Global Propagation of Magnetospheric Pc5 ULF Waves Driven by Foreshock Transients
Pc5 (2–7 mHz) ultralow frequency (ULF) waves play a significant role in resonating with particles and transferring energy in the coupled magnetospheric and ionospheric system. Recent studies found that Pc5 ULF waves can be triggered by foreshock transients which can perturb the magnetopause through dynamic pressure variation. However, whether foreshock transient-driven Pc5 ULF waves are geoeffective and can propagate globally is still poorly understood. In this study, we take advantage of the conjunction between in situ (by the THEMIS probes, Geotail satellite, GOES satellites, and Van Allen probes) and ground-based (by the all-sky imager at South Pole and ground-based magnetometers) observations to simultaneously analyze the waves from the foreshock region to the dayside and nightside magnetosphere. Both of our two events show that the Pc5 ULF waves are generated by foreshock transients in the dayside magnetosphere. The in situ observations by THEMIS A and D and the 2-D auroral signatures show that the compressional mode waves are likely broadband and coupled to the FLRs with different frequencies and different azimuthal phase speeds. This is the first report that foreshock transients can drive both low- and high-m FLRs, with the azimuthal wave numbers varying from ~5 to ~23. Moreover, the Pc5 ULF waves propagated antisunward to midnight, this can potentially modulate magnetospheric and ionospheric dynamics globally.
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Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
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