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Nonlinear drift resonance between charged particles and ultralow frequency waves: Theory and Observations
Author  Li, Li; Zhou, XuZhi; Omura, Yoshiharu; Wang, ZiHan; Zong, QiuGang; Liu, Ying; Hao, YiXin; Fu, SuiYan; Kivelson, Margaret; Rankin, Robert; Claudepierre, Seth; Wygant, John; 
Keywords  drift resonance; nonlinear process; Particle acceleration; Radiation belts; ULF waves; Van Allen Probes; waveparticle interactions 
Abstract  In Earth\textquoterights inner magnetosphere, electromagnetic waves in the ultralow frequency (ULF) range play an important role in accelerating and diffusing charged particles via drift resonance. In conventional driftresonance theory, linearization is applied under the assumption of weak waveparticle energy exchange so particle trajectories are unperturbed. For ULF waves with larger amplitudes and/or durations, however, the conventional theory becomes inaccurate since particle trajectories are strongly perturbed. Here, we extend the driftresonance theory into a nonlinear regime, to formulate nonlinear trapping of particles in a wavecarried potential well, and predict the corresponding observable signatures such as rolledup structures in particle energy spectrum. After considering how this manifests in particle data with finite energy resolution, we compare the predicted signatures with Van Allen Probes observations. Their good agreement provides the first observational evidence for the occurrence of nonlinear drift resonance, highlighting the importance of nonlinear effects in magnetospheric particle dynamics under ULF waves. 
Year of Publication  2018 
Journal  Geophysical Research Letters 
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Date Published  08/2018 
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URL  https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL079038 
DOI  10.1029/2018GL079038 