flux data acquired by the Van Allen Probes. From a study of 74 events that appeared at L = 4.5\textendash6.6 between 1 October 2012 and 31 October 2013, we reveal the following characteristics of the dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere: (1) its timescale is approximately 5 min, (2) it is accompanied by strong magnetic fluctuations that have a dominant frequency close ...

e, M.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C.; Spence, H.; Smith, C.; MacDowall, R.; Reeves, G.; Larsen, B.; Mitchell, D.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022549

Dipolarization; inner magnetosphere; ionospheric outflow; Magnetic Fluctuation; O+ Acceleration; substorm; Van Allen Probes

Calculating ultra-low-frequency wave power of the compressional magnetic field vs. L and time: multi-spacecraft analysis using the Van Allen probes, THEMIS and GOES

Ultra-low-frequency (ULF) pulsations are critical in radial diffusion processes of energetic particles, and the power spectral density (PSD) of these fluctuations is an integral part of the radial diffusion coefficients and of assimilative models of the radiation belts. Using simultaneous measurements from two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) geosynchronous satellites, three satellites of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft constellation and the ...

Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.5194/angeo-34-565-2016

energetic particles trapped; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; Magnetospheric physics; storms and substorms; Van Allen Probes

ELF/VLF wave propagation at subauroral latitudes: Conjugate observation between the ground and Van Allen Probes A

We report simultaneous observation of ELF/VLF emissions, showing similar spectral and frequency features, between a VLF receiver at Athabasca (ATH), Canada, (L = 4.3) and Van Allen Probes A (Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) A). Using a statistical database from 1 November 2012 to 31 October 2013, we compared a total of 347 emissions observed on the ground with observations made by RBSP in the magnetosphere. On 25 February 2013, from 12:46 to 13:39 UT in the dawn sector (04\textendash06 magnetic local time (MLT)), we observ ...

Martinez-Calderon, Claudia; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Keika, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Schofield, Ian; Connors, Martin; Kletzing, Craig; Hanzelka, Miroslav; ik, Ondrej; Kurth, William;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.610.1002/2015JA022264

conjugate event; propagation; QP; Ray Tracing; time delay; Van Allen Probes; VLF/ELF

Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave\textendashparticle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion ...

Mann, I.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K.; Claudepierre, S.; Turner, D.; Baker, D.; Rae, I.; Kale, A.; Milling, D.; Boyd, A.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Singer, H.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I.; Honary, F.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1038/nphys3799

Astrophysical plasmas; Magnetospheric physics; Van Allen Probes

How quickly, how deeply, and how strongly can dynamical outer boundary conditions impact Van Allen radiation belt morphology?

Here we examine the speed, strength, and depth of the coupling between dynamical variations of ultrarelativistic electron flux at the outer boundary and that in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Using ULF wave radial diffusion as an exemplar, we show how changing boundary conditions can completely change belt morphology even under conditions of identical wave power. In the case of ULF wave radial diffusion, the temporal dynamics of a new source population or a sink of electron flux at the outer plasma sheet boundary can ...

Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.610.1002/2016JA022647

Radiation belt; ULF waves; Van Allen belt; Van Allen Probes

The influences of solar wind pressure and interplanetary magnetic field on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt electrons

Using the Van Allen Probe in-situ measured magnetic field and electron data, we examine the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) effects on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt relativistic electrons (>=1.8 MeV). The dynamic pressure enhancements (>2nPa) cause the dayside magnetic field increase and the nightside magnetic field reduction, whereas the large southward IMFs (Bz-IMF < -2nT) mainly lead to the decrease of the nightside magnetic field. In the dayside increased magnetic fiel ...

Yu, J.; Li, L.Y.; Cao, J.; Reeves, G.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069029

butterfly distributions; Day-night asymmetrical variations of magnetic field; Day-night asymmetrical variations of relativistic electron pitch angle distributions; Pancake distributions; solar wind dynamic pressure; Southward interplanetary magnetic field; Van Allen Probes

Observations of the impenetrable barrier, the plasmapause, and the VLF bubble during the 17 March 2015 storm

Van Allen Probes observations during the 17 March 2015 major geomagnetic storm strongly suggest that VLF transmitter-induced waves play an important role in sculpting the earthward extent of outer zone MeV electrons. A magnetically confined bubble of very low frequency (VLF) wave emissions of terrestrial, human-produced origin surrounds the Earth. The outer limit of the VLF bubble closely matches the position of an apparent barrier to the inward extent of multi-MeV radiation belt electrons near 2.8 Earth radii. When the VLF ...

Foster, J.; Erickson, P.; Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Mishin, E.; Fennel, J.; Li, X.; Henderson, M.; Kanekal, S.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.610.1002/2016JA022509

barrier; Plasmapause; storm; Van Allen Probes; VLF

Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth\textquoterights radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical p ...

Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.; Li, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Blake, J.; Fennell, J.; Kanekal, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Green, J.; Goldstein, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/jgra.v121.610.1002/2016JA022400

chorus-driven local acceleration; Electron acceleration; radial diffusion; Van Allen Probes

Rapid enhancement of low-energy (<100 eV) ion flux in response to interplanetary shocks based on two Van Allen Probes case studies: Implications for source regions and heating mechanisms

Interactions between interplanetary (IP) shocks and the Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere manifest many important space physics phenomena including low-energy ion flux enhancements and particle acceleration. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving shock-induced enhancement of low-energy ion flux, we have examined two IP shock events that occurred when the Van Allen Probes were located near the equator while ionospheric and ground observations were available around the spacecraft footprints. We have found that, assoc ...

Yue, Chao; Li, Wen; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Zong, Qiugang; Ma, Qianli; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan; Kletzing, Craig; Wygant, John; Nicolls, Michael;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022808

adiabatic accelerations; enhancement of low-energy ion flux; ionospheric ion outflows; response to IP shocks; Van Allen Probes

A telescopic and microscopic examination of acceleration in the June 2015 geomagnetic storm: Magnetospheric Multiscale and Van Allen Probes study of substorm particle injection

An active storm period in June 2015 showed that particle injection events seen sequentially by the four (Magnetospheric Multiscale) MMS spacecraft subsequently fed the enhancement of the outer radiation belt observed by Van Allen Probes mission sensors. Several episodes of significant southward interplanetary magnetic field along with a period of high solar wind speed (Vsw ≳ 500 km/s) on 22 June occurred following strong interplanetary shock wave impacts on the magnetosphere. Key events on 22 June 2015 show that the magnet ...

Baker, D.; Jaynes, A.; Turner, D.; Nakamura, R.; Schmid, D.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I.; Fennell, J.; Blake, J.; Strangeway, R.; Russell, C.; Torbert, R.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D.; Giles, B.; Burch, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/grl.v43.1210.1002/2016GL069643

Magnetic reconnection; magnetospheres; Radiation belts; substorms; Van Allen Probes

On the Time Needed to Reach an Equilibrium Structure of the Radiation Belts

In this study, we complement the notion of equilibrium states of the radiation belts with a discussion on the dynamics and time needed to reach equilibrium. We solve for the equilibrium states obtained using 1D radial diffusion with recently developed hiss and chorus lifetimes at constant values of Kp = 1, 3 and 6. We find that the equilibrium states at moderately low Kp, when plotted vs L-shell (L) and energy (E), display the same interesting S-shape for the inner edge of the outer belt as recently observed by the Van Allen ...

Ripoll, J.; Loridan, V.; Cunningham, G.; Reeves, G.; . Y. Shprits, Y;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022207

Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

What effect do substorms have on the content of the radiation belts?

Substorms are fundamental and dynamic processes in the magnetosphere, converting captured solar wind magnetic energy into plasma energy. These substorms have been suggested to be a key driver of energetic electron enhancements in the outer radiation belts. Substorms inject a keV \textquotedblleftseed\textquotedblright population into the inner magnetosphere which is subsequently energized through wave-particle interactions up to relativistic energies; however, the extent to which substorms enhance the radiation belts, either ...

Forsyth, C.; Rae, I.; Murphy, K.; Freeman, M.; Huang, C.-L.; Spence, H.; Boyd, A.; Coxon, J.; Jackman, C.; Kalmoni, N.; Watt, C.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022620

enhancements; losses; Radiation belts; substorm

Automated determination of electron density from electric field measurements on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

We present the Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination (NURD) algorithm for automatic inference of the electron number density from plasma wave measurements made on board NASA\textquoterights Van Allen Probes mission. A feedforward neural network is developed to determine the upper hybrid resonance frequency, fuhr, from electric field measurements, which is then used to calculate the electron number density. In previous missions, the plasma resonance bands were manually identified, and there have been few a ...

Zhelavskaya, I.; Spasojevic, M.; . Y. Shprits, Y; Kurth, W.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022132

electron number density; neural networks; Van Allen Probes

The Source of O + in the Storm-time Ring Current

A stretched and compressed geomagnetic field occurred during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm on 1 June 2013. During the storm the Van Allen Probes spacecraft made measurements of the plasma sheet boundary layer, and observed large fluxes of O+ ions streaming up the field line from the nightside auroral region. Prior to the storm main phase there was an increase in the hot (>1 keV) and more isotropic O+ions in the plasma sheet. In the spacecraft inbound pass through the ring current region during the storm main phase, t ...

Kistler, L.M.; Mouikis, C.; Spence, H.E.; Menz, A.M.; Skoug, R.M.; Funsten, H.O.; Larsen, B.A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Wygant, J.R.; Lanzerotti, L.J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022204

Geomagnetic storm; Ionosphere; oxygen; plasma sheet; Plasma Sources; ring current; Van Allen Probes

Combined Scattering Loss of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons by Simultaneous Three-band EMIC Waves: A Case Study

Multiband electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can drive efficient scattering loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. However, it is statistically uncommon to capture the three bands of EMIC waves concurrently. Utilizing data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science magnetometer onboard Van Allen Probe A, we report the simultaneous presence of three (H+, He+, and O+) emission bands in an EMIC wave event, which provides an opportunity to look into the combined scattering effect ...

