Generation of electromagnetic waves in the very low frequency band by velocity gradient
It is shown that a magnetized plasma layer with a velocity gradient in the flow perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field is unstable to waves in the Very Low Frequency band that spans the ion and electron gyrofrequencies. The waves are formally electromagnetic. However, depending on wave vector k⎯⎯=kc/ωpe (normalized by the electron skin depth) and the obliqueness, k⊥/k|| , where k⊥,|||| are wave vectors perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field, the waves are closer to electrostatic in nature when k⎯⎯>>1 and k⊥>>k|| and electromagnetic otherwise. Inhomogeneous transverse flows are generated in plasma that contains a static electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field, a configuration that may naturally arise in the boundary layer between plasmas of different characteristics.
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Physics of Plasmas
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