Bibliography



Found 1109 entries in the Bibliography.


Showing entries from 1 through 50


2021

Inter-calibrated Measurements of Intense Whistlers by Arase and Van Allen Probes

Abstract Measurements of electromagnetic waves in space plasmas are an important tool for our understanding of physical processes in this environment. Inter-calibration of data from different spacecraft missions is necessary for combining their measurements in empirical models or in case studies. We show results collected during a close conjunction of the Van Allen Probes and Arase spacecraft. The inter-calibration is based on a fortuitous case of common observations of strong whistlers at frequencies between a few hundred h ...

Santolik, O.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kolmašová, I.; Matsuda, S.; Hospodarsky, G.; Hartley, D.; Kasahara, Y.; Kojima, H.; Matsuoka, A.; Shinohara, I.; Kurth, W.; Kletzing, C.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029700

calibration of measeurements of electromagnetic waves; Whistlers; ducts; Van Allen Probes

Can Earth’s magnetotail plasma sheet produce a source of relativistic electrons for the radiation belts?

Abstract Simultaneous observations from Van Allen Probes (RBSP) in Earth’s outer radiation belt (∼4-6 RE) and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) in the magnetotail plasma sheet at >20 RE geocentric distance are used to compare relative levels of relativistic electron phase space density (PSD) for constant values of the first adiabatic invariant, M. We present new evidence from two events showing: i) at times, there is sufficient PSD in the central plasma sheet to provide a source of >1 MeV electrons into the outer belt; ii) ...

Turner, Drew; Cohen, Ian; Michael, Adam; Sorathia, Kareem; Merkin, Slava; Mauk, Barry; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Murphy, Kyle; Gabrielse, Christine; Boyd, Alexander; Fennell, Joseph; Blake, Bernard; Claudepierre, Seth; Drozdov, Alexander; Jaynes, Allison; Ripoll, Jean-Francois; Reeves, Geoffrey;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL095495

Radiation belts; plasma sheet; Particle acceleration; relativistic electrons; inner magnetosphere; magnetotail; Van Allen Probes

A statistical analysis of duration and frequency chirping rate of falling tone chorus

AbstractThe duration (τ) and chirping rate (Γ) of whistler mode chorus waves are two of the most important properties to understand chorus generation mechanism and to quantify effects of nonlinear wave particle interactions on radiation belt electron acceleration. In this study, we perform the first statistical analysis of the duration and chirping rate of falling tone chorus elements using Van Allen Probes data.We found that τ increases and Γ decreases with increasing L-shell, although the dependence is weak. The durati ...

Xie, Yi; Teng, Shangchun; Wu, Yifan; Tao, Xin;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL095349

chorus waves; falling tone; Frequency chirping; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous pulsating aurora and microburst observations with ground-based fast auroral imagers and CubeSat FIREBIRD-II

Abstract We report on the relationship between a pulsating aurora and a relativistic electron microburst using simultaneous observations of ground-based fast auroral imagers with the FIREBIRD-� � CubeSat for the first time. We conducted a detailed analysis of an event on October 8, 2018 and found that the occurrence of the pulsating aurora with internal modulations corresponds to the flux enhancement of electrons with energy ranging from ∼220 keV to >1 MeV detected with Flight Unit 4, one of FIREBIRD’s CubeSat, with ...

Kawamura, Miki; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Fukizawa, Mizuki; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Katoh, Yuto; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Asamura, Kazushi; Saito, Shinji; Spence, Harlan; Johnson, Arlo; Oyama, Shin’ichiro; Brändström, Urban;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL094494

pulsating aurora; Microbursts; chorus waves; Van Allen Probes

Field-Aligned Electron Density Distribution of the Inner Magnetosphere Inferred from Coordinated Observations of Arase and Van Allen Probes

Plain Language Summary The plasmasphere is the region filled with cold, dense ionized gas in geospace. The ionized gas mainly consists in protons, helium ions, oxygen ions and electrons, which come from Earth’s ionosphere and fill in magnetic flux tubes. The density distribution of the ionized gas along the flux tube provides important information to understand how the ions and electrons have been supplied from the ionosphere. Many satellites fly in the equatorial plane, hence, do not provide information on the electron de ...

Obana, Yuki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Maruyama, Naomi; Shinbori, Atsuki; Nosé, Masahito; Shoji, Masafumi; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Matsuda, Shoya; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Shinohara, Iku; Kurth, William; Smith, Charles; MacDowall, Robert;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029073

plasmasphere; inner magnetosphere; Arase satellite; Van Allen Probes satellite; simultaneous observation; Geomagnetic storm; Van Allen Probes

Quantitative assessment of protons during the solar proton events of September 2017

Abstract We present multi-spacecraft observations of the proton fluxes spanning from 1.5-433 MeV for the largest solar proton event of solar cycle 24, i.e. 7 and 10 September 2017. In September 2017, M5.5 flare on 4 September, X9.3 flare on 6 September and X8.2 flare on 10 September gave rise to solar proton event when observed by near-Earth spacecrafts. On 7 September and 10 September 2017, a strong enhancement in the proton intensities was observed by ACE and WIND at L1 and Van Allen Probes, GOES-15 and POES-19 in the Eart ...

Pandya, Megha; Veenadhari, B.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029458

innermagnetosphere; SEP event; Radiation belt; Proton flux; Van Allen Probes

A Statistical Study of Low-Energy Ion Flux Enhancements by EMIC Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere

Abstract We have studied the statistical properties of low-energy proton (H+) and helium (He+) ion flux enhancements associated with EMIC waves in the inner magnetosphere using Van Allen Probes data for 2013-2017. We identified 167 low-energy ion flux enhancements when the EMIC waves occurred in a He-band or in a multiple band (H-band and He-band) with strong He-band and weak H-band wave activity and found that most of them occurred from the noon to the premidnight sector near the magnetic equator just inside the plasmapause ...

Lee, Junhyun; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lee, Ensang;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029793

Van Allen Probes

Electromagnetic characteristics of fast magnetosonic waves in the inner magnetosphere

Abstract In evaluating the effects of fast magnetosonic (MS) waves on magnetospheric particles, their magnetic spectra are often obtained from satellite observations, while electric field components are usually derived under the cold plasma approximation. However, such an approximation has not been verified with in situ observations yet. In this paper, we report the electromagnetic characteristic for MS waves in various plasma environments with observations of the Van Allen Probe A. It is found that a considerable number of ...

Yu, Xiongdong; Yuan, Zhigang; Yao, Fei; Ouyang, Zhihai; Wang, Dedong;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029759

Fast Magnetosonic Waves; Electromagnetic characteristics; Van Allen Probes; Cold plasma approximation

Realistic electron diffusion rates and lifetimes due to scattering by electron holes

AbstractPlasma sheet electron precipitation into the diffuse aurora is critical for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Recent studies have shown that electron phase space holes can pitch-angle scatter electrons and may produce plasma sheet electron precipitation. These studies have assumed identical electron hole parameters to estimate electron scattering rates (Vasko et al., 2018). In this study, we have re-evaluated the efficiency of this scattering by incorporating realistic electron hole properties from direct spacecraf ...

Shen, Yangyang; Vasko, Ivan; Artemyev, Anton; Malaspina, David; Chu, Xiangning; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Zhang, Xiao-Jia;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029380

diffuse aurora; electron pitch-angle scattering; electron phase space hole; Wave-particle interaction; electron lifetimes; broadband electrostatic fluctuations; Van Allen Probes

Trapping and amplification of unguided mode EMIC waves in the radiation belt

AbstractElectromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can cause the scattering loss of the relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. They can be classified into the guided mode and the unguided mode, according to waves propagation behavior. The guided mode waves have been widely investigated in the radiation belt, but the observation of the unguided mode waves have not been expected. Based on the observations of Van Allen Probes, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of the intense unguided L-mode EMIC waves in th ...

Wang, Geng; Gao, Zhonglei; Wu, MingYu; Wang, GuoQiang; Xiao, SuDong; Chen, YuanQiang; Zou, Zhengyang; Zhang, TieLong;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029322

EMIC waves; unguided mode; Radiation belt; ion abundance ratios; Wave trapping; growth rate; Van Allen Probes

Simultaneous observations and combined effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and magnetosonic waves

Abstract Magnetosonic (MS) waves and Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are important plasma waves in the magnetosphere. Using the Van Allen Probes observations from 2012 to 2017, we constructed the global distribution of simultaneous occurrence of MS and EMIC waves. We found a total of 214 events, and the waves distribute from the noon sector to the duskside. Furthermore, we quantitatively analyze the combined effects of both waves on protons and electrons by calculating of particle diffusion coefficients and 2-D Fo ...

Teng, S.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093885

EMIC waves; MS waves; Wave-particle interaction; diffusion coefficients; Van Allen Probes

Reconstructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt by means of the standard and ensemble Kalman filter with the VERB-3D code

Abstract Reconstruction and prediction of the state of the near-Earth space environment is important for anomaly analysis, development of empirical models and understanding of physical processes. Accurate reanalysis or predictions that account for uncertainties in the associated model and the observations, can be obtained by means of data assimilation. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is one of the most promising filtering tools for non-linear and high dimensional systems in the context of terrestrial weather prediction. In ...

Tibocha, A.; de Wiljes, J.; . Y. Shprits, Y; Aseev, N.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020SW002672

Kalman Filter; Ensemble Kalman filter; forecasting; Van Allen Probes

PreMevE Update: Forecasting Ultra-relativistic Electrons inside Earth’s Outer Radiation Belt

Abstract Energetic electrons inside Earth’s Van Allen belts pose a major radiation threat to space-borne electronics that often play vital roles in modern society. Ultra-relativistic electrons with energies greater than or equal to two Megaelectron-volt (MeV) are of particular interest, and thus forecasting these ≥2 MeV electrons has significant meaning to all space sectors. Here we update the latest development of the predictive model for MeV electrons in the outer radiation belt. The new version, called PreMevE-2E, for ...

