Van Allen Probes Bibliography is from August 2012 through September 2021


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Particle fluxes in the outer geomagnetic field

AuthorVernov, S.; Gorchakov, E.; Kuznetsov, S.; Logachev, Yu.; Sosnovets, E.; Stolpovsky, V.;
KeywordsRadial Transport
AbstractThe outer geomagnetic field comprises the outer radiation belt, consisting of electrons with energies of 104\textendash107 ev, and the unstable radiation zone. The outer radiation belt is bounded on its inner side by a gap, which is at various times located at a distance of 2.2\textendash3.5 RE and in which a considerable precipitation of electrons from radiation belts occurs, possibly owing to a high intensity of electromagnetic waves. The boundary separating the outer radiation belt from the unstable radiation zone is at λ \~ 71\textdegree and \~9 RE in the equatorial plane on the sunlit side, and at 7\textendash8 RE in the equatorial plane on the nightside. Beyond this, the unstable radiation zone extends out to the magnetosphere boundary and up to λ \~ 77\textdegree on the sunlit side, and out to 14\textendash15 RE on the nightside. The relatively rapid electron intensity variations with periods of 1\textendash7 days are essentially absent at distances less than that of the outer belt but are distinctly seen in the outer belt. In the unstable radiation zone the intensity of electrons with energies of the order of 105 ev changes by several times, and good correlation is observed with the increase in Kp. Analysis of the outer belt data shows that this belt is formed partly by electron diffusion into the magnetosphere (like the belt of protons with energies of 105\textendash107 ev) and partly by the simultaneous acceleration of electrons at various distances from the earth. A comparison of electron intensity changes with the solar activity cycle shows little or no correlation for electrons with Ee > 40 kev. The intensity of electrons with Ee > 500 kev has changed significantly; in 1964 it was 30 times lower than in 1959. The absence of significant dependence of the diffusion coefficients for electrons with E \~ 104\textendash105 ev on the phase of the solar activity cycle shows that the relatively weak magnetic disturbances that do not change with the phase of the cycle are of major importance in diffusion. This suggests that these magnetic disturbances appear at great distances from the sun because of the instabilities of plasma itself and, therefore, that they depend little on solar activity.
Year of Publication1969
JournalReviews of Geophysics
Number of Pages257-280
Date Published02/1969