EMIC wave events during the four GEM QARBM challenge intervals
This paper presents observations of EMIC waves from multiple data sources during the four GEM challenge events in 2013 selected by the GEM \textquotedblleftQuantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling\textquotedblright focus group: March 17-18 (Stormtime Enhancement), May 31-June 2 (Stormtime Dropout), September 19-20 (Non-storm Enhancement), and September 23-25 (Non-storm Dropout). Observations include EMIC wave data from the Van Allen Probes, GOES, and THEMIS spacecraft in the near-equatorial magnetosphere and from several arrays of ground-based search coil magnetometers worldwide, as well as localized ring current proton precipitation data from low-altitude POES spacecraft. Each of these data sets provides only limited spatial coverage, but their combination shows consistent occurrence patterns and reveals some events that would not be identified as significant using near-equatorial spacecraft alone. Relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron flux observations, phase space density data, and pitch angle distributions based on data from the REPT and MagEIS instruments on the Van Allen Probes during these events show two cases during which EMIC waves are likely to have played an important role in causing major flux dropouts of ultrarelativistic electrons, particularly near L* ~ 4.0. In three other cases identifiable smaller and more short-lived dropouts appeared, and in five other cases these waves evidently had little or no effect.
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Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics