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Found 6 entries in the Bibliography.
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2015 
Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 \texttimes 106 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59\textdegree), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth\textquoterights plasma environment. Tejero, E.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D.; Amatucci, W.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.; Published by: Scientific Reports Published on: 12/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1038/srep17852 
Evolution of lower hybrid turbulence in the ionosphere Threedimensional evolution of the lower hybrid turbulence driven by a spatially localized ion ring beam perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field in space plasmas is analyzed. It is shown that the quasilinear saturation model breaks down when the nonlinear rate of scattering by thermal electron is larger than linear damping rates, which can occur even for low wave amplitudes. The evolution is found to be essentially a threedimensional phenomenon, which cannot be accurately explained by twodimensional simulations. An important feature missed in previous studies of this phenom enon is the nonlinear conversion of electrostatic lower hybrid waves into electromagnetic whistler and magnetosonic waves and the consequent energy loss due to radiation from the source region. This can result in unique lowamplitude saturation with extended saturation time. It is shown that when the nonlinear effects are considered the net energy that can be permanently extracted from the ring beam is larger. The results are applied to anticipate the outcome of a planned experiment that will seed lower hybrid turbulence in the ionosphere and monitor its evolution. Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C.; Mithaiwala, M.; Rudakov, L.; Scales, W.; Published by: Physics of Plasmas Published on: 11/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1063/1.4936281 
Laboratory studies of nonlinear whistler wave processes in the Van Allen radiation belts Important nonlinear wavewave and waveparticle interactions that occur in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts are investigated in a laboratory experiment. Predominantly electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone with measured wave normal angle greater than 85\textdegree . When the pump amplitude exceeds a threshold \~5\texttimes106 times the background magnetic field, wave power at frequencies below the pump frequency is observed at wave normal angles (\~55\textdegree) . The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the pump wave. Occasionally, the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into a magnetosonic wave and a whistler wave is simultaneously observed with a threshold of δB/B0\~7\texttimes107 . Tejero, E.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D.; Amatucci, W.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.; Published by: Physics of Plasmas Published on: 09/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1063/1.4928944 
Laboratory studies of nonlinear whistler wave processes in the Van Allen radiation belts Important nonlinear wavewave and waveparticle interactions that occur in the Earth\textquoterights Van Allen radiation belts are investigated in a laboratory experiment. Predominantly electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone with measured wave normal angle greater than 85\textordmasculine. When the pump amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 x10^6 times the back ground magnetic field, wave power at frequencies below the pump frequency is observed at wave normal angles (~55\textordmasculine). The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the pump wave. Occasionally, the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into a magnetosonic wave and a whistler wave is simultaneously observed with a Tejero, E.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D.; Amatucci, W.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.; Published by: Physics of Plasmas Published on: 08/2015 YEAR: 2015 DOI: 10.1063/1.4928944 Electrostatic Waves; magnetic fields; Nonlinear scattering; Plasma electromagnetic waves; Whistler waves 
2014 
Generation of electromagnetic waves in the very low frequency band by velocity gradient It is shown that a magnetized plasma layer with a velocity gradient in the flow perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field is unstable to waves in the Very Low Frequency band that spans the ion and electron gyrofrequencies. The waves are formally electromagnetic. However, depending on wave vector k⎯⎯=kc/ωpe (normalized by the electron skin depth) and the obliqueness, k⊥/k , where k⊥, are wave vectors perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field, the waves are closer to electrostatic in nature when k⎯⎯>>1 and k⊥>>k and electromagnetic otherwise. Inhomogeneous transverse flows are generated in plasma that contains a static electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field, a configuration that may naturally arise in the boundary layer between plasmas of different characteristics. Ganguli, G.; Tejero, E.; Crabtree, C.; Amatucci, W.; Rudakov, L.; Published by: Physics of Plasmas Published on: 01/2014 YEAR: 2014 DOI: 10.1063/1.4862032 
2012 
Weak turbulence in the magnetosphere: Formation of whistler wave cavity by nonlinear scattering We consider the weak turbulence of whistler waves in the in lowβ inner magnetosphere of the earth. Whistler waves, originating in the ionosphere, propagate radially outward and can trigger nonlinear induced scattering by thermal electrons provided the wave energy density is large enough. Nonlinear scattering can substantially change the direction of the wave vector of whistler waves and hence the direction of energy flux with only a small change in the frequency. A portion of whistler waves return to the ionosphere with a smaller perpendicular wave vector resulting in diminished linear damping and enhanced ability to pitchangle scatter trapped electrons. In addition, a portion of the scatteredwave packets can be reflected near the ionosphere back into the magnetosphere. Through multiple nonlinear scatterings and ionospheric reflections a longlived wavecavity containing turbulent whistler waves can be formed with the appropriate properties to efficiently pitchangle scatter trapped electrons. The primary consequence on the earth\textquoterights radiation belts is to reduce the lifetime of the trapped electron population. Crabtree, C.; Rudakov, L.; Ganguli, G.; Mithaiwala, M.; Galinsky, V.; Shevchenko, V.; Published by: Physics of Plasmas Published on: 01/2012 YEAR: 2012 DOI: 10.1063/1.3692092 
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