Sinha, Saurabh; Chen, Yue; Lin, Youzuo; de Lima, Rafael;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021SW002773

Supervised Machine Learning; Van Allen electron radiation belt; Predicting ultra-relativistic electrons; Van Allen Probes

The Scalable Plasma Ion Composition and Electron Density (SPICED) model for Earth’s inner magnetosphere

Abstract The plasma mass loading of the terrestrial equatorial inner magnetosphere is a key determinant of the characteristics and propagation of ULF waves. Electron number density is also an important factor for other types of waves such as chorus, hiss and EMIC waves. In this paper, we use Van Allen Probe data from September 2012 to February 2019 to create average models of electron densities and average ion mass in the plasmasphere and plasmatrough, near the Earth’s magnetic equator. These models are combined to provide ...

James, Matthew; Yeoman, Tim; Jones, Petra; Sandhu, Jasmine; Goldstein, Jerry;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029565

Van Allen Probes

Global Survey of Electron Precipitation due to Hiss Waves in the Earth s Plasmasphere and Plumes

Abstract We present a global survey of energetic electron precipitation from the equatorial magnetosphere due to hiss waves in the plasmasphere and plumes. Using Van Allen Probes measurements, we calculate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients at the bounce loss cone, and evaluate the energy spectrum of precipitating electron flux. Our ∼6.5-year survey shows that, during disturbed times, hiss inside the plasmasphere primarily causes the electron precipitation at L > 4 over 8 h < MLT < 18 h, and hiss waves in plumes cause ...

Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Zhang, X.-J.; Bortnik, J.; Shen, X.-C.; Connor, H.; Boyd, A.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.; Spence, H.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029644

electron precipitation; hiss wave; plasmasphere; plasmaspheric plume; Precipitating Energy Flux; Van Allen Probes Survey; Van Allen Probes

Superposed Epoch Analysis of Dispersionless Particle Injections Inside Geosynchronous Orbit

AbstractDispersionless injections, involving sudden, simultaneous flux enhancements of energetic particles over some broad range of energy, are a characteristic signature of the particles that are experiencing a significant acceleration and/or rapid inward transport at the leading edge of injections. We have statistically analyzed data from Van Allen Probes (also known as RBSP ) to reveal where the proton (H+) and electron (e–) dispersionless injections occur preferentially inside geosynchronous orbit and how they develop ...

Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; . Y. Ukhorskiy, A; Lanzerotti, L.; Claudepierre, S.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029546

Dispersionless injections; substorms; inner magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Observational evidence of the excitation of magnetosonic waves by an He ion ring distribution

Abstract We report plasma wave observations of equatorial magnetosonic waves at integer harmonics of the local gyrofrequency of doubly-ionized helium (He). The waves were observed by Van Allen Probe A on 08 Feb 2014 when the spacecraft was in the afternoon magnetic local time sector near inside of the plasmasphere. Analysis of the complementary in-situ energetic ion measurements (1-300 keV) reveals the presence of a helium ion ring distribution centered near 30 keV. Theoretical linear growth rate calculations suggest that th ...

Claudepierre, S.; Liu, X.; Chen, L.; Takahashi, K.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029532

magnetosonic waves; ion Bernstein waves; ring distribution; alpha particles; Plasma instability; ring current; Van Allen Probes

High-energy electron flux enhancement pattern in the outer radiation belt in response to the Alfvénic fluctuations within high-speed solar wind stream: A statistical analysis

Abstract The coupling response between solar wind structures and the magnetosphere is highly complex, leading to different effects in the outer radiation belt electron fluxes. Most Coronal Mass Ejections cause strong geomagnetic storms with short recovery phases, often 1-2 days. By contrast, High-Speed Solar Wind Streams lead to moderate and weak storms often with much longer recovery phases, from several to ∼10 days. The magnetosphere receives energy for a long time under the influence of the HSSs, considerably changing i ...

Da Silva, L.; Shi, J.; Alves, L.; Sibeck, D.; Marchezi, J.; Medeiros, C.; Vieira, L.; Agapitov, O.; Cardoso, F.; Souza, V.; Dal Lago, A.; Jauer, P.; Wang, C.; Li, H.; Liu, Z.; Alves, M.; Rockenbach, M.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029363

outer radiation belt; high-energy electron flux; high speed solar wind stream; ultra low frequency waves; whistler-mode chorus waves; Electron flux enhancement; Van Allen Probes

ULF-modulation of whistler-mode waves in the inner magnetosphere during solar wind compression

Abstract The solar wind plays important roles on terrestrial magnetosphere dynamics, including the particle population and plasma waves generation. Here we report an interesting event that ULF waves are enhanced right after solar wind compression and the compressional mode ULF wave subsequently modulates both the intensity and energy flux direction of whistler-mode waves. Quasi-periodic whistler-mode wave packets are observed around L=5.6 at noon sector by Van Allen Probes. Growth rate calculation demonstrates that the compr ...

Shang, Xiongjun; Liu, Si; Chen, Lunjin; Gao, Zhonglei; Wang, Geng; He, Qian; Li, Tong; Xiao, Fuliang;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029353

Van Allen Probes

Van Allen Probes Observations of Multi-MeV Electron Drift-Periodic Flux Oscillations in Earth’s Outer Radiation Belt During the March 2017 Event

Abstract Radiation belt electrons undergo frequent acceleration, transport, and loss processes under various physical mechanisms. One of the most prevalent mechanisms is radial diffusion, caused by the resonant interactions between energetic electrons and ULF waves in the Pc4-5 band. An indication of this resonant interaction is believed to be the appearance of periodic flux oscillations. In this study, we report long-lasting, drift-periodic flux oscillations of relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons with energies up t ...

Zhao, Hong; Sarris, Theodore; Li, Xinlin; Weiner, Max; Huckabee, Isabela; Baker, Daniel; Jaynes, Allison; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Elkington, Scot; Barani, Mohammad; Tu, Weichao; Liu, Wenlong; Zhang, Dianjun; Hartinger, Michael;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029284

Radiation belt; multi-MeV electrons; radial diffusion; ULF waves; Wave-particle interaction; Phase space density radial gradient; Van Allen Probes

Low Frequency ULF Waves in the Earth’s Inner Magnetosphere: Statistics During Coronal Mass Ejections and Seeding of EMIC Waves

Abstract Here we perform a statistical analysis of low frequency ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves (mHz-Hz) in the Earth’s inner magnetosphere excluding electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves concurrently observed. We use the magnetic field data from the two Van Allen Probes during their first magnetic local time (MLT) revolution that cover the periods of coronal mass ejections. The major results of our analysis are as follows. (1) Spectra of both the transverse and compressional ULF waves are well approximated by the po ...

Gamayunov, Konstantin; Engebretson, Mark;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029247

coronal mass ejection; low frequency ULF waves; Earth s inner magnetosphere; statistics of ULF waves; turbulent energy cascade; seeding of EMIC waves; Van Allen Probes

Direct evidence reveals transmitter signal propagation in the magnetosphere

AbstractSignals from very-low-frequency transmitters on the ground are known to induce energetic electron precipitation from the Earth’s radiation belts. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends on the propagation characteristics of those signals in the magnetosphere, and in particular whether the signals are ducted or nonducted along channels of enhanced plasma density, analogous to optical fibres. Here we perform a statistical analysis of in-situ waveform data collected by the Van Allen Probes satellites that shows th ...

Gu, Wenyao; Chen, Lunjin; Xia, Zhiyang; Horne, Richard;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093987

VLF transmitters; ducted propagation; nonducted propagation; Magnetosphere; Van Allen Probes

Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Whistler-mode Waves By Density Irregularities During the Recovery Phase of a Geomagnetic Storm

Abstract Density irregularities near the plasmapause are commonly observed and play an important role in whistler-mode wave excitation and propagation. In this study, we report a frequency-dependent modulation event of whistler-mode waves by background density irregularities during a geomagnetic storm. Higher-frequency whistler waves (near 0.5 fce, where fce is the equatorial electron cyclotron frequency) are trapped in the density trough regions due to the small refractive index near the parallel direction, while lower-freq ...

Liu, Xu; Gu, Wenyao; Xia, Zhiyang; Chen, Lunjin; Horne, Richard;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093095

Van Allen Probes

A Comparison of Radial Diffusion Coefficients in 1-D and 3-D Long-Term Radiation Belt Simulations

AbstractRadial diffusion is one of the dominant physical mechanisms driving acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons. A number of parameterizations for radial diffusion coefficients have been developed, each differing in the dataset used. Here, we investigate the performance of different parameterizations by Brautigam and Albert (2000), Brautigam et al. (2005), Ozeke et al. (2014), Ali et al. (2015); Ali et al. (2016); Ali (2016), and Liu et al. (2016) on long-term radiation belt modeling using the Versatile El ...

. Y. Drozdov, A; Allison, H.; . Y. Shprits, Y; Elkington, S.R.; Aseev, N.A.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028707

Radiation belts; radial diffusion; VERB code; Van Allen Probes

The effect of non-storm time substorms on the ring current dynamics

Abstract During geomagnetically active times such as geomagnetic storms, large amounts of energy can be released into the Earth’s magnetosphere and change the ring current intensity. Previous studies showed that significant enhancement of the ring current was related to geomagnetic storms, while few studies have examined substorm effects on ring current dynamics. In this study, we examine the ring current variation during non-storm time (SYM-H > −50 nT) substorms, especially during super-substorms ( AE > 1000 nT). We per ...

Jang, Eunjin; Yue, Chao; Zong, Qiugang; Fu, Suiyan; Fu, HaoBo;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.26464/epp2021032

super-substorms; ring current; ion fluxes; Van Allen Probes

Electromagnetic power of lightning superbolts from Earth to space

Lightning superbolts are the most powerful and rare lightning events with intense optical emission, first identified from space. Superbolt events occurred in 2010-2018 could be localized by extracting the high energy tail of the lightning stroke signals measured by the very low frequency ground stations of the World-Wide Lightning Location Network. Here, we report electromagnetic observations of superbolts from space using Van Allen Probes satellite measurements, and ground measurements, and with two events measured both fro ...

Ripoll, J.-F.; Farges, T.; Malaspina, D.; Cunningham, G.; Lay, E.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23740-6

Van Allen Probes

The Roles of the Magnetopause and Plasmapause in Storm-Time ULF Wave Power Enhancements

Abstract Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves play a crucial role in transporting and coupling energy within the magnetosphere. During geomagnetic storms, dayside magnetospheric ULF wave power is highly variable with strong enhancements that are dominated by elevated solar wind driving. However, the radial distribution of ULF wave power is complex - controlled interdependently by external solar wind driving and the internal magnetospheric structuring. We conducted a statistical analysis of observed storm-time ULF wave power from ...

Sandhu, J.; Rae, I.; Staples, F.; Hartley, D.; Walach, M.-T.; Elsden, T.; Murphy, K.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029337

ULF waves; Geomagnetic storms; Van Allen Probes; radial diffusion; inner magnetosphere; plasmasphere

The Characteristics of Three-belt Structure of Sub-MeV Electrons in the Radiation Belts

Abstract After the launch of Van Allen Probes, the three-belt structures of ultra-relativistic electrons are discovered. In this study, we investigate the three-belt structures of sub-MeV electrons, which may form under different mechanism compared with those of ultra-relativistic electrons and are worth in-depth analysis. Based on the differential flux data from MagEIS onboard RBSP-B satellite, we find 54 events, in which two comparable peaks of sub-MeV electron fluxes and a slot appear where there should be the outer radia ...

Li, Yu-Xuan; Yue, Chao; Hao, Yi-Xin; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Fu, Sui-Yan; Chen, Xing-Ran; Zhao, Xing-Xin;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029385

Van Allen Probes

Multi-Instrument Characterisation of Magnetospheric Cold Plasma Dynamics in the 22 June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

Abstract We present a comparison of magnetospheric plasma mass/electron density observations during an 11-day interval which includes the geomagnetic storm of 22 June 2015. For this study we used: equatorial plasma mass density derived from geomagnetic field line resonances (FLRs) detected by Van Allen Probes and at the ground-based magnetometer networks EMMA and CARISMA; in situ electron density inferred by the Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination algorithm applied to plasma wave Van Allen Probes measur ...

Vellante, M.; Takahashi, K.; Del Corpo, A.; Zhelavskaya, I.; Goldstein, J.; Mann, I.; Pietropaolo, E.; Reda, J.; Heilig, B.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029292

magnetoseismology; plasmasphere; Field line resonance; ground-based magnetometers; Van Allen Probes; Swarm satellites

Solar Energetic Proton Access to the Inner Magnetosphere during the 7-8 September 2017 event

Abstract The access of solar energetic protons into the inner magnetosphere on 7-8 September 2017 is investigated by following reversed proton trajectories to compute the proton cutoff energy using the Dartmouth geomagnetic cutoff code [Kress et al., 2010]. The cutoff energies for protons coming from the west and east direction, the minimum and maximum cutoff energy respectively, are calculated every five minutes along the orbit of Van Allen Probes using TS07 and the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) MHD magnetic field model. The r ...

Li, Zhao; Engel, Miles; Hudson, Mary; Kress, Brian; Patel, Maulik; Qin, Murong; Selesnick, Richard;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029107

Van Allen Probes

Statistics of Magnetosonic Waves in the Slot Region Observed by Van Allen Probes

Abstract We perform a statistical analysis of magnetosonic waves in the slot region based on Van Allen Probes observations from September 2012 to February 2018. Our results demonstrate that the wave occurrence rate increases with enhanced geomagnetic activity and decreasing magnetic latitude, with the presence of strongest slot region magnetosonic waves near the geomagnetic equator within the 08-20 MLT sector. Power spectral densities of slot region magnetosonic waves also intensify during geomagnetically active times, with ...

Yan, Ling; Cao, Xing; Hua, Man; Ni, Binbin; Zhang, Yuannong;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL094015

magnetosonic waves; Slot region; Statistical distribution; Van Allen Probes

The Link between Wedge-like and Nose-like Ion Spectral Structures in the Inner Magnetosphere

AbstractThe wedge-like and nose-like ion spectral structures, named after their characteristic shapes in the energy-time spectrograms, appear to be distinctively different structures in the Earth s inner magnetosphere. Here we present a case study with conjugate observations from the Arase spacecraft and the twin Van Allen Probes on July 1 and 2, 2017, which displayed the characteristic signatures of the wedge-like and nose-like ion structures, respectively. When the spacecraft nearly intersected at L =2.8, the two structure ...

Ren, Jie; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Yue, Chao; Fu, Sui-Yan; Miyoshi, Y.; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Asamura, K.; Shinohara, I.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093930

Van Allen Probes

Evening side EMIC waves and related proton precipitation induced by a substorm

Abstract We present the results of a multi-point and multi-instrument study of EMIC waves and related energetic proton precipitation during a substorm. We analyze the data from Arase (ERG) and Van Allen Probes (VAP) A and B spacecraft for an event of 16-17 UT on 01 December 2018. VAP-A detected an almost dispersionless injection of energetic protons related to the substorm onset in the night sector. Then the proton injection was detected by VAP-B and further by Arase, as a dispersive enhancement of energetic proton flux. The ...

Yahnin, A.; Popova, T.; Demekhov, A.; Lubchich, A.; Matsuoka, A.; Asamura, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Yokota, S.; Kasahara, S.; Keika, K.; Hori, T.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kumamoto, A.; Kasahara, Y.; Shoji, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Shinohara, I.; Kim, H.; Noh, S.; Raita, T.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029091

Van Allen Probes

On the estimation of the ratio of ULF wave electric fields in space and the magnetic fields at the ground.

Abstract Three new methods for estimating a ratio of the ultra-low frequency (ULF; 1–100 mHz) wave equatorial electric field amplitude in the Earth’s magnetosphere to ground magnetic field amplitudes for field line resonances are described. These methods use ratios of the time series extrema, ratios of the envelope waveform and the ratio of the spectral amplitude at the field line resonance frequency. These methods were applied to four ULF resonance intervals; three detected by the Van Allen Probe A spacecraft and one de ...

Warden, L.; Waters, C.; Sciffer, M.; Hull, A.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029052

remote sensing; ULF plasma waves; Van Allen Probes; estimation; equatorial electric fields

Chorus and hiss scales in the inner magnetosphere: Statistics from high-resolution filter bank (FBK) Van Allen Proves multi-point measurements

AbstractThe spatial scales of whistler-mode waves, determined by their generation process, propagation, and damping, are important for assessing the scaling and efficiency of wave-particle interactions affecting the dynamics of the radiation belts. We use multi-point wave measurements in 2013-2019 by two identically equipped Van Allen Probes spacecraft covering all MLTs at L=2-6 near the geomagnetic equator to investigate the spatial extent of active regions of chorus and hiss waves, their wave amplitude distribution in the ...

Agapitov, O.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Breneman, A.; Bonnell, J.W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028998

chorus waves; chorus genration; Radiation belts; Van Allen Probes

Preliminary Statistical Comparisons of Spin-Averaged Electron Data from Arase and Van Allen Probes Instruments

Abstract Following the end of the Van Allen Probes mission, the Arase satellite offers a unique opportunity to continue in-situ radiation belt and ring current particle measurements into the next solar cycle. In this study we compare spin-averaged flux measurements from the MEPe, HEP-L, HEP-H, and XEP-SSD instruments on Arase with those from the MagEIS and REPT instruments on the Van Allen Probes, calculating Pearson correlation coefficient and the mean ratio of fluxes at L* conjunctions between the spacecraft. Arase and Van ...

Szabó-Roberts, Mátyás; Shprits, Yuri; Allison, Hayley; Vasile, Ruggero; Smirnov, Artem; Aseev, Nikita; Drozdov, Alexander; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Claudepierre, Seth; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Mitani, Takefumi; Takashima, Takeshi; Higashio, Nana; Hori, Tomo; Keika, Kunihiro; Imajo, Shun; Shinohara, Iku;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028929

Arase/ERG; RBSP; intercalibration; Van Allen Probes

A dynamical model of equatorial magnetosonic waves in the inner magnetosphere: A machine learning approach

Abstract Equatorial magnetosonic waves, together with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss, play key roles in the dynamics of energetic electron fluxes in the magnetosphere. Numerical models, developed following a first principles approach, that are used to study the evolution of high energy electron fluxes are mainly based on quasilinear diffusion. The application of such numerical codes requires statistical models for the distribution of key magnetospheric wave modes to estimate the appropriate diffusion coefficients. These waves ...

Boynton, R.; Walker, S.; Aryan, H.; Hobara, Y.; Balikhin, M.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028439

magnetosonic waves; Machine learning; NARMAX; Van Allen Probes

Observation of unusual chorus elements by Van Allen Probes

AbstractWhistler mode chorus waves play an important role in the radiation belt dynamics, which usually appear as discrete elements with frequency sweeping. Finer structure analysis shows that a chorus element is composed of several frequency-sweeping subelements, and such two-level structures can be successfully reproduced by modeling based on nonlinear theories. Previous observations and models suggest that an element and its subelements should have the same frequency-sweep direction. However, we here present two unexpecte ...

Liu, Si; Gao, Zhonglei; Xiao, Fuliang; He, Qian; Li, Tong; Shang, Xiongjun; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; Zhang, Sai;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029258

Van Allen Probes

Origin of Electron Boomerang Stripes: Statistical Study

Abstract In the outer radiation belt, localized ULF waves can interact with energetic electrons by drift resonance, leading to quasiperiodic oscillations. The oscillations in the pitch angle spectrum can be characterized by either boomerang-shaped or straight stripes. Previous studies have shown that boomerang-shaped stripes evolve from straight ones when electrons drift away from the localized wave interaction region. Based on the time-of-flight technique on the pitch angle-dependent drift velocity, the origin can be remote ...

Zhao, X.; Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.; Zhou, X.; Yue, Chao; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Blake, J.; Claudepierre, S.; Reeves, G.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093377

Localized ULF waves; Energetic Elctrons; drift resonance; Time-of-flight Technique; source region; boomerang-shaped stripes; Van Allen Probes

Whistler on a Shelf

Abstract This paper presents results from a numerical study of the guiding of VLF whistler-mode waves along the ambient magnetic field by the shelf-like density structures observed by the NASA Van Allen Probes satellites in the equatorial plasmasphere. The shelf-duct consists of a homogeneous central part “sandwiched” between two density gradients pointing in the same direction. To the best of our knowledge, this type of whistler ducting has never been identified in observations before. Our investigation is based on simu ...

Streltsov, Anatoly;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029403

Whistler waves; density duct; plasmasphere; RBSP; simulations; Van Allen Probes

A Multi-instrument Study of a Dipolarization Event in the Inner Magnetosphere

Abstract A dipolarization of the background magnetic field was observed during a conjunction of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft and Van Allen Probe B on 22 September 2018. The spacecraft were located in the inner magnetosphere at L ∼ 6 − 7 just before midnight magnetic local time (MLT). The radial separation between MMS and Probe B was ∼ 1RE. Gradual dipolarization or an increase of the northward component BZ of the background field occurred on a timescale of minutes. Exploration of energization and Radi ...

Matsui, H.; Torbert, R.; Spence, H.; Argall, M.; Cohen, I.; Cooper, M.; Ergun, R.; Farrugia, C.; Fennell, J.; Fuselier, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Khotyaintsev, Yu.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Matsuoka, A.; Russell, C.; Shoji, M.; Strangeway, R.; Turner, D.; Vaith, H.; Wygant, J.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029294

Dipolarization; inner magnetosphere; Multiple Scale Dynamics; Van Allen Probes

Investigating the link between outer radiation belt losses and energetic electron escape at the magnetopause: A case study using multi-mission observations and simulations

Abstract Radiation belt flux dropout events are sudden and often significant reductions in high-energy electrons from Earth’s outer radiation belts. These losses are theorized to be due to interactions with the dayside magnetopause and possibly connected to observations of escaping magnetospheric particles. This study focuses on radiation belt losses during a moderate-strength, nonstorm dropout event on 21 November 2016. The potential loss mechanisms and the linkage to dayside escape are investigated using combined energet ...

Cohen, I.; Turner, D.; Michael, A.; Sorathia, K.; . Y. Ukhorskiy, A;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JA029261

Radiation belt; Magnetospheric escape; energetic electrons; Flux dropout events; test particle simulations; Van Allen Probes

A Statistical Study of Lower Hybrid Waves In the Earth’s Magnetosphere by Van Allen Probes

Abstract The lower hybrid (LH) waves are electrostatic emissions near the LH resonant frequency. They propagate perpendicularly with a small wavelength comparable to Larmor radius of thermal particles and can heat both ions and electrons. In this paper, we statistically study the global distribution of LH waves in the inner magnetosphere by using Van Allen Probes observation from 2012 to 2018. We find that (1) LH waves are commonly observed in the inner magnetosphere. Most LH waves are confined near the magnetic equator with ...

Liu, Xu; Chen, Lunjin; Ma, Qianli;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093168

Van Allen Probes

Rapid injections of MeV electrons and extremely fast step-like outer radiation belt enhancements

Abstract Rapid injection of MeV electrons associated with strong substorm dipolarization has been suggested as a potential explanation for some radiation belt enhancement events. However, it has been difficult to quantify the contribution of MeV electron injections to radiation belt enhancements. This paper presents two isolated MeV electron injection events for which we quite precisely quantify how the entire outer-belt immediately changed with the injections. Tracking detailed outer-belt evolution observed by Van Allen Pro ...

