Evening side EMIC waves and related proton precipitation induced by a substorm
Abstract We present the results of a multi-point and multi-instrument study of EMIC waves and related energetic proton precipitation during a substorm. We analyze the data from Arase (ERG) and Van Allen Probes (VAP) A and B spacecraft for an event of 16-17 UT on 01 December 2018. VAP-A detected an almost dispersionless injection of energetic protons related to the substorm onset in the night sector. Then the proton injection was detected by VAP-B and further by Arase, as a dispersive enhancement of energetic proton flux. The proton flux enhancement at every spacecraft coincided with the EMIC wave enhancement or appearance. This data shows the excitation of EMIC waves first inside an expanding substorm wedge and then by a drifting cloud of injected protons. Low-orbiting NOAA/POES and MetOp satellites observed precipitation of energetic protons nearly conjugate with the EMIC wave observations in the magnetosphere. The proton pitch-angle diffusion coefficient and the strong diffusion regime index were calculated based on the observed wave, plasma and magnetic field parameters. The diffusion coefficient reaches a maximum at energies corresponding well to the energy range of the observed proton precipitation. The diffusion coefficient values indicated the strong diffusion regime, in agreement with the equality of the trapped and precipitating proton flux at the low-Earth orbit. The growth rate calculations based on the plasma and magnetic field data from both VAP and Arase spacecraft indicated that the detected EMIC waves could be generated in the region of their observation or in its close vicinity.
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Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
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