Observations and modeling of EMIC wave properties in the presence of multiple ion species as function of magnetic local time
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave generation and propagation in Earth\textquoterights magnetosphere depend on readily measurable hot (a few to tens of keV) plasma sheet ions, elusive plasmaspheric or ionospheric cold (sub-eV to a few eV) ions, and partially heated warm ions (tens to hundreds of eV). Previous work has assumed all low-energy ions are cold and not considered possible effects of warm ions. Using measurements by multiple Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft, we analyze four typical EMIC wave events in the four magnetic local time sectors and consider the properties of both cold and warm ions supplied from previous statistical studies to interpret the wave observations using linear theory. As expected, we find that dusk EMIC waves grow due to the presence of drifting hot anisotropic protons and cold plasmaspheric ions with a dominant cold proton component. Near midnight, EMIC waves are less common because warm heavy ions that suppress wave growth are more abundant there. The waves can grow when cold, plume-like density enhancements are present, however. Dawn EMIC waves, known for their peculiar properties, are generated away from the equator and change polarization during propagation through the warm plasma cloak. Noon EMIC waves can also be generated nonlocally and their properties modified during propagation by a plasmaspheric plume combined with low-energy ions from solar and terrestrial sources. Accounting for multiple ion species, measured wave dispersion, and propagation characteristics can explain previously elusive EMIC wave properties and are therefore important for future studies of EMIC wave effects on energetic particle depletion.
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Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics