A Statistical Study of EMIC Waves Associated With and Without Energetic Particle Injection From the Magnetotail

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Abstract
To understand the relationship between generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and energetic particle injections, we performed a statistical study of EMIC waves associated with and without injections based on the Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES; GOES-13 and GOES-15) observations. Using 47 months of observations, we identified wave events seen by the Van Allen Probes relative to the plasmapause and to energetic particle injections seen by GOES-13 and GOES-15 on the nightside. We separated the events into four categories: EMIC waves with (without) injections inside (outside) the plasmasphere. We found that He+ EMIC waves have higher occurrence rate inside the plasmasphere, while H+ EMIC waves predominantly occur outside the plasmasphere. Meanwhile, the time duration and peak occurrence rate of EMIC waves associated with injections are shorter and limited to a narrower magnetic local time region than those without injections, indicating that these waves have localized source regions. He+ EMIC waves inside the plasmasphere associated with injection are usually accompanied by an increase in H+ flux within energies of 1\textendash50 keV through all magnetic local time regions, while most wave events outside the plasmasphere show less relationship with H+ flux increase. From these observations, we suggest that injected hot ions are the major driver of He+ EMIC waves inside the plasmasphere during active time. Expanding plasmasphere during quiet times can provide broad wave source regions for He+ EMIC waves on the dayside. However, H+ EMIC waves outside the plasmasphere show different characteristics, suggesting that these waves are generated by other processes.
Year of Publication
2019
Journal
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Number of Pages
433-450
Date Published
01/2019
URL
https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018JA025886
DOI
10.1029/2018JA025886