He, Fengming; Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Xiang, Zheng; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong; Zhao, Zhengyu; Shi, Run; Wang, Qi;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022483

combined scattering rates; electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves; loss timescales; radiation belt relativistic electrons; resonant wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

Compressional ULF wave modulation of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere

We present Van Allen Probes observations of modulations in the flux of very energetic electrons up to a few MeV and protons between 1200 - 1400 UT on February 19th, 2014. During this event the spacecraft were in the dayside magnetosphere at L*≈5.5. The modulations extended across a wide range of particle energies, from 79.80 keV to 2.85 MeV for electrons and from 82.85 keV to 636.18 keV for protons. The fluxes of π/2 pitch angle particles were observed to attain maximum values simultaneously with the ULF compressional mag ...

Liu, H.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; . Y. Fu, S; Rankin, R.; Wang, L.-H.; Yuan, C.; Wang, Y.; Baker, D.; Blake, J.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022706

Compressional ULF wave; energetic particles; Magnetosphere; Mirror effect; Modulation; relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

The dependence on geomagnetic conditions and solar wind dynamic pressure of the spatial distributions of EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes

A statistical examination on the spatial distributions of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes against varying levels of geomagnetic activity (i.e., AE and SYM-H) and dynamic pressure has been performed. Measurements taken by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science for the first full magnetic local time (MLT) precession of the Van Allen Probes (September 2012\textendashJune 2014) are used to identify over 700 EMIC wave events. Spatial distributions of EMI ...

Saikin, A.; Zhang, J.; Smith, C.; Spence, H.; Torbert, R.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022523

EMIC waves; geomagnetic activity; solar wind dynamic pressure; spatial distributions; Van Allen Probes

Driving ionospheric outflows and magnetospheric O + energy density with Alfv\ en waves

We show how dispersive Alfv\ en waves observed in the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms can extract O+ ions from the topside ionosphere and accelerate these ions to energies exceeding 50 keV in the equatorial plane. This occurs through wave trapping, a variant of \textquotedblleftshock\textquotedblright surfing, and stochastic ion acceleration. These processes in combination with the mirror force drive field-aligned beams of outflowing ionospheric ions into the equatorial plane that evolve to provide energetic O+ ...

Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069008

Alfven waves; ion acceleration; Ionosphere; ionospheric outflow; ring current

Electron dropout echoes induced by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations

On 23 November 2012, a sudden dropout of the relativistic electron flux was observed after an interplanetary shock arrival. The dropout peaks at \~1MeV and more than 80\% of the electrons disappeared from the drift shell. Van Allen twin Probes observed a sharp electron flux dropout with clear energy dispersion signals. The repeating flux dropout and recovery signatures, or \textquotedblleftdropout echoes\textquotedblright, constitute a new phenomenon referred to as a \textquotedblleftdrifting electron dropout\textquotedblrig ...

Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; . Y. Fu, S; Rankin, R.; Yuan, C.-J.; T. Y. Lui, A.; Spence, H.; Blake, J.; Baker, D.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069140

Drift shell splitting; electron dropout echo; energetic particle; interplanetary shock; magnetopause shadowing; solar wind-magnetospheric coupling; Van Allen Probes

EMIC wave spatial and coherence scales as determined from multipoint Van Allen Probe measurements

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can provide a strong source of energetic electron pitch angle scattering. These waves are often quite localized, thus their spatial extent can have a large effect on their overall scattering efficiency. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes, we examine four EMIC wave events observed simultaneously on the two probes at varying spacecraft separations. Correlation of both the wave amplitude and phase observed at both spacecraft is examined to estimate the active region and ...

Blum, L.; Agapitov, O.; Bonnell, J.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068799

coherence scales; EMIC waves; multipoint measurements; Van Allen Probes

Evolution of chorus emissions into plasmaspheric hiss observed by Van Allen Probes

The two classes of whistler mode waves (chorus and hiss) play different roles in the dynamics of radiation belt energetic electrons. Chorus can efficiently accelerate energetic electrons, and hiss is responsible for the loss of energetic electrons. Previous studies have proposed that chorus is the source of plasmaspheric hiss, but this still requires an observational confirmation because the previously observed chorus and hiss emissions were not in the same frequency range in the same time. Here we report simultaneous observ ...

Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Wygant, J.; Baker, D.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Funsten, H.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022366

chorus waves; Plasmaspheric Hiss; RBSP results; Van Allen Probes

Large-amplitude electric fields in the inner magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes observations of subauroral polarization streams

The subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) is an important magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) coupling phenomenon that impacts a range of particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. SAPS studies often emphasize ionospheric signatures of fast westward flows, but the equatorial magnetosphere is also affected through strong radial electric fields in the dusk sector. This study focuses on a period of steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) during the 29 June 2013 geomagnetic storm where the Van Allen Probes observe a ...

Califf, S.; Li, X.; Wolf, R.; Zhao, H.; Jaynes, A.; Wilder, F.; Malaspina, D.; Redmon, R.;

YEAR: 2016     DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022252

electric field; injection; SAPS; subauroral; Van Allen Probes



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