Kim, H.-J.; Lee, D.-Y.; Wolf, R.; Bortnik, J.; Kim, K.-C.; Lyons, L.; Choe, W.; Noh, S.-J.; Choi, K.-E.; Yue, C.; Li, J.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093151

Radiation belt enhancement; Relatvistic electrons; substorm injection; Step-like; Extremely fast; Van Allen Probes

The characteristics of EMIC waves in the magnetosphere based on the Van Allen Probes and Arase observations

Abstract We performed a comprehensive statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace satellite (ERG/Arase). From 2017 to 2018, we identified and categorized EMIC wave events with respect to wavebands (H+ and He+ EMIC waves) and relative locations from the plasmasphere (inside and outside the plasmasphere). We found that H+ EMIC waves in the morning sector at L>8 are predominantly observed with a mixture of linear and r ...

Jun, C.-W; Miyoshi, Y.; Kurita, S.; Yue, C.; Bortnik, J.; Lyons, L.; Nakamura, S.; Shoji, M.; Imajo, S.; Kletzing, C.; Kasahara, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kumamoto, A.; Matsuoka, A.; Shinohara, I.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029001

Spatial distributions of EMIC waves; RBSP and Arase observations; EMIC wave properties; EMIC wave dependence on geomagnetic condition; Van Allen Probes

Modeling the Dynamics of Radiation Belt Electrons with Source and Loss Driven by the Solar Wind

Abstract A radial diffusion model directly driven by the solar wind is developed to reproduce MeV electron variations between L=2-12 (L is L* in this study) from October 2012 to April 2015. The radial diffusion coefficient, internal source rate, quick loss due to EMIC waves, and slow loss due to hiss waves are all expressed in terms of the solar wind speed, dynamic pressure, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The model achieves a prediction efficiency (PE) of 0.45 at L=5 and 0.51 at L=4 after converting the electron ph ...

Xiang, Zheng; Li, Xinlin; Kapali, Sudha; Gannon, Jennifer; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Khoo, Leng;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028988

Radiation belt; Solar wind; flux prediction; radial diffusion; magnetopause shadowing; wave-particle interactions; Van Allen Probes

Observations and simulations of dropout events and flux decays in October 2013: Comparing MEO equatorial with LEO polar orbit

Abstract We compare ESA PROBA-V observations of electron flux at LEO with those from the NASA Van Allen Probes mostly at MEO for October 2013. Dropouts are visible at all energy during 4 storms from both satellites. Equatorial trapped electron fluxes are higher than at LEO by 102 (<1 MeV) to 105 (>2.5 MeV). We observe a quite isotropic structure of the outer belt during quiet times, contrary to the inner belt, and pitch angle dependence of high energy injection. We find very good overlap of the outer belt at MEO and LEO at ...

Pierrard, V.; Ripoll, J.-F.; Cunningham, G.; Botek, E.; Santolik, O.; Thaller, S.; Kurth, W.; Cosmides, M.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA028850

Radiation belts; relativistic electrons; Geomagnetic storms; energetic particles; Van Allen Probes

On the Formation of Phantom Electron Phase Space Density Peaks in Single Spacecraft Radiation Belt Data

Abstract This paper examines the rapid losses and acceleration of trapped relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron populations in the Van Allen radiation belt during the September 7-9, 2017, geomagnetic storm. By analyzing the dynamics of the last closed drift shell (LCDS) and the electron flux and phase space density (PSD), we show that the electron dropouts are consistent with magnetopause shadowing and outward radial diffusion to the compressed LCDS. During the recovery phase an in-bound pass of Van Allen Probe A shows ...

Olifer, L.; Mann, I.; Ozeke, L.; Morley, S.; Louis, H.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL092351

Van Allen Probes; magnetopause shadowing; ULF wave radial diffusion; electron phase space density

Sustained oxygen spectral gaps and their dynamic evolution in the inner magnetosphere

Abstract Van Allen Probes observations of ion spectra often show a sustained gap within a very narrow energy range throughout the full orbit. To understand their formation mechanism, we statistically investigate the characteristics of the narrow gaps for oxygen ions and find that they are most frequently observed near the noon sector with a peak occurrence rate of over 30\%. The magnetic moment (μ) of the oxygen ions in the gap shows a strong dependence on magnetic local time (MLT), with higher and lower μ in the morning a ...

Yue, Chao; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Bortnik, Jacob; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Li, Yuxuan; Ren, Jie; Reeves, Geoffrey; Spence, Harlan;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JA029092

oxygen spectral gaps; corotational drift resonance; sustained gaps; drainage void; test particle simulations; Van Allen Probes

Characteristics of low-harmonic magnetosonic waves in the Earth’s inner magnetosphere

Abstract Magnetosonic (MS) waves are electromagnetic waves that play important roles in the acceleration and scattering of radiation belt electrons. However, previous statistical analyses of the global MS wave distribution were mainly restricted to magnetic field measurements. In this study, we first report a low-harmonic MS wave event observed only by the electric field instrument of Van Allen Probes. The MS wave frequencies follow the local proton gyrofrequency (fcp), which suggests the characteristics of nearly local gene ...

Teng, S.; Liu, N.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.;

YEAR: 2021     DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093119

Low-frequency magnetosonic wave; wave generation; Magnetosonic wave spectra; Van Allen Probes



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