3D test-particle simulation of the 17-18 March, 2013 CME-shock driven storm
D test-particle simulation of energetic electrons (hundreds of keV to MeV), including both an initially trapped population and continuously injected population, driven by the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global MHD model coupled with Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupler/Solver (MIX) boundary conditions, is performed for the March 17, 2013 storm. The electron trajectories are calculated and weighted using the ESA model for electron flux vs. energy and L. The simulation captures the flux dropout at both GOES-13 and GOES-15 locations after a strong CME-shock arrival which produced a Dst=-132 nT storm, and recovery to the pre-storm value later, consistent with GOES satellite measurements. This study provides the first 3D test-particle simulation combining the trapped and injected populations. The result demonstrates that including both populations in the simulation is essential to study the dynamics of the outer radiation belt over the typical day-long timescale of ring current development, main phase and early recovery phase.
|Year of Publication||
Geophysical Research Letters